(b Toulouse, 4 May 1867; d Paris, 2 June 1949). French composer. He entered the Paris Conservatoire in 1885, and studied composition with Guiraud and the organ with Franck, supporting himself by work at the cabaret Le Chat Noir. There in 1887 he met Satie, who replaced him as conductor in 1890. Fumet almost certainly influenced Satie's early music and ideas: he had an active interest in alchemy and the occult, as well as strong anarchist sympathies, from which his nickname ‘Dynam[ite]’ derived. During the 1880s he was a friend of Kropotkin and Louise Michel, and he also contributed to the anarchist journal La révolte. Both Fumet and Satie founded their own religious sects, yet both died within the Catholic faith (which in Fumet's case was much stronger, with Léon Bloy as an influence on his spiritual ideas). Fumet was a brilliant improviser on both the piano and organ, becoming Franck's assistant and then organist at Ste Clotilde. After a period in South America and ten years at Juilly College, he became organist and choirmaster at Ste Anne in Paris between 1910 and his death.
Fumet's music was largely within the Romantic tradition of Liszt and Wagner; much remains unpublished. He also had a strong interest in Renaissance music and Gregorian chant, though he disliked stylistic archaism. His art, like Debussy's, sprang from melody, and his modulations are often free and unpredictable. However, in contrast to his improvisations, his finished compositions are refined and polished, and he often wrote his own texts. There is a certain mysticism and joyous intensity in his religious music, but his overall aim was simplicity, sobriety, sincerity and purity, and an independent reconciliation of old and new styles.
La lumière sur le sentier; Le sabbat rustique, 1904; Le cantique du firmament, 1910–11; Transsubstantiation, 1913–20; ‘Eli, Eli, lamma sabacthani?’, 1914–40, arr. pf, 1922; Les trois âmes, 1915–17; Le triptyque des légendes, 1918; Le conciliabule des fleurs, 1921; Libération, 1921; Marche funèbre (1922); Notre mirage, notre douleur, 1922; Vénus sortant des eaux, 1934; Aria, 1938; Hiératique, 1940; Le sommeil d’Adam, 1940; Tourbillon, 1940; Voie lactée, 1941; La prison glorifiée, 1943
Choral: 4 choruses, female chorus, pf, before 1914: Les glaneuses ‘Choeur égyptien’ (1897), Joies floréales, Les anges du soir, Les voix mystiques; Sancta Genovefa (orat), 1918; La messe mariale; La messe du Christ-Roi; Mass; La messe des oiseaux, female chorus; O doux printemps aimé, 1924; Pater noster, mixed chorus (1939); Un bel ange du ciel (carol), mixed chorus, org, 1945 (1956); Il est tout petit (carol), S, female chorus/children's chorus, org, ?1945 (1957); Les saisons, 1946; Printemps; Ave Maria; Cantiques à Marie; Requiem Mass, 1948
Solo vocal (1v, pf, texts by Fumet unless otherwise stated): Berceuse (1890); Ave verum, Mez, org (1899); Le verbe des nuits (1899); O salutaris, T/S, org (1899); Un dimanche: Petite légende (1904); Je me languis (1907); Légende marine (1907); Refloraison (1907); Sérénade faunesque (1907); Trouble d'âme (1907); Verbe d'amour: Diction symphonique (1907); Sur les ailes de notre amour (J. Daniel), waltz (1949)
chamber and solo instrumental
Les enlisements d'en-haut, pf, c1885 (1897) [Andante from Sym., b]; Douloureux pèlerinage, pf, c1885; Les libellules, waltz, pf, 1899, arr. orch, arr. T/S, pf/orch; Joie, pf; Str Qt, 1912; Canticum novum, 6 pieces, org/hmn (1914); 6 études caractéristiques de haute technique musicale, pf (1931); Pf Trio, 1943; Poème secret, 1949; numerous other pieces for pf, org, vn and pf, pf trio
Principal publishers: Schola Cantorum, Procuré, Victor Sicard
MGG1 (S. and R. Fumet)
S.Fumet: La poésie à travers les arts (Paris, 1954), 127–41
J.Maitron: Le mouvement anarchiste en France, i (Paris, 1975)
M.A.Miller: Kropotkin (Chicago, 1976)
R.D.Sonn: Anarchism (New York, 1992)
Funck [Funccius], David
(b Joachimsthal [now Jáchymov], Bohemia, 8 Jan 1648; d nr Arnstadt, ?1699). German composer, writer on music, instrumentalist, poet and teacher of Bohemian birth. His biography has often been confused with that of his father, also named David (1615–69), who was Kantor at Joachimsthal and took a similar post at Reichenbach im Vogtland when the younger David was two years old. The son is said to have been a baccalaureate at Reichenbach in 1669 or 1670 and he appeared as a disputant at the promotion of Johannes Riemer at Halle in 1673, but evidently Funck did not take a university degree himself. Several incidents in his life induced his earlier biographers to fill in gaps with anecdotal detail and to present Funck as an ingenious but morally deficient personality. According to the funeral sermon for his mother, he was employed as secretary to a dowager Duchess of Neuenburg (or Neuburg; her identity has not yet been established) around 1680. She took him with her to Italy in 1682, but when she died there (or perhaps just released him) in 1689 Funck returned to Reichenbach where he earned his living by giving music lessons and writing occasional poetry. A lost Passion which he composed about 1690–94 won him great acclaim and may have helped him to obtain, in 1694, the post of organist and teacher at the Lateinschule at Wunsiedel in Franconia. In January 1699 Funck, suspected of sodomy, fled from there; a council document relating to this event refers to him as a ‘wicked man’ (‘böser Mensch’). Funck’s further whereabouts are uncertain; legend has it that after a brief stay at Schleiz, where he gave a concert at the court, he set forth on foot towards Arnstadt but was found frozen to death in the open country.
Funck was known as a virtuoso on the violin, viola da gamba, guitar and clavichord. Of his vocal and instrumental compositions, only the Stricturae viola di gambicae, ex sonatis, ariis, intradis, allemandis (Leipzig, Jena and Rudolstadt, 1677) have survived, comprising 43 dances and other pieces for four equal viols (from which M. Seiffert assembled a Suite in D, ed. in Organum, 3rd ser., xxxiv, 1938; one allemanda in E. Mohr: Die Allemande, ii, Zürich, 1932). Among the partly homophonic, partly contrapuntal settings, a saraband with variations deserves special attention. A theoretical essay, De proportione musica veterum et nostra disputationem academicam (Jena, 1673), still clinging to the old speculative theory of music, is also extant, but Funck’s short Compendium musices (Leipzig, ?1670), in the German language, was lost in the 19th century.
K.Nef: Geschichte der Sinfonie und Suite (Leipzig, 1921/R)
F.Reinhold: ‘David Funck (Funccius), ein Musiker des 17. Jahrhunderts’, Genealogie, xl (1991), 453–65