A short piece, usually for piano and generally one of a set of three to eight, in which the ‘fancy’ of the composer is a main factor in the form and progress of the musical movement, although the opening idea is always recapitulated at the end. It is related to the 19th-century fantasia (see Fantasia, §III) but may be distinguished from it by its narrower scope. The term was used first in a literary context by E.T.A. Hoffmann; a character named Kreisler in his Fantasiestücke in Callots Manier (1814–15) was the inspiration for Schumann’s Kreisleriana op.16 (1838), which is subtitled ‘eight fantasias’. Hoffmann’s ‘pieces’ may also have inspired Schumann’s first set of Phantasiestücke op.12 (1837), whose original title Phantasien was changed probably to distinguish the character of these pieces from that of his three-movement Fantasia in C op.17. As well known as any of Schumann’s works, they show the composer’s fancy at its most lyrical and delicate. The pieces for clarinet and piano op.73 and for piano trio op.88 are also Fantasiestücke.
The distinction between fantasia and Fantasiestück was not always maintained later in the 19th century: Liszt’s Phantasiestück on themes from Rienzi (1859) is a fantasia on operatic themes, while Brahms’s Fantasien op.116 (1892), comprising three capriccios and four intermezzos, are close in spirit to Schumann’s op.12 and as a group not really different from his other sets of piano pieces (op.76 and opp.117–19). With later composers the form did not prove durable, although there are examples by Busoni (Fantasia in modo antico op.33b no.4, 1896) and Balakirev (Phantasiestück in D, 1903), and George Crumb gave the designation ‘fantasy-pieces’ to his Makrokosmos for amplified piano (1972–3).
MAURICE J.E. BROWN
American record company. It was established in 1949 in Berkeley, California, initially to release records that Dave Brubeck had recorded for the Coronet label; Brubeck was at that point a part-owner. The label is best known for recordings of folk revival sessions by Odetta and Joan Baez and for albums by Creedence Clearwater Revival (late 1960s to early 1970s). It has also been significant in jazz, through its acquisition and formation of other labels and for its reissues. In 1955 the company leased the Debut catalogue, and in 1964 it established a subsidiary label, Galaxy, which offered important new recordings by Art Pepper in the 1970s. It acquired several company catalogues including Prestige (1971), Riverside (1972), Milestone (1973) and Stax (1977). In the early 1980s Fantasy acquired Lester Koenig’s labels, Contemporary and Good Time Jazz. By this time it had become one of the world’s largest distributors of jazz recordings, and its catalogues expanded further when it acquired the labels Volt (about 1985) and Pablo (1987). The subsidiary label Original Jazz Classics was established in 1983, offering reproductions of albums from Contemporary, Debut, Fantasy, Jazz Workshop, Prestige, Riverside and Pablo; by 1987 a companion series, Original Blues Classics, was active.
A musical scheme for songs and dances during the 16th and early 17th centuries in Italy. The version in ex.1 for the five-course guitar shows the basic harmonic framework, which is related to that of the Romanesca. At the end are two standard riprese or ritornellos (seeRipresa, ex.1b), which, like the main scheme itself, suggest a hemiola alternation between 3/2 and 6/4.
The earliest extant example, the keyboard Fantina gagliarda from the Intabolatura nova (1551; CEKM, viii, 1965), shows each of the two phrases of the opening section (corresponding to bars 1–4 and 5–8 of ex.1) with the progression III–VI–VII–III and the opening half of the second section (bars 9–12) sustaining a VII chord instead of moving on to III. The Fugger Lutebook (1562) contains a piece called La fantina (DTÖ, xxxvii, Jg.xviii/2, 1911, p.115), which presents the main framework of ex.1 without the riprese. Antonio di Becchi’s Fantinella aria da cantar (1568) for lute (printed in G. Lefkoff, Five Sixteenth Century Venetian Lute Books, Washington DC, 1960, p.142) uses slower note values for the main music, which would actually accompany a singer, and faster values for the riprese between stanzas. Other chordal guitar accompaniments similar to ex.1 appear in printed sources by Milanuzzi (1625) and Millioni (1627) and in certain manuscripts (I-Fn Magl.XIX 143, Fr 2951 and Rsc A 247).
R.Hudson: ‘The Concept of Mode in Italian Guitar Music during the First Half of the 17th Century’, AcM, xliii (1970), 163–83
(b Spoleto, bap. 11 Feb 1600; dFlorence, after 6 May 1675). Italian trumpeter and writer on the trumpet. After service with Cardinal Scipio Borghese in Rome between February 1626 and October 1630, he entered the employ of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando II, in April 1631 as chief court trumpeter. In Rome in the summer of 1634 he took part in the first known soloistic trumpet performance accompanied by a keyboard instrument, played by Frescobaldi on Cardinal Borghese's house organ. In 1638 he published an important trumpet method: Modo per imparare a sonare di tromba, printed in Florence although the title-page says Frankfurt (facs., Milan, 1934, and Nashville, TN, 1972; Eng. trans., 1976). It is of historical importance for its inclusion of the first known pieces for trumpet and continuo, among them eight sonatas specifically for trumpet and organ. Fantini furthermore extended the high register from the g'' and a'' known to Bendinelli and Monteverdi to c''' (and once to d'''). He was celebrated for his solo performances and must have been highly gifted, particularly in the art of ‘lipping’ so as to be able to play notes not in the harmonic series, to which the natural trumpet of his day was confined.
H.Eichborn: ‘Girolamo Fantini, ein Virtuos des 17. Jahrhunderts und seine Trompeten-Schule’, MMg, xxii (1890), 112–38; repr. separately Cologne, 1998 [with essay by E.H. Tarr]
E.H.Tarr: ‘Monteverdi, Bach und die Trompetenmusik ihrer Zeit’, GfMKB [Bonn 1970], ed. C. Dahlhaus and others (Kassel, 1972), 592–6
A.Baines: ‘The Evolution of Trumpet Music up to Fantini’, PRMA, ci (1974–5), 1–9
I.Conforzi: ‘Girolamo Fantini, “Monarch of the Trumpet”: Recent Additions to his Biography’, HBSJ, v (1993), 159–73
I.Conforzi: ‘Girolamo Fantini, “Monarch of the Trumpet”: New Light on his Works’, HBSJ, vi (1994), 32–59