(b Jászmonostor, 1851; d Kolozsvár, Transylvania [now Cluj-Napoca, Romania], 11 Sept 1912). Hungarian composer, conductor and educationist. Having entered the University of Budapest in 1870 as an engineering student, he transferred in 1875 to the newly founded National Hungarian Royal Academy of Music, where he studied with Ábrányi, Volkmann and Ferenc Erkel. A distinguished student, he was awarded three prizes for composition and wrote an opera (Bajadér) and an operetta (Radó es Ilonka) while still at the academy. In 1879 he was appointed director of the Kolozsvár Conservatory and began a long period of involvement in the musical life of the city, where he was to remain for the rest of his life. He organized groups for the performance of vocal and chamber music, supervised the activities of the Philharmonic Society and conducted most of its concerts, was intermittently engaged as conductor at the National Theatre, and also achieved some success as a singing teacher. Besides enhancing the musical importance of Kolozsvár he created a national school of music devoted to fostering Hungarian art. His reforms in the conservatory resulted in the study of the latest Hungarian music as part of the curriculum, the teaching of correct Magyar pronunciation as part of vocal training, and the encouragement to compose in a national idiom, unhampered by academic formalism. He publicized his ideas on music and its teaching in many articles contributed to various periodicals; he also founded a periodical of his own, Erdélyi zenevilág (‘Transylvanian musical world’). His compositions naturally reveal strong Hungarian characteristics and show the influence of Liszt and Erkel; he endeavoured to develop a specifically Hungarian style by following the metrical peculiarities of the Magyar language and its melodies. His festival overture, Ünnepi nyitány, won the Commemoration Prize at the 50th anniversary of the Budapest National Conservatory in 1890.
Stage (operas unless otherwise stated): Radó és Ilonka [Conrad and Helen] (operetta), 1875; Bajadér (L. Farkas, after J.W. von Goethe), Buda, 23 Aug 1876; Vezeklők (The Penitents] (J. Dávid and G. Gál), 1884, Kolozsvár, 1893; Tündérforrás [Fairy Fountain] (Gál), Kolozsvár, 1893; Balassa Bálint (J. Hamvas), Budapest, 16 Jan 1896; Tetemrehívás [Ordeal of the Bier] (G. Versényi), Budapest, 5 Oct 1900; Kurucvilág [The World of the Kurucs] (S. Endrődi), Budapest, 26 Oct 1906; Ideiglenes házasság [Temporary Marriage], unperf., lost
Vocal: 3 masses; Dies irae, chorus, orch; 2 nocturnes, chorus, orch; 12 collections of songs, incl. Száll az ének [Soaring Songs], Valahol kél a nap [Sunrise]; other works for female vv, vocal duets
J.Seprődi: ‘Farkas Ödön’, Erdélyi hírlap (30 Nov 1906); repr. in Seprődi János válogatott zenei írásai és népzene gyűjtése [Selected writings and folk music research of J. Seprődi], ed. I. Almási, A. Benkő and I. Lakatos (Bucharest, 1974), 79–81 [Ger. summary, 494–5]
G.Farkas: ‘Emlékezés Farkas Ödönre’ [Memories of Farkas], Pásztortüz, xxvi (1940)
I.Lakatos: ‘Az erdélyi Farkas Ödön gondolatai a magyar zenéről’ [The ideas of the Transylvanian Ödön Farkas about Hungarian music], A zene, xxiv (1942–3), 51–5
I.Lakatos: ‘A kolozsvári magyar zeneélet alapvetője’ [The founder of Hungarian musical life at Kolozsvár], Magyar zenei szemle, iii (1943), 249–58
J.Benkő: ‘Dallamrészletek és dramaturgiai jelentéskörük Farkas Ödön Tetemrehívás című zenedrámájában’ [Melodic patterns and their dramaturgical meaning in the music drama ‘Ordeal of the Bier’ by Ö. Farkas], Zenetudományi Irások, ed. A. Benkő (Bucharest, 1986), 249–65
JOHN S. WEISSMANN/R
Farkas, Philip (Francis)
(b Chicago, 5 March 1914; d Bloomington, IN, 21 Dec 1992). American horn player. After studying with Louis Dufrasne of the Chicago Opera Company, he played first horn in the Kansas City PO (1933–6), Chicago SO (1936–41 and 1947–60), Cleveland Orchestra (1941–5 and 1946–7) and Boston SO (1945–6). He retired from orchestral playing in 1960 to take up a professorship at Indiana University, shortly after which he founded a publishing company, Wind Music Inc., in Bloomington. Farkas was the teacher of many professional horn players in major orchestras. He was also a designer of horns and horn mouthpieces. He wrote The Art of French Horn Playing (Chicago, 1956), The Art of Brass Playing (Bloomington, IN, 1962) and A Photographic Study of 40 Virtuoso Horn Players’ Embouchures (Bloomington, IN, 1970).
EDWARD H. TARR
(bap. ?Exeter, ? 3 Dec 1601; fl 1635–50). English musician and composer. He is probably the Francis Farmeloe, son of John, baptized at Exeter Cathedral on 3 December 1601. He seems to have lived and worked in London. Farmelo and Daniel Johnson are the only persons not working at court cited in the charter dated 15 July 1636 whereby Charles I constituted a corporation of musicians in Westminster (AshbeeR, v). He composed a humorous three-part ‘Song made on the Downfall … of Charing Cross, An. Dom. 1642’, published in Playford's The Second Book of the Pleasant Musical Companion (London, 1686). A Caroline tax list shows him as lodger in the house of Henry Watson, ‘Barber Surgeon’, in Limestreet Ward. Playford also included him in his list of London teachers ‘For the Organ or Virginall’ prefacing his A Musicall Banquet (London, 1651). Farmelo probably died before the Restoration, as the minutes of the Westminster musicians' corporation (1661–79) make no mention of him. His extant compositions include a set of divisions on a ground for bass viol (GB-Ob Mus. Sch.C.71) and an incomplete instrumental bass part (Och 21).