(b Naples, 21 Aug 1902; d Rome, 3 Aug 1979). Italian conductor, composer, teacher and pianist. He studied at the Naples Conservatory, and subsequently divided his career equally between the Italian scholastic system and performing organizations. He was director of the Cagliari Conservatory (1931–9), succeeded Malipiero as director of the Venice Conservatory (1952; for one year he also directed the Trieste Conservatory) and was director of the Rome Conservatory (1960–72). As president of the Accademia di S Cecilia, Rome (1972–6), where he had been artistic director (1944–7), Fasano developed a system of postgraduate and professional instruction unique to Rome. In 1941 he founded and became director of the Collegium Musicum Italicum, which later split into two connected organizations, the Virtuosi di Roma (1952) and the Teatro dell'Opera da Camera (1956). Through their tours at home and abroad, Fasano contributed greatly to popular knowledge of the 18th-century Italian repertory, particularly of Vivaldi and of Venetian and Neapolitan opera; similar groups have followed in the wake of those founded by him. Fasano edited the series Antica Musica Strumentale Italiana, which began in 1957, and from 1972 supervised the Universal edition of Vivaldi's sacred works. His publications include Storia degli abellimenti dal canto gregoriano a Verdi (Rome, 1949), and among his compositions are Cordova for strings (1927), a symphonic poem Isola eroica (1942), and orchestral and chamber works.
Fasch, Carl [Karl] Friedrich Christian
(b Zerbst, 18 Nov 1736; d Berlin, 3 Aug 1800). German conductor and composer. He was baptized Christian Friedrich Carl; the above order of names is the one commonly preferred. He was the son of the Kapellmeister Johann Friedrich Fasch, from whom he had his first keyboard and theory instruction. Later he studied the violin with Carl Höckh, leader of the Zerbst court orchestra, and when he was 14 his father sent him to study for a year with Johann Wilhelm Hertel, leader of the orchestra at the Mecklenburg court in Strelitz. While in Strelitz, he had the opportunity to accompany the Berlin violinist Franz Benda, who was so impressed with the boy's playing that in 1756 he recommended Fasch for the position of second harpsichordist at the court of Frederick the Great. There he shared with C.P.E. Bach the responsibility for accompanying the king's flute playing. Shortly after his arrival in Berlin, however, the Seven Years War began, allowing the king little time for music. Since the musicians' salaries during this period were worth so much less, Fasch turned to teaching and composing to supplement his income. In 1767 Bach left Berlin to replace Telemann in Hamburg, and Fasch was promoted to first accompanist at the Prussian court. In 1774, after the death of J.F. Agricola, he was given the responsibility for conducting the royal opera; he held this position until the spring of 1776, soon after J.F. Reichardt was appointed Kapellmeister.
After the Bavarian War of Succession in 1779 the king rarely saw his musicians, and after he died in 1786 Fasch was retained even though the new king was not particularly fond of music. He continued to teach and compose, but devoted most of his energy in his later years to the study, composition and conducting of choral music. In 1789 he gathered his pupils at the home of Councillor Milow (whose stepdaughter Charlotte Dietrich was one of the pupils), where they presented a programme of choral music. The group continued to meet and their number greatly increased. In 1791 they moved to the home of the widow of the surgeon-general Voitus, and when this spacious house became too small for their needs (in 1793), they were given a large room in the Marstall, which also housed the academies of arts and science. The choral organization soon became known as the Sing-Akademie because of its association with the two academies already housed in the Marstall. In 1796 Beethoven visited the Sing-Akademie twice and improvised on melodies by Fasch for an audience of singers and their guests. Carl Zelter, one of Fasch's last pupils, became the assistant conductor of the academy, and as Fasch grew ill, Zelter took more responsibility and finally became the conductor when Fasch died. According to a stipulation in Fasch's will, the Sing-Akademie (by then boasting nearly 150 members) performed Mozart's Requiem at his memorial concert in October 1800; this was the first performance of the work in Berlin.
Fasch is probably most important for stimulating the revival of choral singing in Germany. His Sing-Akademie led to the establishment of many similar organizations throughout Europe during the 19th century. He also presented numerous choral works of J.S. Bach with the Sing-Akademie (beginning with the motet Komm, Jesu, komm! in 1794); this contributed to the Bach revival, which culminated in 1829 with the performance in Leipzig of the St Matthew Passion under the direction of Mendelssohn.
Fasch's importance as a composer is difficult to assess, for he regularly burnt compositions that he deemed unworthy of saving. Even on his deathbed he ordered Zelter to burn most of the contents of his cabinet, including many of the works that he had written before 1783, some letters and a few works by Frederick the Great. Most of his extant works are sacred and many are quite contrapuntal, including a 25-part canon in his mass for four choirs (16 vocal parts) and instruments. That mass was inspired when Reichardt took him a copy of a 16-part mass by Orazio Benevoli in 1783, a work which Fasch, who was intrigued by it, copied out completely. He also composed hundreds of teaching pieces for his pupils, compiled an index of operas during the reign of Frederick the Great and wrote several essays on acoustics. Zelter published a biography of Fasch in 1801, and in 1839 the Sing-Akademie printed six volumes of Fasch's music, with a seventh volume added shortly thereafter from manuscripts in Zelter's private collection.
Edition: Sämmtliche Werke von Karl Christian Friedrich Fasch, ed. Berlin Sing-Akademie, i–vii (Berlin, 1839) [S]
Orats: Giuseppe riconosciuto (P. Metastasio, trans. Campe), 1774, only 1 trio extant, D-Bsb; Mich vom Stricke meines Sünde (Campe)
Cants.: Die mit Thränen säen, 4vv, insts, Potsdam, 1756, ?D-Bsb [1 recit by C.P.E. Bach]; Es ist dem Himmel nichts verhasster, vv, fl, hn, ob, Potsdam, 1756, ?Bsb; Kantate auf dem Erntefest, Berlin, Nikolaikirche, 1792, ?lost; Verehrung Gottes über die Neuheit in der Natur, 1794, ?lost; Harre auf Gott, 4vv, hn, ob, bn, ?Bsb; Wer meine Gebote hat, vv, 2 fl, 2 vn, va, b, org, Bsb; 5 other festival cants., cited in LedeburTLB, ?lost
Ps settings: Pss i, iii, v (Cramer), 2–4vv, bc, in Musikalisches Allerley, i (1761), 70, 86, 116; Ps li: Miserere, 4–9vv, 1792, perf. Berlin, Marienkirche, 25 June 1793, S vi, versets in Musikalisches Wochenblatt (1792), 88, 120, and Musikalische Monatsschrift (1792), 172; Mendelssohniana: 6 mehrstimmige Gesänge (Ps xxx, trans. M. Mendelssohn), 2–6vv, org, 1794, D-Bsb (Leipzig, 1829), S ii; Davidiana (8 psalms, trans. M. Luther), 1–8vv, 1795, Bsb, Dl, S iv; Ps cxix: Heil dem Manne der rechtschaffen lebet, 4–8vv, 1795, Dl, S v; Ps vi, 28 Nov 1797, on the death of Friedrich Wilhelm II; Inclina Domine, 4–6vv, bc, 1798, Dl, S iii
Other sacred: Messe a 16vv in 4 cori, org, 1783, Dl, autograph formerly in Berlin, Sing-Akademie, S vii, Ky, Christe eleison in J.F. Reichardt, ed.: Musikalisches Kunstmagazin, ii (1791), 106; 12 chorales, 3–7vv, c1792–5, Bsb, S i; Ky, Gl, 4 choirs, 1793, Bsb; Selig sind die Todten, 4vv, 1797, funeral motet for Prince Louis of Prussia, Bsb, Dl, S iii; Hymne: Miltons Morgengesang für die … Singacademie, 4vv, chorus, orch, ed. J.F. Reichardt (Kassel, 1808); 3 masses, formerly in Berlin, Sing-Akademie; Requiem, 8vv, Bsb, S iii; Cum Sancto Spiritu, 16vv, Bsb; Docebo iniquos, 4vv, Bsb; Fünffacher Canon a 25 [from Messe a 16] (Berlin, n.d.), S vii
Secular: Die Gemüthsruhe, pubd in Geistliche, moralische und weltliche Oden (Berlin, 1758); 2 solfeggi a più voci, 6 solfeggi a 4 voci, 2 solfeggi a 8 voci, 13 Aug 1797, all formerly in Berlin, Sing-Akademie; Der Abend (F.W. Zachariä); La Cecchina, D-Bsb; Mein Geist entreisse dich dem Stricke; several songs in contemporary anthologies
Kbd sonatas:  Sonate, hpd/pf (Berlin, n.d.), pubd separately; Sonata, b, D-Bsb; 2 in J.U. Haffner: Collection récréative, i–ii (Nuremberg, 1760–61); 1 in Musikalisches Mancherley (Berlin, 1762); 2 in C.P.E. Bach, ed.: Musikalisches Vielerley (Hamburg, 1770), also pubd separately (Berlin, 1805); 1 in 3 sonates pour le clavecin (Nuremberg, 1770)
Other kbd: Minuetto … dell'opera Le festi galanti con variazioni (Berlin, 1767); Ariette … avec 14 variations, hpd/pf (Amsterdam and Berlin, 1782), ed. in NM, xxxviii (1929); Andantino con 7 variazioni, hpd/pf (Berlin, 1796), first pubd in Clavier-Magazin (Berlin, 1787), ed. in NM, xxxviii (1929); Fugue, org, 1786; several pieces in contemporary anthologies
The concs. and other orch works cited by Ledebur and Eitner are probably by his father, Johann Friedrich Fasch.
K.F.Zelter: Karl Friedrich Christian Fasch (Berlin, 1801/R)
C.von Winterfeld: Über Karl Christian Friedrich Fasch's geistliche Gesangswerke (Berlin, 1839)
M.Blumner: Geschichte der Sing-Akademie zu Berlin (Berlin, 1891)
K.von Fischer: ‘Arietta variata’, Studies in Eighteenth-Century Music: a Tribute to Karl Geiringer, ed. H.C.R. Landon and R.E. Chapman (New York and London, 1970), 224–35
Johann Friedrich Fasch II; Karl Friedrich Christian Fasch: Zerbst 1988 [incl. D. Hiller: ‘Karl Friedrich Fasch und die Gründung der Berliner Singakademie’, 14–18; U. Siegmund-Schultze: ‘Karl Friedrich Christian Fasch als Klavierkomponist’, 18–24; V. Grützner: ‘Zum Wirken Karl Friedrich Faschs in Potsdam’, 25–8]
R.Fuhrmann: ‘Carl Friedrich Christian Fasch: ein Komponist zwischen Rococo und Historismus (1736–1800)’, Fasch und die Musik im Europa des 18. Jahrhunderts: Zerbst 1993, 151–215