(b Faenza; fl 1598–1609). Italian composer. He was a member of the Camaldolite monastery of SS Trinità, Faenza, before 1598. From 1598 to 1601 he was maestro di cappella at Carceri Abbey, near Este, and between 1602 and 1604 he was in Venice, probably in the service of another Camaldolite monastery. In 1609 he was maestro di cappella at Faenza Cathedral. Fattorini’s Sacri concerti (1600) are among the first works to make idiomatic use of the basso continuo, preceding Viadana’s Cento concerti ecclesiastici by two years. In these concertato pieces sections for solo voice accompanied by the organ are interspersed with duets in which the organ doubles the bass voice. Their simple style renders them readily accessible to performers; they are characterized by conjunct melodic motion, linear rhythms, well-prepared dissonances and long-held bass notes denoting root-position chords. The continuo line is unfigured, a fact criticized by Banchieri, who nevertheless had praise for Fattorini's compositions. The Sacri concerti were reprinted twice in eight years; the second edition (1602) contains passages – mostly triple-meter refrains – for ripieno voices alone or with instruments, with a view to double-choir performance. The resulting contrast between chorus and solo foreshadows similar features in the works of Giovanni Croce and Giovanni Gabrieli.
all except anthologies published in Venice
La cieca: Il primo libro de’ madrigali, 5vv (1598), inc.
I sacri concerti, 2vv, facili et commodi … a voci piene et mutate (1600, 2/1602 with added ripieno, 3/1608 with bc)
Il secondo libro de’ motetti, 8vv, bc (org) (1601), inc.
Completorium romanum, 8vv (1602)
Salmi per tutti li vespri dell’anno … con 2 Magnificat, 4, 5vv (1603), inc.
La rondinella: Il secondo libro de’ madrigali, 5vv (1604)
A.Banchieri: Conclusioni del suono dell’organo (Bologna, 1609/R, 2/1626 as Armoniche conclusioni nel suono dell’organo, Eng. trans., 1982)
D.Arnold: ‘The Influence of Ornamentation on the Structure of Early 17th Century Church Music’, IMSCR VII: Cologne 1958, 57 only
DENIS ARNOLD/MARCO GAIO
Fau bordon [fauburdum]
Faugues [Fagus], Guillaume
(flc1460–75). French composer. He was a chaplain at the Ste Chapelle, Bourges, in 1462–3, and was again considered for a chaplaincy there in 1471. In 1462 he also served briefly as master of the choirboys, having among his pupils the young Philippe Basiron, and almost certainly meeting Ockeghem, who visited Bourges in that year.
Although Faugues was mentioned among 13 magistri cantilenarum in Compère's Omnium bonorum plena (c1470), his only surviving works are five masses (more than left by most composers of his time). His achievements in this genre earned him the praise of Tinctoris, who singled out Missa ‘Vinus vina vinum’ as an outstanding example of compositional varietas, and ranked Faugues among the composers whose works ‘are so redolent with sweetness that … they are to be considered most worthy not only for men and demigods, but even for the immortal gods themselves’. It is not always easy to see the grounds for Tinctoris's excitement, yet Faugues's masses were widely distributed in the 1460s and 70s, and he seems to have been a major influence on Johannes Martini (who may have played a part in the revision of Faugues's Missa ‘L'homme armé’).
All five masses are based on secular cantus firmi. These are treated with a certain amount of flexibility, although the original outlines and rhythms are generally retained, so that reconstruction seems feasible even when the model has not survived independently. Faugues preferred to state his tenors in long note values, which gave him the opportunity to introduce three-part imitations in the surrounding parts. In masses based on monophonic tunes (L'homme armé, La basse danse and Vinus vina vinum) such imitations are sometimes derived from motifs in the tenor (especially in Missa ‘L'homme armé’, whose cantus firmus is treated canonically in the two middle parts), but are more often freely invented. In masses based on polyphonic songs (Le serviteur and Je suis en la mer), Faugues rarely missed an opportunity to adopt and expand points of imitation that were (or must have been) present in the model. Partly on account of this latter procedure he has been accorded a prominent place in the early history of parody. A more important reason, however, is the fact that the top voice of Missa ‘Le serviteur’ persistently paraphrases the top voice of the song at corresponding places of the tenor.
The artistic significance of these early ‘parody’ procedures should not be overestimated. While the song's top voice is indeed clearly audible for much of the mass, it is often presented in doubled note values (to match the corresponding notes of the tenor), which yields the general impression that the model – itself a work of beautiful concision – is being temporally ‘drawn out’. The expansion of the original three-part imitations to four-part imitations in the mass does not actually improve this (even when the motifs are quoted in their original note values), since the points of imitation are thereby made to last longer as well. On the whole, Missa ‘Le serviteur’ persists in its dependence on the model in so dogged and uneventful a manner that the general result is one of predictability rather than varietas.
It is open to question whether Faugues’s penchant for structural repetition (the repeat of extended passages or sections across movements) reflects artistic design rather than mere expediency: it seems to contradict Tinctoris's principle of variety. (The revision of Missa ‘L'homme armé’was in fact a reordering, by which the threefold repeat of the second Kyrie was eliminated, and the number of repeats for any section reduced to one.) The variety praised by Tinctoris is evident in the Missa ‘Vinus vina vinum’, yet in comparison with the more fluent writing of Du Fay or Busnoys the alternation of different stylistic devices seems somewhat studied and methodical, and Faugues never quite overcame the ponderousness that characterized so much of his work. However, the late Missa ‘Je suis en la mer’, arguably his finest and most elegant setting, is a genuinely varied work that seems to emulate the speed and fluency commanded by Faugues's more gifted contemporaries – composers whom he could inspire with his ideas more than with their execution.
Editions:Collected Works of Faugues, ed. G.C. Schuetze (New York, 1960) [S]Monumenta polyphoniae liturgicae sanctae ecclesiae romanae, i/1 (Rome, 1948); i/4 (Rome, 1952) [M]
Missa ‘La basse danse’, S
Missa ‘L'homme armé’, S, Mi/1
Missa ‘Vinus vina vinum’, Mi/4
Missa ‘Le serviteur’, S, ed. in DTÖ, xxxviii, Jg.xix (1924)
Missa ‘Je suis en la mer’, S
G.C.Schuetze: An Introduction to Faugues (New York, 1960)
E.H.Sparks: Cantus Firmus in Mass and Motet 1420–1520 (Berkeley, 1963)
F.Crane: Materials for the Study of the Fifteenth Century Basse Danse (New York, 1968)
C.A.Miller: ‘Early Gaffuriana: New Answers to Old Questions’, MQ, lvi (1970), 367–88
A.Seay, ed.: Johannes Tinctoris: Opera Theoretica, CSM, xxii (1975–8)
J.P.Burkholder: ‘Johannes Martini and the Imitation Mass of the Late Fifteenth Century’, JAMS, xxxviii (1985), 470–523
P.Higgins: Antoine Busnois and Musical Culture in Late Fifteenth-Century France and Burgundy (diss., Princeton U., 1987)
P.Higgins: ‘Tracing the Careers of Late Medieval Composers: The Case of Philippe Basiron of Bourges’, AcM, lxii (1990), 1–28
R.C.Wegman: ‘The Anonymous Mass D'Ung aultre amer: a Late Fifteenth-Century Experiment’, MQ, lxxiv (1990), 566–94