Features of phraseological units in english and issues of their translation

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Boltayeva Barnokhon Botir qizi
Master student of UrSU , Faculty of Linguistics : English language
This article discusses only some of the many problems of translating phraseological units and classifications of Phraseological units . Issues of translating phraseological units , considering their etymological and social attributes , is wiewed as the most troublesome type of interpretation changes .
Key words : phraseological unit , fusions , motivated word group , analogue, equivalent ,tracing , target language , semantic , metaphor.
В данной статье рассматриваются лишь некоторые из многочисленных проблем перевода фразеологизмов и классификаций фразеологизмов. Вопросы перевода фразеологизмов с учетом их этимологических и социальных признаков рассматриваются как наиболее трудоемкий вид интерпретационных изменений.
Ключевые слова: фразеологическая единица, сращения, мотивированная группа слов, аналог, эквивалент, калька, язык перевода, семантика, метафора.
A phraseological unit is a lexically indivisible unit of a language , a stable semantically related combination of words ,integral in meaning ,distinguished by figurativeness ,stylistic and emotional coloring . Phraseological units have an evaluative function that they may express the speaker’s attitude to a particular object or incident , as a result the speech whether it is oral or written ,is given liveliness and expressiveness and that used as a powerful tool to make a great influence on the readers and audience. [1] When translating a literary text , there are problems when choosing correct and adequate phraseological unit , with the great accuracy that would convey not only the meaning of the source language but also the emotional coloring of the unit . These facts make high requirements for the translator’s knowledge. It should be noted that phraseological units are considered the most difficult to translate , which is explained by a number of reasons . Firstly , the words of a phraseological unit always lose their semantic meaning and get a new , related meaning along with other words . For this reason ,in order to translate phraseological units choosing a dictionary match for each of the component of a phraseological unit for the translation is not a proper way .Secondly , unfamiliarity of a translator about the phraseology of the original language to recognize phraseological units in the target text causes to a word –by word or literal translation ,and this, in turn ,to a misrepresentation of meaning and misperception of information by the target audience . Thirdly ,even if there is an equivalent phraseological unit in the target language , the translator should look for other ways of conveying meaning to the text since this phraseological unit does not correspond to the context. Let us consider a number of methods for translating phraseological units and analyze their application suggested by V. V. Vinogradov .These are as following: selection of an equivalent ,selection of an anologue , descriptive translation , lexical translation , contextual translation and tracing. The classification of phraseological units also contains the necessary theoretical knowledge for the translator , with which we can identify the units in the text , then analyze it and , based on the analyze ,, give the translation in this context . Taking into account the marked levels , the following types are distinguished ;

  1. Phraseological equivalents- phraseological units with identical semantics, structural and grammatical organization and with identical component composition ; black list –qora ro’yxat ;milk cow - sog’in sigir

  2. Phraseological analogs-that express the same or similar meaning , burt are characterized by a complete difference in the internal form ; A black hen lays a white egg – qora sigir oq sut berar , talk turkey - ochiqdan ochiq gapirmoq

  3. Non –equivalent phraseological units – that do not have correspondence in the phraseological system of another language ; Gretna green marriage - uydan qochgan sevishganlar o’rtasidagi turmush , come Yorkshire over smb -aldamoq , nonni tuya qilmoq .[2]

Moreover , the cause of some difficulties in translating a phraseological unit can be a high degree of its national specificity . In such cases , the task of the translator will be to adapt it to the culture ,origin and language of the target audience .The analysis of the origin of phraseological units may contribute to a better understanding of meaning of a phraseological unit. According to the origin all phraseological units fall into two groups: native and borrowed.
The main sources of native phraseological units are:
· terminological and professional units of the language, e.g. navigation:
to cut the painter – “to become independent”, to lower one’s colours – “to give in”;
· British literature, e.g. the green-eyed monster – “jealousy” (W. Shakespeare);
· British traditions and customs, e.g. baker’s dozen – “a group of thirteen”. In the past British merchants of bread received from bakers 13 loaves of bread instead of 12. The 13th loaf was merchant’s profit;
· legends and superstitions, e.g. a black sheep – “a less successful or more immoral person in a family or in a group”. People believed that a black sheep was marked by the devil;
· historical facts and events, personalities, e.g. to do a Thatcher – “to stay in power as prime minister for three consecutive terms”, to carry coals to Newcastle – “to take something to a place where there is plenty of it available”. Newcastle is known as a city in Northern England where a lot of coal was produced.
· phenomena and facts of everyday life concerning different spheres such as sport, environment, food, etc., e.g. to get a head start – “start before all others” from horse racing (sport), to eat one’s words – “to admit that something you said was wrong”.
The main sources of borrowed phraseological units are as follows:
· the Holly Script, e.g. the kiss of Judas – “any display of affection whose purpose is to conceal any act of treachery”;
· ancient legends and myths belonging to different religious or cultural traditions, e.g. Achilles’ heel – “a week part of something, especially of someone’s character, which is easy for other people to attack”;
· facts and events of the world history, e.g. to meet one’s Waterloo – “to be faced with, esp. after previous success, a final defeat, a difficulty or an obstacle one cannot overcome” (from the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815);
· variants of the English language, e.g. a hole card – “a secret advantage that is ready to use when you need it” (American);
· other languages (classical and modern), e.g. the fair sex – “women”, from French: le beau sex; let the cat out of the bag – “reveal a secret carelessly or by mistake”, from German: die Katze aus dem Sack lassen.[3]
The classification of phraseological units also contains the necessary theoretical knowledge for the translator , with which we can identify the phraseological unit in the text , then analyze it and , based on the analysis give accurate translation . First of all , we should be aware what is a phraseological unit its features and types ,then we can use translation methods accurately and give a reliable translation to the readers .
As there exists various criteria on phraseological units , there are a large number of classifications . The most famous of them belongs to V.V.Vinogradov . It focuses on the structure of phraseological units and illustrates the varying degrees of element dependence and semantic cohesion . According to V.V.Vinogradov’s classification, phraseological units are divided into :
1)Phraseological unities;
2)Phraseological fusions;
3) Phraseological combinations.

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