A holder of this position was exhumed and tried for perjury in the Cadaver Trial. Gregory the Great reformed this position, which was supposedly given authority over Western Europe by the Donation of Constantine. In the Great Schism, the holder of this position was excommunicated by the Orthodox Church. For ten points, name this religious position, the head of the Catholic Church.
ANSWER: Pope (or Bishop of Rome)
James Connolly and Patrick Pearse led an uprising named for this event, beginning with the reading of the “Proclamation of the Republic” in front of the General Post Office in Dublin. That 1916 “Rising” in Ireland took place during the week of this religious holiday. Maundy Thursday and Good Friday precede, for ten points, what Christian holiday that celebrates the resurrection of Jesus?
The Two Penny Act established that ministers be paid two pennies per pound of this commodity. William Cunningham was part of a group of Glasgow merchants known as the “lords” of this commodity. The Orinoco variety of this crop dominated Chesapeake Bay, which was known as this crop’s “coast.” John Rolfe introduced this crop to Jamestown. For ten points, name this cash crop, used in the production of cigarettes.
This city gained its nickname of “City of Palaces” due to a comment by traveler Alexander von Humboldt. Ten days before this city hosted an Olympic games, a group of students and protesters were killed in its Plaza de las Tres Culturas in the Tlatelolco Massacre. Two American athletes displayed a Black Power salute during the 1968 Summer Olympics in, for ten points, what North American capital city?
ANSWER: Mexico City
In April 1961, John F. Kennedy gave a Secret Service agent a head injury by performing this action badly. After repeatedly poorly performing this action, Dwight Eisenhower demanded the removal of a tall pine tree at Augusta National. For ten points, name this common athletic activity for U.S. Presidents, especially Eisenhower, who installed the White House putting green.
ANSWER: golfing (accept anything related to golf, including more specific responses, like swinging a golf club, teeing off, etc.)
Participants in this event were caught during a gun battle at the Holbeche House. This plan was exposed in a letter addressed to Lord Monteagle. Robert Catesby helped coordinate this plan, which was scheduled for November fifth. For ten points, name this plot that attempted to blow up James I and English Parliament, but was thwarted when Guy Fawkes was caught.
ANSWER: Gunpowder Plot
This event failed to damage Africville because of the raised ground of Bedford Basin. John Johansen was accused of being a German spy because of this event, which created a tsunami that destroyed the Mi'kmaq community on Tuft’s Cove. It was prompted by a collision of the Imo and the Mont-Blanc. For ten points, name this 1917 maritime disaster in Nova Scotia that generated the largest man-made explosion prior to nuclear warheads.
ANSWER: Halifax explosion
This country was ruled for 6 hours be Hezekiah Ochuka, who led a failed coup against Daniel arap Moi. This country’s founder was put on trial as a part of the Kapenguria Six in 1952. This country’s largest ethnic group, the Kikuyu, rebelled against British rule and gained independence in 1963. For ten points, name this African nation that was founded by Jomo Kenyatta and whose capital is Nairobi.
While in the Hebrides, this man fell in love with Thorgunna and fathered Thorgils. According to Einar Haugen, Bjarni Herjolfsson beat this man to his greatest achievement. This man established a Norse settlement at L’Anse aux Meadows. For ten points, name this Norse explorer whose discovery of Vinland made him the first European to see America, son of Erik the Red.
ANSWER: Leif Erikson
This man created a painting of five nude women with geometrically distorted bodies. That work, from his African Period, is Les Demoiselles d’Avignon. In one of his works, a light bulb shines over screaming horses and contorted people, representing the victims of the bombing of a Basque town in the Spanish Civil War. The mural Guernica was created by, for ten points, what 20th century Spanish cubist artist?
ANSWER: Pablo Ruiz y Picasso
This government was served by Nathalie Lemel’s Women’s Union. Members of this government destroyed the Vendome Column on the orders of the artist Gustave Courbet [core-bay]. Adolphe Thiers [tee-air] ordered Marshal MacMahon to violently end this government during the Bloody Week. Karl Marx argued that this government was an example of the dictatorship of the proletariat. For ten points, name this socialist government that, after the loss of the Franco-Prussian War, briefly ruled from the French capital.
ANSWER: Paris Commune
BONUS: This palace, the home of French monarchs after 1564, was also destroyed during the Paris Commune. It shares its name with a garden in Paris adjacent to the Louvre.
ANSWER: Tuileries Palace (or Garden)
This man allegedly bought a newspaper from a young John Diefenbaker during a visit to Saskatchewan. Liberals who supported this man notably helped spark the First Conscription Crisis. The trade reciprocity debate ended this man’s leadership, and this man’s rival Henri Bourassa opposed his intervention in the Boer War and his signing of the Naval Service Bill to create the Canadian navy. For ten points, name this first French-speaking Prime Minister, the face of the five dollar bill.
ANSWER: Wilfrid Laurier
BONUS: Laurier lost power in 1911 on the heels of the trade reciprocity debate; Laurier advocated free trade with the US, but opponents feared it would lead to this action. This action was desired by some Americans during the War of 1812, and the earlier Articles of Confederation outlined a legal process for the US to perform this action.
ANSWER: the United States annexing Canada
One of these structures in Rome is named for Cestius. An early form of this structure, Etemenanki, was a temple dedicated to Marduk. Sacrifices to Quetzalcoatl were performed on these structures in Aztec territory, and Chichen Itza was a Mayan example of this structure. Ziggurats were terraced examples of, for ten points, what massive ancient religious structures, commonly built in ancient Egypt?
ANSWER: pyramid (prompt on “mound” before mentioned; accept step-pyramid after “Etemenanki” is said; prompt on ziggurat after “Etemenanki” is said)
BONUS: Many Egyptian pharaohs, including Tutankhamun and Ramesses the Great, were buried in this valley on the West Bank of the Nile.
ANSWER: Valley of the Kings
One possibly apocryphal story about this man states that he fired at enemy troops with a crossbow while lying ill on a stretcher. This man was victorious at the Battle of Arsuf and managed to anger Leopold V of Austria during the siege of Acre, who later imprisoned him. After failing to conquer Jerusalem, this man was forced to negotiate peace with Saladin. For ten points, name this English leader of the Third Crusade, whose nickname refers to his bravery.
ANSWER: Richard I or Richard the Lionhearted
BONUS: Richard the Lionheart would have worked with this red-haired German leader in the Third Crusade, had he not drowned in the Saleph River.
ANSWER: Frederick I or Frederick Barbarossa
This city’s wealth grew after the discovery of silver at Laurium; Themistocles convinced this city to use that wealth on a new navy, which it promptly used to defeat the Persians at Salamis. The Delian League’s treasury was held in the Parthenon on this city’s Acropolis. For ten points, name this ancient Greek city-state whose wealth funded broad cultural movements and the birth of democracy.
BONUS: Ancient Greek coins were minted in a number of denominations; this most common coin was the approximate value of a day’s wage for a hoplite. The Athenian “owl” was a coin with value equal to four of these coins.
This person prepared a summary of his arguments, the Smalcald Articles, for a defensive alliance known as the Schmalkaldic League. This man, who broke with tradition by marrying Katharina von Bora, was condemned by the bull Exsurge Domine [ex-oor-gay doh-mee-nay] for actions taken after he objected to Johann Tetzel’s sale of indulgences. For ten points, identify this German monk who nailed his 95 Theses to a cathedral door, beginning the Protestant Reformation.
ANSWER: Martin Luther
BONUS: Luther was condemned by Charles V at this 1521 meeting, where Charles issued an edict forbidding anybody to help Luther.
ANSWER: Diet of Worms
This event led to the end of the 1798 Treaty of Alliance. A woman with a feathered hat has her belongings stuffed into the “national sack” in a depiction of this event, which prompted the Quasi-War. During this event, Pierre Bellamy was chastised by Charles Pinckney, who declared “no, not a sixpence!” For ten points, name this scandal in which American diplomats were asked for a bribe in order to meet with a French diplomat.
ANSWER: XYZ Affair
BONUS: Two of the three American diplomats involved in the XYZ Affair left without ever accomplishing their goal: speaking with this French Foreign Minister.
This mountain range was the target of Germany’s Operation Edelweiss in World War II. The easternmost end of this mountain range is the Absheron Peninsula. Secessionist republics on the southern slope of this mountain range include Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Mount Elbrus is a part of, for ten points, what mountain chain that runs from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea, shared by Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Russia?
ANSWER: Caucasus Mountains
BONUS: This federal subject of Russia in the north Caucasus attempted to secede under the name of Ichkeria after the breakup of the USSR. It has its capital at Grozny.
ANSWER: Chechnya (or Chechen Republic)
The categories are ...
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
Global war it sparked.
ANSWER: World War I (or the Great War or the War to End All Wars)
Twenty-year-old Serbian assassin.
ANSWER: Gavrilo Princip
Modern-day Bosnian city in which it took place.
Colorfully named Serbian secret society that organized the attack.
ANSWER: Black Hand (accept Unification or Death)
Country from which Franz Ferdinand was heir apparent, and which controlled the Serbian territory.
Wife of Franz Ferdinand who was also killed in the attack.
ANSWER: Sophie Chotek von Chotkow, Duchess of Hohenberg (accept any underlined portion)
Poison that failed to kill bomber Nedejlko Cabrinovic [neh-dyell-koh cah-brin-oh-vitch] after he jumped into a shallow river.
ANSWER: cyanide pill
Serbian teacher who recruited the assassins and was hanged in 1915.
ANSWER: Danilo Ilic Operation Barbarossa
Former country that Nazi Germany targeted in Barbarossa, on the Eastern Front in Europe.
ANSWER: Soviet Union (or USSR or Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; accept CCCP or Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik; do not accept Russia)
Alliance of Germany and Italy that launched the invasion.
ANSWER: Axis Powers
Leader of Nazi Germany that ordered it.
ANSWER: Adolf Hitler
Genocide of six million people that took place in occupied territories after the invasion.
Non-aggression pact that Germany broke to launch Barbarossa.
ANSWER: Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
Target of Army Group North during the invasion. The siege of this city lasted 872 days.
ANSWER: Leningrad (accept St. Petersburg)
casus belli of the invasion, a German word that translates as “living space.”
Code name for the summer 1942 offensive of Army Group South in the Caucasus, briefly capturing
Soviet oil fields.
ANSWER: Case Blue (or Fall Blau; accept Operation Braunschweig)
Capital city of Cuba, where the USS Maine was sunk.
Revolutionary who led Cuba through the second half of the 20th century. His brother, Raul, is currently president.
ANSWER: Fidel Castro
Weapons stationed on Cuba by the Soviet Union in 1962 to threaten the United States.
ANSWER: ballistic missiles (accept equivalents, like rockets; accept SS-4 or R-14; accept nuclear missiles; prompt on nuclear weapons)
Type of economic action taken by the United States to prevent trade with Cuba.
ANSWER: embargo (prompt on boycott)
Attempted 1961 invasion by CIA-backed rebels, driven off by the Cuban government.
ANSWER: Bay of Pigs Invasion (accept descriptions of the invasion of Playa Giron)
Marxist revolutionary, instrumental in the 1959 Cuban revolution, who also aided movements in the Congo and Bolivia.
ANSWER: CheGuevara (accept either)
Dictator overthrown in the 1959 Cuban Revolution.
ANSWER: Fulgencio Batista
1901 amendment that granted the United States the right to dominate Cuban politics.
This ruler sought to gain prestige by fighting the War of Devolution against the Triple Alliance. In order to fund his wars against the League of Augsburg and the Grand Alliance, this monarch employed Jean-Baptiste (+) Colbert to manage his kingdom’s finances. A civil war called the Fronde helped this man expand his power into an absolute monarchy. This man brought much of his nobility to the (*) palace of Versailles [vair-sigh]. For ten points, name this Sun King who ruled France for over seventy years.
ANSWER: Louis XIV [fourteen] (accept the Sun King until mentioned)
A song about this event asks “And what have you done?” before commanding “Let’s stop all the fight;” that song parenthetically claims “War is Over” and is sung by John (+) Lennon, Yoko Ono, and a children’s choir. Bob Geldof organized a 1984 single to raise money for an Ethiopian famine; the title of that song asks “Do They (*) Know It’s” this holiday. For ten points, name this holiday, also the subject of more traditional songs like “Carol of the Bells” and “Santa Claus is Coming to Town.”
ANSWER: Christmas (Day and/or Eve; accept “Happy Christmas (War is Over)”; accept “Do They Know It’s Christmas”, and accept it if they finish the lyric, because we’re not really going for the title)
This man dissolved parliament after Franz von Papen lost heavily in a vote of no confidence. After Marinus van der Lubbe was caught attempting to set fire to government buildings, this leader suspended civil liberties in the (+) Reichstag fire decrees. This man rose to fame after working with Erich (*) Ludendorff to orchestrate a victory at Tannenberg. For ten points, name this final president of Weimar Germany, a politician who appointed Adolf Hitler chancellor well after being honored as the namesake of a zeppelin.
ANSWER: Paul von Hindenburg
In 1972, dissident poet Pedro Luis Boitel died in one of these events in Cuba. In 1980, one of these events was briefly led by Brendan Hughes; when its demands weren’t met, this event was re-started, and (+) Provisional IRA member Bobby Sands was the first to die. The World Medical Association declares that attempts to forcefully end these events are considered torture, as has been done at (*) Guantanamo Bay using IV bags. For ten points, name this event in which a protester refuses nourishment.
ANSWER: hunger strike (accept descriptions; prompt on general terms like “(political) protest;” prompt on descriptions of suicide (attempts))
In 2007, six people were extradited from this country to Bulgaria, where President Georgi Parvanov pardoned them for allegedly infecting 400 children in this country with HIV. From 2014 to 2016, this country’s port city of Derna was under the control of ISIS. This country’s (+) Council of Deputies runs a government that rivals an internationallyrecognized government in Tobruk. Christopher (*) Stevens, a former ambassador to this country, was killed in a 2012 attack in Benghazi. For ten points, name this African country led until 2011 by Muammar Gaddafi.
This city was the site of a deadly 1941 fire in the Knights of Columbus hostel, which was likely carried out by Nazi agents. William Amherst recaptured this city in the final engagement of the French and Indian War. (+) Timothy O’Brien dropped a pipe at his stable on Freshwater Road, beginning the 1892 “great fire” of this city where Guglielmo (*) Marconi received the first transatlantic signal atop Signal Hill. For ten points, name this capital of Newfoundland.
ANSWER: St. John
The breakdown of this substance was the subject of the 1987 Montreal Protocol. A 1974 paper by Molina and Rowland explains how this compound could be catalytically broken down by high frequency (+) UV radiation. Each spring, a photochemical reaction depletes this compound in the troposphere over the Earth’s (*) poles. Trichloroethane and other CFCs create “holes” in the atmospheric layer of, for ten points, what compound, consisting of three oxygen atoms, which protects Earth from the Sun’s radiation?
ANSWER: ozone (accept O3 before “oxygen” is read)
During this battle, defenders were pocketed in the Schnee Eifel [shnay eye-fell] while defending St. Vith, managing to significantly delay the offensive. Heavy fog prevented effective air cover during the beginning of this battle, which was ended when (+) Patton’s Third Army was able to relieve defending forces. This battle was called Operation Watch on Rhine by its attackers, who were targeting Antwerp. While defending Bastogne [bast-own], General McAuliffe replied (*) “Nuts!” to a demand of surrender in, for ten points, what World War II battle in the Ardennes, a German attack that caused a namesake shape in the Allied lines?
ANSWER: Battle of the Bulge (accept Operation Watch on Rhine before mention)
Only read if you need a backup or tiebreaker!
(1) The question of invading this region was the focus of the Seikanron debate. In 1894 in this region, armed peasants and adherents of Donghak revolted in Gobu. Admiral (+) Yi Sun-sin stopped Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s attempt to invade this region, but this location of the “Hermit Kingdom” was eventually occupied by its neighbor (*) Japan. The Joseon Dynasty ruled in, for ten points, what Asian peninsula, now divided into North and South countries?
ANSWER: Korean Peninsula (do not accept or prompt on North and/or South Korea until “North” has been said; after that, it’s acceptable)
BONUS: This nation, once led by Benazir and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, moved its capital from Karachi to Islamabad in 1966.