Food Habits in India



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India Macro-economic Overview

  • India Macro-economic Overview

  • Food Habits in India

  • Processed Food Industry in India

    • Processed Food Distribution Formats in India
    • Processed Food Industry Overview
    • Competition Analysis
    • Developments in Processed Food Industry
    • Regulatory and Custom Duties Analysis
    • Presence of Italy in Indian Food Industry
  • Food Processing Machinery

    • Industry Overview
    • Major Target Industries for Machinery Manufacturers
    • Customer Concentration
    • Cold Storage Overview
    • Packaging Machinery Overview
  • Conclusion and Recommendation



























India is a culturally rich & diverse nation having varied lifestyles, religions, art, culture, attire & food.

  • India is a culturally rich & diverse nation having varied lifestyles, religions, art, culture, attire & food.

  • Weather & topography vary widely with region:

    • North: Closest to the Himalayan range, hilly regions with extreme weather conditions; high fertility area with high wheat production
    • West: Arid areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat – which are dry and hot through most of the year. In some coastal areas of Maharashtra, fish is the staple diet
    • South: Temperate climatic condition all through the year; high rice production & consumption area
    • East: Hilly regions with varying weather conditions; East is the poorest regions of the country


Indians take food very passionately

  • Indians take food very passionately

  • Mealtimes are considered as occasions and time for families to get together and spend quality time.

  • Fresh cooking is essential in most Indian homes, with limited preference for stocked food

  • Most meals comprise of several dishes ranging from staples like rice and breads, to meat or vegetables, rounded off with a dessert



North Region – Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Jammu and Kashmir

  • North Region – Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Jammu and Kashmir

    • Wheat-breads are the staple diet which accompany all meals
    • Largely meat-based diet characterized by tandoori-style cooking methods
    • Fair amount of cooking is done using deep frying in oil
    • High consumption of milk and milk-based products
    • High consumption of fresh fruits such as apples, cherries, plums and strawberries which are unique to this region due to its cooler climate.
  • Increasing number of households are shifting toward replacing traditionally made food items such as curd and cottage cheese with packaged items (packaged curd or cottage cheese)



Southern India – Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala

  • Southern India – Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala

    • Primarily vegetarian population barring coastal areas where fish is a staple diet
    • Rice is abundant & appears in almost every dish during a meal & are eaten in multiple forms
    • Tamarind and coconut form the base for most preparations, with most curries based in coconut gravy
    • Hot spicy foods are cooked, with chettinad cuisine being one of the most fiery
    • Food is often eaten on banana leaves
  • Major shift is seen in people moving towards ready-to-use packaged food items for idlis and dosas, rather than going through the relatively longer process of preparing the batter in-house



Western India – Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Maharashtra

  • Western India – Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Maharashtra

    • High demand of dairy products, including yoghurt, buttermilk, cow's milk, and goat's milk
    • Rice is the staple food grain
    • Goan cuisine is dominated by rice, coconut, fish and seafood
    • Gujarati cuisine is largely vegetarian, with a hint of sugar or jaggery in every preparation
    • Peanuts and coconut are widely used
    • Other popular cereals include gram flour, bajra and corn


Eastern India - Orissa, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, Manipur Nagaland, and Arunachal Pradesh

  • Eastern India - Orissa, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, Manipur Nagaland, and Arunachal Pradesh

    • Relatively more simplistic and less elaborate food
    • Characterized by a variety of different types of rice
    • Predominantly fish eating population in coastal areas
    • Common practice to eat steamed food, e.g.: momos
    • Curries include lot of poppy, mustard and cumin seeds, cumin seeds
    • World famous for sweets


Growing middle class population and household incomes are driving people to spend more on food

  • Growing middle class population and household incomes are driving people to spend more on food

  • Increasing cases of lifestyle diseases have resulted in shift towards healthier food options such as fruit juices, pro-biotics, cereals and oats

  • Shift in consumption preferences & increasing demand is driving the food companies to introduce innovative products such as digestive biscuits, fortified dairy products, etc.

  • Increased demand for processed & packaged products with high shelf-life

  • Willingness to pay a premium for value-added products such as cheese, butter, flavoured milk

  • Overall change in palate and preference for newer varieties of food due to western influence





















Varied agro climatic zones

  • Varied agro climatic zones

  • 2nd largest arable land (161 M ha) in the world

  • Largest irrigated land (55 M ha) in the world

  • Largest producer of Wheat, Pulses & Milk

  • Largest producer and exporter of Spices

  • Second largest producer of Tea, Rice, Fruits & Vegetables

  • Second largest producer of Sugarcane

  • Largest exporter of the world's best rice (Basmati)

  • Third largest producer of Coarse grains and Edible Oilseeds





The Indian Food and Food Processing industry (FPI) primarily comprises of the following segments

  • The Indian Food and Food Processing industry (FPI) primarily comprises of the following segments

    • Fruits & Vegetables (F&V)
    • Dairy
    • Meat, Poultry and Marine
    • Grains and Seeds
    • Packaged Foods (including Beverages)








In 2012-13, total exports from FPI sectors reached US$36 billion, growing at a CAGR of 21.9% since 2008-09

  • In 2012-13, total exports from FPI sectors reached US$36 billion, growing at a CAGR of 21.9% since 2008-09









Huge domestic consumption market

  • Huge domestic consumption market

  • Large production base of raw material

  • Breadth in crop base offering scope for varied processing activities



Government incentives (priority sector, tax relief, R&D support, etc)

  • Government incentives (priority sector, tax relief, R&D support, etc)

  • Increasing western influence on Indian palate (cheese, pasta, sauces, cereals, aerated drinks, juices, yoghurt, etc) which is driving the demand for processed foods

  • Increase in nuclear families and working women who prefer ready-to-use food items







Dairy market is largely dominated by regional cooperatives in Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan and Punjab; Amul (Gujarat Cooperative) has ~26% pan-India market share in liquid milk; Nandini (Karnataka Cooperative) has significant presence in South India

  • Dairy market is largely dominated by regional cooperatives in Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan and Punjab; Amul (Gujarat Cooperative) has ~26% pan-India market share in liquid milk; Nandini (Karnataka Cooperative) has significant presence in South India

  • Amul captures nearly 85% of the butter market and ~70% of the cheese market, while other players such as Nestle manage rest of the market; Unilever has strong presence in ice cream segment



Processed forms of fruits & vegetables in India include jams, juices, pickles, chutney, and fruit concentrates

  • Processed forms of fruits & vegetables in India include jams, juices, pickles, chutney, and fruit concentrates

  • While the fresh fruits & vegetables market in highly unorganized with local farmers, wholesalers, and intermediaries selling directly to customers, the processed F&V market is somewhat organized with presence of national and international players



Highly fragmented industry with only a handful of large players

  • Highly fragmented industry with only a handful of large players

  • Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Delhi are the key areas of processed meat and poultry production

  • Within this industry, poultry is the fastest growing segment owing to strong domestic consumption



Grain processing includes milling of rice, wheat and pulses; seed processing include extraction of oil for edible and industrial purposes

  • Grain processing includes milling of rice, wheat and pulses; seed processing include extraction of oil for edible and industrial purposes

  • A highly fragmented industry with thousands of rice hullers, flour and pulse mills, and ghanis and oil refineries operating in every part of the country; competition in the organized segment is intense

  • Though primary processing is the most important activity in this segment, secondary and tertiary processing is limited to few large players



Consumer foods is a highly competitive industry in India with presence of large national and international companies

  • Consumer foods is a highly competitive industry in India with presence of large national and international companies

  • Britannia, Parle and ITC capture ~90% share of biscuit industry, while Perfetti has over 70% market share in confectionery market; Nestle, with its Maggie brand, is a market leader in noodles segment, while Coca Cola and Pepsi has over 90% market share in aerated beverages segment







Vision-2015 plan of MoFPI aims to double the size of food processing industry to US$ 200B, increase processing of perishables to 20%, increase value addition to 35% (from 20%), and enhance India’s share in global food trade to 3% (from 1.5%)

  • Vision-2015 plan of MoFPI aims to double the size of food processing industry to US$ 200B, increase processing of perishables to 20%, increase value addition to 35% (from 20%), and enhance India’s share in global food trade to 3% (from 1.5%)

  • Scheme for Infrastructure Development, implemented by MoFPI, during 11th Five Year plan (2007-12) include—

    • Mega food parks
    • Cold chain, value addition and preservation infrastructure
    • Setting up / modernization of abattoirs


Mega Food Parks (MFPs)

  • Mega Food Parks (MFPs)

  • It aims to bring together farmers, processors, and retailers to link agricultural produce to the market place and to ensure maximum value addition, minimum wastage, increase farmers’ income and create employment in rural sector

  • These parks will have state-of-the-art processing facilities and well-established supply chain

  • Under the scheme, a total of 30 MFPs will be established in a phased manner (10 parks in phase I, 5 in phase II, and 15 in phase III)*



Cold chain, value addition, and preservation infrastructure

  • Cold chain, value addition, and preservation infrastructure

  • The infrastructure scheme will provide financial assistance in setting up integrated and complete cold chain facilities, preservation infrastructure facilities, value addition facilities, and irradiation facilities

  • Financial assistance of up to 75% of the total project cost is provided by the government

  • Total of 49 projects have been planned across the country, of which 10 are in progress

  • These projects are expected to add 232,628 MT of cold chain to the existing infrastructure

  • Setting up / modernization of abattoirs

  • Lack of basic infrastructure facilities such as water, electricity, and carcass handling mechanism result in tremendous wastage and contamination / deterioration of meat

  • The FPI infrastructure scheme plans to set up 10 new abattoirs and modernize several existing facilities in the coming years

  • An amount of US$6.8 million have been disbursed to set up the 10 new facilities

  • So far, 2 abattoirs have been completed at Dimapur, Nagaland and Ahmednagar, Maharastra









FDI is permissible for all the processed food products under 100% automatic route, except for items reserved for micro, small and medium enterprises where FDI is permissible under automatic route up to 24%

  • FDI is permissible for all the processed food products under 100% automatic route, except for items reserved for micro, small and medium enterprises where FDI is permissible under automatic route up to 24%

  • FDI under automatic route is approved at Reserve Bank of India (RBI) level and does not require approval of Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB)







The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has been established under Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 (FSS Act) which consolidates various acts & orders that have hitherto handled food related issues in various Ministries and Departments

  • The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has been established under Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 (FSS Act) which consolidates various acts & orders that have hitherto handled food related issues in various Ministries and Departments

  • It is responsible for

    • Laying down science based standards for articles of food
    • Regulating the manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import of food to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption
  • Introduction of the FSS Act repealed a number of individual regulatory acts such as Edible Oils Packaging Order and Milk and Milk Products Order

  • The Act aims to establish a single reference point for all matters relating to food safety and standards

  • FSSAI also collects and collates data regarding food consumption, incidence and prevalence of biological risk, contaminants in food, residues of various, contaminants in foods products, identification of emerging risks and introduction of rapid alert system



Over 200 MT of imported gourmet chocolates from around the world, including brands such as Godiva, Guylian, Lindt and Mars, are stuck at various Indian ports due to non-compliance with new Indian labelling laws

  • Over 200 MT of imported gourmet chocolates from around the world, including brands such as Godiva, Guylian, Lindt and Mars, are stuck at various Indian ports due to non-compliance with new Indian labelling laws

  • Several other food categories such as French artisinal cheese, American crisps, Thai condiments, and Italian pasta sauces have also been held up for non-compliance

  • FSSAI is especially wary of labelling violations on chocolate products as tests reveal that many of them contain very high level of vegetable fat, which is not permissible under the Indian law

  • Small-scale importers who primarily depend on a single food category have been badly affected with many of them already closing the business

  • Indian packaging and labelling regulations have been in place since 2011 and ample grace period was given to importers to align themselves with new regulations

  • Since November 2013, FSSAI has stopped allowing imported products that do not comply with the new laws












































































































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