For this you must refer to figure 4. on p. 240 For this you must refer to figure 14. on p



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For this you must refer to figure 14.1 on p.240

  • For this you must refer to figure 14.1 on p.240

  • See next slide





LLC

  • LLC

    • Logical Link Control
    • Refers upward to higher layers
  • MAC

    • Media Access Control
    • refers downward to lower layers


Determine how to get access when there is competition for the media.

  • Determine how to get access when there is competition for the media.

  • MAC (Medium Access Control) sub-layer takes care of this problem

  • MAC is important in LANs where broadcast channels are used

  • MAC is the lower part of the data link layer (next to physical layer)

  • Mac sub-layer does not guarantee delivery



Channelization to refer to a mapping (between communication and a channel in the underlying transmission system).

  • Channelization to refer to a mapping (between communication and a channel in the underlying transmission system).

  • Traditional way to allow more than one person to use the medium is to use FDM

  • In Frequency division multiplexing, the total bandwidth is divided among the total number of users, each pair is assigned to a unique frequency. This is known as 1-to-1 static.

  • FDM works well when there is a small number of users

  • When users grow a fast busy signal is issued



Need dynamic if the set of entities using the channels change frequently. Think of cellular phones. In dynamic a mapping can be established when a new station appears, or removed when it disappears.

  • Need dynamic if the set of entities using the channels change frequently. Think of cellular phones. In dynamic a mapping can be established when a new station appears, or removed when it disappears.

  • underlying assumptions of dynamic channel allocation

    • 1. Station Model
    • 2. Single Channel Assumption
    • 3. Collision Assumption
    • 4. Continuous time
    • 5. Slotted time


Consists of N independent STATIONS

  • Consists of N independent STATIONS

  • Each has programs that produce frames for transmission

  • Frames are generated at intervals

  • Once a frame is generated the station is locked until the frame is transmitted



Only one channel is available for all communication

  • Only one channel is available for all communication

  • All stations transmit on it and all stations receive on that channel



If two frames are transmitted simultaneously, they overlap in time and resulting signal is garbled.

  • If two frames are transmitted simultaneously, they overlap in time and resulting signal is garbled.

  • All stations can detect collisions.

  • A collided frame must be retransmitted.



Frame transmission can start any time

  • Frame transmission can start any time

  • There is no master clock controlling transmission (as opposed to slotted time discussed next)



Time is divided into discrete intervals (slots)



FDMA

  • FDMA

  • TDMA

  • Code Division Multi-Access

  • Already covered these



Polling: A centralized controller cycles through all stations on the network and gives each an opportunity to transmit a packet, either uses round robin order or priority order

  • Polling: A centralized controller cycles through all stations on the network and gives each an opportunity to transmit a packet, either uses round robin order or priority order

  • .



Often used with satellite transmission, employs a two-step process. Each transmission is planned in advanced. In the first step, each potential sender specifies whether they have a packet to send during the next round and the controller transmits a list of stations that will be transmitting. In the second step, stations transmit upon their turn.

  • Often used with satellite transmission, employs a two-step process. Each transmission is planned in advanced. In the first step, each potential sender specifies whether they have a packet to send during the next round and the controller transmits a list of stations that will be transmitting. In the second step, stations transmit upon their turn.

  • Bit-map protocol

    • A bit map with enough slots for all stations is passed around
    • Each station wanting to send a frame and if the frame is ready in the queue, inserts a 1 bit into its reserved slot in the bit map.
    • Once station numbers of all who want to send is known they take turns in order.


Each station is given a binary address

  • Each station is given a binary address

  • If a station wants to transmit a frame it broadcasts its address one bit at a time starting with the high order bit.

  • Bits from each station are Ored together the station address starting with the resulting 0 or 1 bit as agreed upon is allowed to go on. If two or more has the same bit then go to the next bit and so on.



Token bus

  • Token bus

    • Each station knows the address of the station to its left and right
    • The highest numbered station may send the first frame
    • Then it passes permission to its immediate neighbor by send a special frame called a token.
    • The first station passes the token to the highest numbered one.
  • Token Ring

    • Physical Ring
    • Token circulates


Many networks do not use collision free protocols, especially LANs (Token passing is an exception).

  • Many networks do not use collision free protocols, especially LANs (Token passing is an exception).

  • Instead, a set of computers attached to a shared medium attempt o access the medium without coordination, like the old CB radio.



ALOHA

  • ALOHA

    • PURE ALOHA
    • SLOTTED ALOHA
  • CARRIER SENSE MULTIPLE ACCESS PROTOCOLS (CSMA)

    • Persistent and Nonpersistent CSMA
    • CSMA with collision detection


1970 - Norman Abramson – Alohnet. University of Hawaii

  • 1970 - Norman Abramson – Alohnet. University of Hawaii

  • One main transmitter with a large tower

  • Smaller tower and transmitter, each can reach the central transmitter, but not each other.

  • Used ground based radio broadcasting

  • Two versions of Aloha

    • Pure
    • Slotted


Users may send whenever they have data to send

  • Users may send whenever they have data to send

  • If collisions occur, collided data will be destroyed

  • Sender can determine if the data was destroyed by listening to the channel (the sender can hear too).

  • If data was destroyed, re-send after waiting random amount of time

  • Each station’s transmission is repeated by the central station, which can be received by all.



Divide time into discrete slots, each time slot is enough for one frame

  • Divide time into discrete slots, each time slot is enough for one frame

  • Users agree on slot boundaries

  • A special station emits a signal at the start of each time slot to synchronize



Listen for a transmission

  • Listen for a transmission

  • If the line is clear then transmit

  • Implementations:

    • Persistent, Non Persistent and p-persistent
    • CSMA with collision detection


Listen, if busy wait until line is free

  • Listen, if busy wait until line is free

  • Transmit a frame

  • If collision occurred, wait for a random amount of time

  • Transmission time delay between two sending computers will cause the second computer not to hear the transmission.



Listen, if busy wait random amount of time and listen again until the line is free

  • Listen, if busy wait random amount of time and listen again until the line is free

  • This approach is less greedy than the Persistent one

  • This prevents two or more wanting to get on the line from doing so at the same time when the channel becomes free.



Slotted channels.

  • Slotted channels.

  • Listen, if free send at the beginning of the next slot



Abort transmission as soon as collision is detected

  • Abort transmission as soon as collision is detected

  • Collision is detected by comparing received signal power to sent signal

  • If collision is detected, stop transmission and wait for random amount of time

  • CSMA/CD is used widely in LAN IEEE 802.3 is an example.



After a collision occurs, a computer must wait, but how long? In Aloha randomization was used.

  • After a collision occurs, a computer must wait, but how long? In Aloha randomization was used.

  • In exponential backoff, the computer must wait twice the amount of time than the previous time. This is repeated if collision occur again.



For wireless.

  • For wireless.

  • May not be able to hear computers outside the range, while the other party can hear. This is known as the hidden station problem.

  • Ready to send and clear to send are transmitted first before transmitting packet. The clear to send or the ready to send will be heard by all within range.



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