COLLECTION ÉTUDES THÉORIQUES
beginning, neoliberalism was not an attack against the state, but via the state against
democratic forms of government. Traditional and newly emerging business and technocratic
elites have been supported to the detriment of the majority of the population. As a
consequence, social inequality and poverty have risen considerably (Milanovic 2002). New
patterns of social exclusion have thus been created (Duménil/Lévy 2001). Women were
affected in a double way by privatizations and the downsizing of the welfare states as jobs got
lost in the social sector and parts of the social work were re-privatized to the families, where
mostly women took over those responsibilities (Young 1998; 2000a)
. Apart from the social
vast economic and financial crises in the 1990s (Allegret et al. 2003; Becker et al. 2003).
These crisis-tendencies were rooted in structural contradictions (cf. Jessop 2002: 103ff.) and
led to a revision of neoliberal policies.
The invention of governance as an analytical and normative term was linked to these
developments. However, discursive shifts must not be confused with reality. Governing was
never reduced to sovereign government, neither in Feudalism when power was exercised
indirectly, nor in Fordism when corporatism systematically integrated civil society.
Nevertheless, we will first present modalities of governance (table 2) to be employed within
the framework of KATARSIS to present ongoing restructurings in European governance-
structures in a second step. The proposed modalities of governance relate to the two classic
modes on the one hand: the market and the state, which we will further differentiate. The
market works with the principle of exchange. The core principle for the functioning of
a market society is private property, which has to be secured by the state, which normally
works by the principle of command which is therefore the concept employed to represent the
bureaucratic state-apparatus. Hybrid forms of governance are represented by the two forms
of multilateral governance and citizen’s governance.
The exclusionary dynamics concerning women were even more complicated. As career chances for upper-class women partly increased
during the last decades, household work in the corresponding families is increasing being done by domestic servants, which was
described as a relationship between the “mistress” and the “maid” by Brigitte Young (2000b).
by the state
Plurality of actors Plurality of
(Public – Private
Potential to pay