Gpss/h system Guide

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Revised: 12/02 

GPSS/H System Guide 

GPSS/H System Guide 

Copyright © 2002, Wolverine Software Corporation 

1.  INTRODUCTION (Be sure to read this.) 

What Is In The System Guide? 

The System Guide contains three kinds of information: 


Brief tutorial-style sections on how to install and run GPSS/H Professional, Personal GPSS/H and 

Student GPSS/H. 


A reference-style table describing options that you can specify when you run GPSS/H, in order to 

change the way your model will be compiled and/or executed. 


Reference-style sections with information that can be helpful if your GPSS/H model 

reads or writes files, or if you encounter memory shortages. 

How Much Do I Really Need To Read? 

Only the following is essential: 


Check Section 2 to make sure that your computer meets the minimum requirements 

for using GPSS/H. 


Read Sections 3 through 6; then install and try out the software. 


Glance at Table 1 just enough to get an idea of what it contains. You can come back 

to it later, as needed. 

Read other sections only if they apply to you: 


If your GPSS/H model will read or write data files while running, or interact with its user, 

read Section 7. 

Do I Need to Read Anything Else? 

Any “late-breaking news” not covered in this document will be described in a file named "readme.txt" file on the 

GPSS/H CDIf this file does not exist on the CD, you may assume that these instructions are up-to-date. 

If you have questions about the GPSS/H language, consult the GPSS/H Reference Manual. 



IBM-compatible computer with an 80486DX or higher CPU 


Windows 95/98, Windows ME, Windows NT4, Windows 2000, or Windows XP. 


Disk space: 3-20MB for GPSS/H and other software; 1-50 MB for user models. 


Parallel port or USB port (for plugging in a security key – not required for Student GPSS/H) 


GPSS/H System Guide 

Revised: 12/02 




3.1  Installation 

GPSS/H is distributed on a CD-ROMTo install GPSS/H, simply insert the CD-ROM into a CD-ROM drive on 

your computerUnless you have disabled the automatic recognition of CD insertion, Windows should 

automatically begin executing the software installation procedure on the CDIf the CD is not automatically 

recognized, you can manually run setup.exe, contained on the CD. 

The installation procedure for GPSS/H requires Microsoft’s Windows Installer, which is built into Windows 2000, 

Windows ME, and Windows XP, but not Windows 95/98 or Windows NTOn systems that do not have the 

Windows Installer, setup.exe will copy an appropriate version of the installer from the CD to the system’s hard 


The installation procedure will lead you through a sequence of dialogs, allowing you to specify which software 

components you’d like to install and where you’d like to place them on your computerBy default, files are 

placed into the folder named Program Files\Wolverine and into Wolverine-defined subfolders of that folderIf 

you wish to choose a different base folder, you may do so; however, you should not move, remove, or rename 

any subfolders created by the installation procedureThe folder architecture we have defined provides a 

convenient way of installing a variety of products from Wolverine Software. 

3.1.1  Security Keys 

GPSS/H Professional and Personal GPSS/H require the use of a security key (dongle) that plugs into a parallel 

or USB port on your computer.  Student GPSS/H does not require a security key.  As part of the installation 

process for the key-protected versions of GPSS/H, software drivers are installed to enable GPSS/H to access 

the key. 

To install GPSS/H Professional or Personal GPSS/H under Windows NT4, Windows 2000 or Windows 

XP, you need to be logged on with administrator privilegesIf you are installing GPSS/H Professional 

or Personal GPSS/H under either of these operating systems, and you do not have administrator 

privileges, you’ll have to get assistance from an authorized system administrator. 

3.1.2  USB Port Security Keys 

Wolverine provides two types of keys, one that plugs into your computer’s parallel port, and one the plugs into 

your computer’s USB (Universal Serial Bus) portUSB keys are available only for Run-Time GPSS/H.  In case 

you’ve never used a USB port, a brief description follows.  USB devices use a rectangular plug-and-socket 

arrangement, about the size of the end of your little fingerOur USB security keys have only a male plug and no 

female socketWith no provision for “pass-through,” a USB key must be plugged into its own USB socketIf all 

the USB sockets on your computer are in use, and you wish to use a USB key, you’ll have to buy a USB hub

USB hub allows you to connect multiple USB devices to a single USB socket on your computer. 

Do not plug in a USB security key until after the GPSS/H installation procedure has completed

If you plug a USB key in before the installation is completed, Windows will recognize that a new USB device has 

been connected, but it will have difficulty figuring out how to handle the new deviceIf you plug the key in after 

the software installation is complete, Windows will automatically recognize the security key and setup USB 

driver software for accessing it. 

3.2  Modifying, Repairing, and Removing GPSS/H 

The Windows Installer provides three actions that can be performed on installed software: Modify, Repair, and 


You can use the “Modify” action to add or delete software componentsFor example, we provide a demo of our 

Proof Animation software along with GPSS/HIf you elected not to install this demo when you installed GPSS/H, 

but later decided you’d like to take a look at it, you could use the “Modify” option. 

The “Repair” action causes Windows to replace any files that were originally installed but have become 



Revised: 12/02 

GPSS/H System Guide 

The “Remove” action removes all GPSS/H files that were installed. 

To modify, repair, or remove GPSS/H, click Start, Settings, Control Panel, Add/Remove Programs, and select 

GPSS/H from the list of programs that is displayedOnce you select GPSS/H, a dialog will appear, giving you 

the three options described above. 




4.1  Introduction 

GPSS/H operates as a Windows console-mode application and must be launched from a command lineThe 

installation procedure creates icons on your desktop for initiating command prompt sessions for the version(s) 

of GPSS/H you install, and it places a shortcut in the Programs\Wolverine folderWhen you click on the icon or 

invoke the shortcut in the Programs menu, a command prompt session is initiatedTo invoke GPSS/H, you 

must issue commands (described in Section 5.3). 

The shortcuts created by the installation procedure initiate windowed GPSS/H command prompt sessions.  

Under Windows 2000 and Windows XP, you can modify the width and height of the command prompt window 

from its default 80 x 25 size.  We strongly recommend that you do so, since a larger window will reduce the 

need to scroll debugger/output windows. 

If you change the size of the command prompt window, set the scrolling region to be the same size as 

the window itself.  Otherwise, confusing “double scrolling” will result.  (GPSS/H provides its own 

scrolling via function keys, described in Table 2.  If you make the scrolling region smaller than the 

window’s size, Windows will provide scroll bars.) 

4.2  Memory Usage 

GPSS/H automatically uses virtual memory, which uses a swapfile on disk to simulate additional physical 

("real") memory, if needed, at some potential cost in execution speed. This means that the maximum memory 

available to GPSS/H depends on both the amount of physical memory installed and the size of the Windows 

swapfile, and can exceed the amount of physical memory installed on your computer. Approximately 700KB of 

virtual memory is needed to hold GPSS/H itself; memory required by your GPSS/H model is in addition to that 


Under Windows, the amount of memory available to GPSS/H can sometimes differ dramatically from run to run 

when other software is executing at the same time. This is inherent in the nature of the operating system itself, 

and is not specific to GPSS/H. 

GPSS/H’s memstats option can provide helpful information on memory usage.  

If you need very large amounts of memory to run your models, try to meet as much of the need as possible by 

installing more physical memory (to maintain performance). You may also need to make your Windows 

swapfile(s) larger. Information on how to set up and modify swapfiles can be found in your Windows 



5.1  Managing Multiple Projects 

To manage a multiplicity of simulation projects, you should create separate folders for each projectYou can 

create these folders as subfolders of Wolverine/GPSSH or place them anywhere you wishGPSS/H models, 

data files, and so on for each project can be stored in the project folder. To work on a project, simply execute 

one or more "


" commands, as necessary, to make the project directory your current directory, and then run 

GPSS/H by issuing commands, as described in Section 5.3. 


GPSS/H System Guide 

Revised: 12/02 

5.2  Overview 

GPSS/H compiles and executes user-created GPSS/H models. GPSS/H models are ASCII text files that are 

created with a text-editor or word-processor. The files are made up of GPSS/H Control Statements, Block 

Statements, and comments. When you run GPSS/H, you will supply the name of the file containing the model 

that you want GPSS/H to compile and execute. You may also specify the names of options that change the way 

in which your model is compiled and/or executed. 

5.3  Creating GPSS/H Model Files and Compiling & Executing Them 

In order to use GPSS/H for your models, you must do the following: 

A.  Enter the GPSS/H model into a plain (ASCII) text file using any convenient editor. (The Windows 

NotePad or WordPad applets will work fine for this purpose with small- to medium-sized files.) If you 

do not have an editor on your computer, but you do have a word-processing program, you can use the 

word-processing program as an editor as long as it can save files in "text only" format. 

Be sure to save a word-processed model as "text only."   Beware that some editors may insist 

on appending a “.txt” file extension to all files saved as text filesFor example, the first time 

you save a file under WordPad, if you try to save it as “myfile.gps”, WordPad will save it as 

“myfile.gps.txt”If this happens, you can rename the file to the desired “myfile.gps” and 

reopen it with WordPadWordPad does not append “.txt” extensions to pre-existing files, so 

the “double extension” problem occurs only on the first attempt to save a new file. 

Earlier versions of GPSS/H required that models be entered in UPPER CASE LETTERSThe 

latest versions of GPSS/H no longer impose this restriction; however, you must be consistent 

in your use of user-defined names.  “Joe”, “joe”, and “JOE” are different names. 

GPSS/H, like other implementations of GPSS/H, assumes that 132 columns of screen and printer 

width are available. When GPSS/H is running in "test" (interactive) mode, left-right scrolling is 

implemented using the "<–" and "–>" keys, so that you can examine all 132 columns of output. We 

recommend using an editor that supports 132 columns (either through left-right scrolling or through 

extended video modes) for viewing listing (".


") files, and using a printer that supports 132 columns 

for printing them. 

B.  Compile and execute the model under GPSS/H Professional by using the hpro


command. The format 

of the hpro


command is as follows: 

hpro filename [options...] 

In the above, filename is the name of the file containing the GPSS/H model. If a file extension is 

specified as part of filename (e.g., 


), it is used by GPSS/H; if no file extension is 

specified, GPSS/H will assume a file extension of ".



[options...] represents a sequence of zero or more keywords (option names) that change the way 

GPSS/H compiles and/or executes a model. A complete list of all options available under 

GPSS/H is given in Table 1. If any options are specified, they are processed one at a time in left-to-

right sequence. 

If no options are specified, all "standard" model output is placed in a listing file with the same 

name as the model file, but with a file extension of ".lis". The file is created in the directory that 

contains the model source file. If the 


 option of the GPSS/H command is used, "standard" 

model output is directed to the screen and no listing file is created; 


 and the other options of the 



command are described in detail in Table 1. 

To compile and execute a model under Personal GPSS/H, type hpers32, rather than hpro. Other than 

the command name, the format of the hpers32 command is identical to that of the hpro command, 

described above 


To compile and execute a model under Student GPSS/H, type gpssh, rather than hpro. Other than the 

command name, the format of the gpssh command is identical to that of the hpro command, 

described above 


Revised: 12/02 

GPSS/H System Guide 

GPSS/H contains a very powerful and easy-to-use interactive debugger. You will want to use this debugger 

as you develop and test your models. You can learn it, as needed and at your own pace, by consulting Chapter 

11 of the GPSS/H Reference Manual. 

5.4  Command Line Examples 

The following examples illustrate how to run a model by using the hpro


command in combination with several 

common optionsRemember, if you’re using Personal GPSS/H, type hpers32, rather than hpro, and if you’re 

using Student GPSS/H, type gpssh, rather than hpro

hpro myprog 

(Source, dictionary, and cross-reference listings and model output are placed in a file named 


hpro myprog type 

(Source, dictionary, and cross-reference listings are suppressed. Model output appears directly on the 

screen. No listing file is created.) 

hpro myprog tvtnw 



" is an abbreviation for "

tv type nowarn

". This combination of three options is handy for 

making quick debugging or model-checkout runs. Source, dictionary, and cross-reference listings are 

suppressed. Compile-time warning messages are suppressed. Model output appears directly on the 

screen. No listing file is created. At the point at which execution ordinarily would begin, the interactive 

debugging system assumes control, and a 


 message is displayed on the screen. The 

debugger will operate in "windowed mode", with model source code displayed.) 

hpro myprog nos nodict noxref nowarn 

(Source, dictionary, and cross-reference listings are suppressed. Model output is placed in a file 



. If any compilation warning messages are issued, they are placed only in the 



 and are not echoed on the screen.) 

hpro myprog test type source dict xref 

(Source, dictionary, and cross-reference listings and all model output appear directly on the screen. 




, and 


 options are needed because the 


 option, which has already been 

processed, causes suppression of these listings. At the point at which execution ordinarily would 

begin, the interactive debugging system assumes control, and a 


 message is displayed on the 



When GPSS/H is running, model execution can be interrupted at any point by typing CTRL-BREAK (holding 

down the CTRL key while simultaneously pressing the BREAK key). GPSS/H will acknowledge the CTRL-

BREAK interrupt by displaying an "


" message on your screen, followed by a ": " prompt. The 



" message will be preceded by an "

Unplanned entry to DEBUG

" message if neither the 


 nor the 


 option was specified when GPSS/H was started. In either case, you can proceed with model 

execution under the GPSS/H interactive debugger, as described in Chapter 11 of the GPSS/H Reference 


CTRL-BREAK can also be used to terminate most forms of GPSS/H output. For example, if the interactive 

debugging command "

display cec

" (Current Events Chain) produces output on more Transactions than 

needed, the output can be terminated by typing CTRL-BREAK. GPSS/H will respond with an "



" message, followed by an "


" message. At that point, you can get the information on 

the specific Transactions of interest using other debugging commands.  

The SCROLL LOCK key can sometimes be used as an alternative to CTRL-BREAK within the debugger. By 

hitting the SCROLL LOCK key, you can freeze the scrolling of output on the screen. Once you have looked at 

the section of output on the screen, you can resume scrolling by hitting the SCROLL LOCK key again. 


GPSS/H System Guide 

Revised: 12/02 


7.1  User Interaction 

GPSS/H has built-in facilities that allow a running model to write text to the screen, or read from the keyboard: 


The GPSS/H language provides for routing model output to the screen by using an extended 

I/O statement with 


, or with no 


 operand (


 is the default). Before 

GPSS/H Release 3, the special name 


 was used in place of 



The GPSS/H language provides for a model to accept input from the keyboard by using an 

extended I/O statement with 


, or with no 


 operand (


 is the default). 

Before GPSS/H Release 3, the special name 


 was used in place of 


7.2  File Access 

If you want a GPSS/H model to read or write data files while running, you may need to take special steps so that 

GPSS/H can access or create the appropriate file(s): 


The GPSS/H language provides for routing model output to the listing (".


") file by using an 

extended I/O statement with 


. Note that if a model using such a statement is run with 



 option of the command used to invoke GPSS/H, the output that would normally go into the 

listing file will be written to the screen instead. Before GPSS/H release 3, the special name 



was used in place of 



A model can also perform input from, or output to, a user-defined disk file. This is accomplished by 

using a GPSS/H extended I/O statement in which the 


 operand uses a GPSS/H filename other 




, or 







 before GPSS/H Release 3). 

No further action is needed if GPSS/H can use the 


 operand directly as the name of a disk file 

in the user's current directory. This will work if the name of the file has no extension (does not contain 

a period), and either exists, or will be created, in the directory in which the user is positioned when 

GPSS/H is invoked. For example, if an extended I/O statement specified "


", GPSS/H 

would look for or create a file named 


 in the directory from which GPSS/H is started. 

If the file has a name that includes an extension, or requires specification of a pathname, then a 



 Control Statement (or an equivalent 


 Block) must be used. These allow 

you to equate a GPSS/H internal file name, which cannot contain special characters such as periods, 

to the actual text string that should be passed to the operating system when GPSS/H attempts to 

open or create the file. Please see Table 5.2 (BFILEDEF Block) and Section 6.15 (FILEDEF Control 

Statement) of the GPSS/H Reference Manual for more information. 


Although the GPSS/H language has no internal limits on how many files can be in use at the same 

time in a model, such limits may be imposed by the operating system 


GPSS/H keeps to a minimum the number of “system” files open when models are running. The only 

GPSS/H system files that can be open are: 

The error message file 

(always open) 

The listing (".


") file 

(open unless the 


 option was used) 

The debugger 

(opened on the first 



checkpoint file 

deleted when GPSS/H exits) 




(opened when the first 


statement executes; 

statement checkpoint file 

deleted when GPSS/H exits) 


Revised: 12/02 

GPSS/H System Guide 

Table 1: GPSS/H Command Line Options 















The DICT option causes printing of a dictionary of all GPSS/H 

entities used in a model. The dictionary is grouped by entity class 

and sorted by entity number within each class. It is useful for 

distinguishing which entity names and/or numbers have been used 

in a model and which are still available for use. 

The NODICT option can be used to suppress printing of the entity 


DICT is the default, unless the TYPE option is used, in which case 

NODICT becomes the default.







The ERR option causes compilation error messages to be typed 

on your screen when the model compilation listing is directed to a 

destination other than the screen. The NOERR option can be used 

to suppress the typing of compilation error messages on the 

screen under these circumstances.






The MAKEOBH option causes GPSS/H Professional to compile a 

model and write out an "object" file (primarily for use with Runtime 

GPSS/H). The filename of the "object" file is the same as the 

source file, except that the file type is ".


". When this option is 

specified, the model is not executed. If you want to run the model 

with GPSS/H Professional, you must use a command of the form: 


hpro fname.obh


where the name of the file to be run explicitly contains the ".



NOTE: If you want to run an ".


" file using TV-mode debugging 

with source code displayed, you must specify the TV (or TVTNW) 

option along with the MAKEOBH option when the model is 

compiled. Otherwise, the Block source code will not be included in 

the ".


" file.






The MEMSTATS option causes information on memory available 

to GPSS/H, memory used by GPSS/H, and model size to be 

included in standard output.






The NOSIM option produces the same effect as commenting-out a 

model's SIMULATE statement. This causes GPSS/H to compile a 

model and prepare it for execution, then stop without actually 

executing it. 

The NOSIM option is a convenient way to produce a GPSS/H 

compiler listing of a model, or to ensure that your computer has 

enough memory to satisfy a model's requirements without having 

to halt the running model and terminate the run.



GPSS/H System Guide 

Revised: 12/02 





(But QUIET for 




This option is provided so that a "canned" model can be run, under 

the control of a batch file or user-provided "front-end" program, 

without the person running the model being aware that GPSS/H is 

running. The QUIET option causes GPSS/H not to write any of its 

own output to the screen during execution, unless a severe error 

occurs. All output is written to the listing (".


") file instead. Any 

user-specified output to FILE=SCREEN  will be written to the 

screen, but using DOS-style standard output instead of direct 

writes to video memory. This means that user-specified output can 

be redirected to a file, if desired, using standard DOS redirection 







NOTE: Although 

supported, the 

SIZE= option is 



You should use a 


statement if you 

need to override 

the SIZE=A default.




The SIZE option establishes a default value for the number of 

members of each GPSS/H entity class that will be available when 

a model is run. The compiler may alter these values, based on 

what it "sees" as it compiles the model. For example, if it sees that 

no entities of a given class are referenced, it will not provide any 

entities of that class to the model, thus  saving memory. The 

compiler can also provide more than the default number of entities 

for a given class. For example, if the compiler encounters a 

reference to Facility number 350, it will guarantee that at least 350 

Facilities are provided for model execution. For a complete 

explanation, see Section 3.5 of Chapter 3 in the GPSS/H 

Reference Manual. 

The number of members of each entity class implied by SIZE=A, 

SIZE=B, and SIZE=C is summarized in Table 6.1 of the GPSS/H 

Reference Manual. 

In many cases, the compiler cannot tell how many members of a 

given entity class are required. For example, if a model contains a 

"SEIZE PH(NUM)" Block, the number of Facilities required cannot 

be determined at compile time, because the values of PH(NUM) 

are not known. For entity classes so referenced, the compiler has 

no alternative but to use the number of members implied by the 

SIZE option. If the number of members implied by the SIZE option 

is inadequate, you must supply one or more REALLOCATE control 

statements, to override the default number.  Use of the 

REALLOCATE statement is strongly recommended in place 

of the obsolete "SIZE=" option. 

The REALLOCATE statement is described in Section 6.39 of 

Chapter 6 of the GPSS/H Reference Manual.







TYPE is used)


If the SOURCE option is used, a source listing of the model is 

included in model output. The SOURCE option is assumed unless 

the TYPE option is used to provide direct screen output. NOS can 

be used to override a (default) SOURCE option.



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GPSS/H System Guide 





The TEST option is used to invoke the GPSS/H interactive 

debugging system. When the TEST option is used, compilation 

and loading of a model proceed in the usual fashion; however, at 

the point at which model execution would normally begin, control is 

passed to the GPSS/H interactive debugging processor, which 

displays a 


 message on your screen. At that point, you 

assume control of model execution. You can then issue 

commands to selectively display model output, to stop model 

execution at arbitrarily specified Blocks (breakpoints), and, if 

necessary, to step through a model, one or more Blocks at a time. 

See Chapter 11 of the GPSS/H Reference Manual for details of 

how to use the interactive debugger.






TTNW is a convenient abbreviation for TEST TYPE NOWARN.






TV is an acronym for Test Video. This is the three-window 

debugging mode with source-code display. See Chapter 11 of the 

GPSS/H Reference Manual for information on specific features of 

TV mode.  See Table 2 for TV mode function key usage.






TVTNW is a convenient abbreviation for TV TYPE NOWARN. It is 

especially useful for quickly making repeated short debugging runs 

of a model: no time is consumed creating a listing file, compile-

time warning messages are suppressed, source-code is available 

on screen, and GPSS/H Error and Warning messages will be 

forced to the screen (where they’re harder to miss).






The TYPE option causes all standard model output to be displayed 

directly on your screen. No listing (".


") file is created. When the 

TYPE option is used, the NOS, NODICT, and NOXREF options 

are assumed. These assumptions can be overridden by placing 

the SOURCE, DICT, and XREF options, respectively, to the right 

of the TYPE option.







The WARN option causes compilation warning messages to be 

displayed on your screen when the model compilation listing is 

directed to a destination other than the screen. The NOWARN 

option can be used to suppress the display of compilation warning 

messages on the screen under these circumstances.







TYPE used)


The XREF option causes a cross-reference listing of all entity 

symbols and constants to be included in model output. The 

NOXREF option can be used to suppress cross-reference output. 

XREF is the default, except when the TYPE option is used.






By default, a cross-reference listing is grouped into entity classes 

and sorted by entity name/number within each class. Use of the 

XSORT=A option suppresses the grouping of a cross-reference 

listing into entity classes; i.e., the entire collection of entity 

names/numbers is sorted and printed without regard to entity 


This is very useful for finding unintentional name 





GPSS/H System Guide 

Revised: 12/02 





The XWF option causes conditions which would normally result 

merely in the issuance of an execution warning message to be 

treated as fatal errors. For example, an attempt to store a value 

greater than 32767 into a halfword location ordinarily results in 

issuance of a warning message, and execution is continued by 

storing a truncated value. In a very large model, this action could 

result in a lengthy run producing meaningless results. Use of the 

XWF option prevents such problems. 


Table 2: GPSS/H TV Mode Predefined Function Keys 


Home Key 

Scroll output window to the top. 

End Key 

Scroll output window to the bottom. 



Scroll output window up ½ page. 



Scroll output window down ½ page. 


Scroll output window up one line. 


Scroll output window down one line. 


Scroll output window right 20 columns. 


Scroll output window left 20 columns. 


Enter full-screen output mode. 


Enter windowed (debugger) output mode 


Scroll source window up. 


Scroll source window down. 


Scroll source window left. 


Scroll source window right. 


“Step 1” command 



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