Guru Nanak Dev : Life and teaching of Guru Nanak, Concept of Langer; Sangat;Guru Gaddi; His views on Position of Women. Expansion and Consolidation of Sikhism



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  • UNIT-1

  • 1. Guru Nanak Dev : Life and teaching

  • of Guru Nanak, Concept of Langer; Sangat;Guru Gaddi; His views on Position of Women.

  • 2. Expansion and Consolidation of Sikhism: Contribution of Guru Angad; Guru Amar Das and Guru Ram Das.

  • 3. Guru Arjun Dev: His Contribution to the Panth; Compilation of the Adi Granth; causes and significance of the martyrdom of Guru Arjun Dev.



4. Development of Sikhism :

  • 4. Development of Sikhism :

  • Guru Hargovind’s new policy and its justification; martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur and its significance.

  • 5. Creation of Khalsa :

  • Circumstances leading to the creation of Khalsa and its significance, the new injunctions and symbols of the Khalsa; post-Khalsa activities of Guru Govind Singh.

  • 6. Banda Singh Bahadur:

  • Establishment of Independent rule; his achievements; socio-economic trasformation.



  • 7. Punjab under Ranjit Singh :

  • Civil and military administration; land revenue system; Anglo-Sikh relations upto 1839.

  • 8. British Rule :

  • Circumstances leading to the annexation to the

  • Punjab; British administration structure.

  • 9. Socio-religious reform movements :

  • Namdharis; Singh Sabha; Arya Samaj.



10. The Phases of Freedom Struggle :

  • 10. The Phases of Freedom Struggle :

  • Agitation of 1907; the Ghadar Movement; the Jalianwala Bagh; the Gurudwara reform movement; circumstances leading to the partition of the Punjab.

  • 11. Developments after Independence :

  • Rehabilitation and resettlement after partition; Punjabi Suba Movement; the Reorganization Act of 1966; agrarian changes with special reference to Green revolution.

  • 12. Map : (a) Important Historical places :-

  • Amritsar, Anandpur Sahib, Chamkaur Sahib,

  • Kiratpur, Paonta Sahib, Sirhind,

  • Muktsar, Tarn Taran, Lahore,

  • Machhiwara, Ropar Kapurthala,

  • (b) Battles of Banda Bahadur.

  • (c) Ranjit Singh’s Kingdom.



Birth and Parentage

  • Birth and Parentage

  • Boyhood and education

  • In Various Occupation

  • Marriage

  • Service in Sultanpur

  • Enlightenment

  • Travels or Udasis

  • Settlement at Kartarpur

  • Appointment of Successor

  • Death



Cancept of God

  • Cancept of God

  • The Unity of God

  • God is Formless

  • Greatness and Transcendence of God

  • God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent

  • Significance of Divine Order

  • God’s Grace

  • Self-Surrender

  • Worship of Name

  • Greatness of ‘Shabad’ or Word

  • Necessity of Guru

  • No Belief in Asceticism

  • Transmigration and Karma Theory

  • Universal Brotherhood

  • Denunciation of Caste System

  • Condemnation of Empty Rituals

  • Morality and Social Service

  • Emphasis on Honest Earning

  • NoBelief in the Sanctity or Sanskrit Language

  • Uplift of Women

  • Sach Khand



Concept of Langar

  • Concept of Langar

  • Concept of Sangat

  • Concept of Guru-Gaddi

  • Position of Women



Popularization of Gurumukhi among the Sikhs

  • Popularization of Gurumukhi among the Sikhs

  • Collection of Guru Nanak’s Hymns

  • Compilation of Janamsakhi – A Controversial Issue

  • Institution of Langar

  • Condemnation of Udasis

  • Discipline in sikh Church

  • Institution of Sangat

  • Composition of Shabads

  • Foundation of Goindwal

  • Appointment of Successor



Construction of Baoli at Goindwal

  • Construction of Baoli at Goindwal

  • Elaboration of Langar Institution

  • Collection and Compilation of Hymns

  • Manji System

  • Separation of the Sikhs from Udasis

  • Social Reforms

  • Repudiation of Caste-distinction and Untouchbility

  • Prohibition of Sati

  • Prohibition of Pardah System

  • Prohibition of Intoxicants

  • New Place of Pilgrimage

  • New Mode of celebrating Festivals

  • Simplification of Death,Marriage and Birth Ceremonies

  • Akbar’s Visit to Goindwal

  • Appointment of Successor



Foundation of Ramdaspura or Amritsar

  • Foundation of Ramdaspura or Amritsar

  • Introduction of Masand System

  • Reconciliation between the Sikhs and the Udasis

  • Other Measures of Propaganda and Consolidation

  • Guru Ram Das’s Friendly Relations with Akbar

  • Appointemt of Successor-

  • Guruship becomes Hereditary



Construction of Harimandir in Amritsar

  • Construction of Harimandir in Amritsar

  • Foundation of Tarn Taran

  • Foundetion of Kartarpur and Hargovindpur

  • Construction of Baoli at Lahore

  • Organisation and Development of Masand System

  • Compilation of Adi Granth

  • Encouragement of Horse Trade

  • Social Reforms

  • Vigorous Preaching of Sikhism

  • Guru Arjun’s Friendly Relations with Akbar

  • Self-sacrifice for Sikhism



Need of the Compilation of Holy Granth

  • Need of the Compilation of Holy Granth

  • Collection of Material

  • Work of Compilation of the Adi Granth

  • Contributors of Adi Granth

  • (i) Sikh Gurus(ii) Hindu Bhakats and

  • Muslim Sufis (iii) Bhats (iv) Minstrels

  • 5. Arrangement of the Material

  • 6. Contents

  • 7. Language

  • 8. Importance of Adi Granth

  • (i) Sikhs get their Holy Scripture

  • (ii) Availability of the True Vani of the Gurus

  • (iii) Independent Entity of Sikhism

  • (iv) A Great Book of Synthesis

  • (v) Literary Importance of Adi Granth

  • (vi) Historical Importance of Adi Granth

  • (a) About the Political Condition

  • (b) About the Social Condition

  • (c) About the Religious Condition

  • (d) About the Economic Condition

  • (e) About the State of Music

  • (f) About Language and Literature



Religious Bigotry of Jahagir

  • Religious Bigotry of Jahagir

  • Organization and Development of the Sikh Panth

  • Incitement of jahangir by the Naqshabandis

  • Animosity of Chandu Shah

  • Hostility of Prithia

  • Compilation of Adi Granth

  • Khusro’s Revolt-An Immediate Cause

  • Significance of Guru Arjun’s Martyrdom

  • Transformation of Sikhism

  • Hostile Sikh-Mughal Relations

  • Chapter of Persecution of the Sikhs Opened

  • The Sikh Church Gained Unity and Strength

  • Impact on the Future of Sikh History



Ideology of Sikhism

  • Ideology of Sikhism

  • Development of Sikhism before Guru Hargobind

  • Mughal Government’s Policy of Religious Intolerance

  • Martyrdom of Guru Arjun Dev

  • Parting Message of Guru Arjun Dev

  • Contribution of Jats

  • Features of the new Policy



Wearing of two Swords- ‘Miri & Piri’

  • Wearing of two Swords- ‘Miri & Piri’

  • Adoption of Symbols of Royalty

  • Offerings of Arms and Horses to the Guru

  • Organization of Army

  • Change in the Daily Life of the Guru

  • Construction of Akal Takht

  • Fortification of Amritsar



Sikh’s Misunderstandings about the New Policy

  • Sikh’s Misunderstandings about the New Policy

  • New Policy- Justified by Circumstances

  • Performance of Religious Duties by the Guru

  • New Policy-not Entircly New

  • Impact of the New Policy



1. Previous Hostility between the Sikhs and the Mughals

  • 1. Previous Hostility between the Sikhs and the Mughals

  • 2. Fanaticism of Aurangzeb

  • 3. Influence of the Naqshabandis on AurangZeb

  • 4. The Guru’s Travels for preaching Sikhism

  • 5. Alleged Political and Military Activities of the Guru

  • 6. Hostility of Dhir Mal and Ram Rai

  • 7. Persecution of Kashmiri Pandits

  • Arrest and Martyrdom of the Guru



An Unparalleled Event of History

  • An Unparalleled Event of History

  • Tradition of Sacrifice for Religion

  • Feelings of Indignation and Revenge in the Punjab

  • Hinduism was Saved

  • Foundation of Khalsa

  • Warfare between the Sikhs and the Mughals



1.Measures for the Development of Sikhism by the previous nine Gurus

  • 1.Measures for the Development of Sikhism by the previous nine Gurus

  • 2. Auranzeb’s Atrocities upon the Hindus and Martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur

  • 3. Weekness and Cowardice of the Hindus

  • 4. Unreliable Hill Rajas

  • 5. Shackles of Caste

  • 6. Dissenting Sects within Sikhism

  • 7. Decadence of Masand System

  • 8. Influence of the Sikh Jats

  • 9. Mission of the Guru’s Life



Logical Completion of Work begun by Guru Nanak

  • Logical Completion of Work begun by Guru Nanak

  • End of Masand System

  • Increasing Importance of the Khalsa Sangats

  • Increase in the number of the Sikhs

  • Infusion of New Spirit among the Sikhs

  • Uplift of Down-trodden People

  • Increasing Importance of Jats in the Sikh Community

  • Successful Resistance of the Mughals

  • Warfare between the Guru and the Hill Rajas

  • Seprate and Independent Entity of Sikh Community

  • Democratic Elements in Sikhism

  • Rise of Political Power of the Sikhs



Religious Zeal of Sikhs

  • Religious Zeal of Sikhs

  • Mughal tyranny

  • Leadership of Banda Bahadur

  • Help of Sikhs & Sikh Leaders

  • Administration of Banda Bahadur

  • Business of Mughal Army in Internal wars



Limited Resorrces of Banda

  • Limited Resorrces of Banda

  • Strength of the Mughal Empire

  • Opposition of the Hindu Rulers

  • Rift among the Sikhs

  • Kingly Ways

  • Ill-will of the people of Punjab

  • Sudden Attack of the Imperial forces

  • Desertion of Baba Vinod Singh







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