Hwf #4: War for independence work must be on the tabs of your homework folder for any credit

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_____________, ____________

(last) (first)

HUS History--Period 1

Due: ____________ ___, 20___


  • Work MUST be on the tabs of your homework folder for any credit

  • Late work will be penalized 10 points per day

  • Follow the directions for each part EXACTLY as written in BLACK INK.

  • Bring a RED pen to class on the due date for corrections

Select the letters of the term, name, or phrase that best completes the statement. Write the letter in the blank within the statement.

A. Stamp Act D. Samuel Adams G. Boston Tea Party

B. martial law E. Intolerable Acts H. Boston Massacre

C. King George III F. Townshend Acts I. committees of correspondence

1. In 1765, Parliament passes the ___, requiring colonists to pay a direct tax on a variety of printed items.

2. In 1765, ___ helps to found the Sons of Liberty, a secret resistance group.

3. In 1766, colonists react with rage and well-organized resistance to the ___, a package of revenue laws imposing taxes on imports of glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea.

4. In 1770, tensions rise between Britain and the colonies when the ___ leaves Crispus Attucks and four others dead.

5. In 1772, the assemblies of Massachusetts and Virginia set up ___ to communicate with other colonies about British threats to colonists' liberties.

6. In 1773, Colonists stage the ___ to send a forceful message to Britain communicating their feelings about the Tea Act.

7. In 1774, ___, the royal head of England urges Parliament to take quick action to punish Massachusetts.

8. In 1774, Parliament passes what the colonists call the ___, a series of measures that, among other things, shut down Boston Harbor and authorize British commanders to house soldiers in private homes.

9. In 1774, to keep the peace, General Thomas Gage places Boston under ___.

10. In 1774, the ___ rally around the colonists of Boston, quickly moving into action and assembling the First Continental Congress.

Select the letter of the term, name, or phrase that best matches each description and write the letter on the blank in front of the statement number. Note: Some letters may not be used at all. Some may be used more than once.

A. Patriots C. Common Sense E. Declaration of Independence

B. Loyalists D. Olive Branch Petition F. Second Continental Congress

_____ 11. It was written by Thomas Paine.

_____ 12. It was written by Thomas Jefferson.

_____ 13. It was the document that announced that people have unalienable rights to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."

_____ 14. It was the document that urged King George to consider a return to "the former harmony" between Britain and the colonies.

_____ 15. It declared American independence on July 2, 1776 and adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.

_____ 16. It recognized the Minutemen as the Continental Army, appointed George Washington as the army's commander, and authorized the printing of paper money to pay its troops.

_____ 17. After reading it, King George issued a proclamation stating that the colonies were in rebellion and urging Parliament to order a naval blockade of the American coast.

_____ 18. It was the group of colonists who supported Britain during the Revolution.

_____ 19. It was the group of colonists who sided with the views of Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Thomas Jefferson.

_____ 20. Its members signed their names to the following vow: "We mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our Sacred Honor."

A. Trenton D. New York F. Philadelphia

B. inflation E. profiteering G. Valley Forge

C. Saratoga

_____ 21. This is the site of the Continental Army's camp during the winter of 1777-1778.

_____ 22. This is what resulted when Congress printed more and more money.

_____ 23. This victory for the colonists dramatically changed Britain's war strategy.

_____ 24. British troops occupied this city in the winter of 1777-1778 while Washington and his troops camped in the woods.

_____ 25. After withdrawing from Boston in 1776, the British tried to isolate New England by seizing this city.

_____ 26. This is where, on Christmas night in 1776, George Washington led 2,400 men in rowboats across an ice-choked river.

_____ 27. This is what corrupt government officials engaged in when they sold scarce goods for very high prices during the Revolutionary War.

If the statement is true, write "true" on the line. If it is false, change the underlined word or words to make it true. Do NOT write “false” as an answer!

_________________ 28. Marquis de Lafayette, a talented drillmaster, transformed the Continental Army during the winter at Valley Forge by teaching the soldiers how to execute field maneuvers, fire and reload quickly, and wield bayonets.

_________________ 29. Friedrich von Steuben aided the American cause by joining George Washington's staff, leading a command in Virginia, and suggesting the military strategy that resulted in the surrender of the British Army.

_________________ 30. On October 17, 1781, British General Charles Cornwallis raised the white flag of surrender, bringing an end to the siege of Philadelphia as well as to the war.

_________________ 31. The treaty that confirmed U.S. independence in 1783 was called the Treaty of Paris because it was written and signed in Paris, France.

_________________ 32. Egalitarianism is a belief that all people are basically good.

Using the map, choose the letter of the best answer.

_____ 33. Whose army had troops the farthest west?

A. France B. Germany C. America D. Britain

_____ 34. Which body of water is west of the Chesapeake Bay?

A. James River B. York River C. Mississippi River D. Atlantic Ocean

_____ 35. Which state borders Virginia to the south?

A. North Carolina B. Maryland C. South Carolina D. Georgia

_____ 36. British naval reinforcements would be expected to travel through which body of water to reach Yorktown?

A. York River B. James River C. Chesapeake Bay D. Mississippi River

_____ 37. How did the United States win the battle of Yorktown without a naval presence?

A. Ships were not involved in the battle. C. U.S. troops had superior muskets.

B. The British surrendered without a fight. D. The United States relied on French ships.

Document-Based Questions

Historical Context: The communication of information during a war is always essential. During the Revolutionary War, information was conveyed for various purposes and by various methods.

Task: Study each document carefully and answer the question about it by completing the statements using the documents and your knowledge from reading about the American Revolution.

Whereas many of our subjects in divers parts of our Colonies and Plantations in North America, misled by dangerous and ill designing men, and forgetting the allegiance which they owe to the power that has protected and supported them; after various disorderly acts committed in disturbance of the publick peace, to the obstruction of lawful commerce, and to the oppression of our loyal subjects carrying on the same; have at length proceeded to open and avowed rebellion, by arraying themselves in a hostile manner, to withstand the execution of the law, and traitorously preparing, ordering and levying war against us: And whereas, there is reason to apprehend that such rebellion hath been much promoted and encouraged by the traitorous correspondence, counsels and comfort of divers wicked and desperate persons within this realm:

To the end therefore, that none of our subjects may neglect or violate their duty through ignorance thereof, or through any doubt of the protection which the law will afford to their loyalty and zeal, we have thought fit, by and with the advice of our Privy Council, to issue our Royal Proclamation, hereby declaring, that not only all our Officers, civil and military, are obliged to exert their utmost endeavours to suppress such rebellion, and to bring the traitors to justice, but that all our subjects of this Realm, and the dominions thereunto belonging, are bound by law to be aiding and assisting in the suppression of such rebellion, and to disclose and make known all traitorous conspiracies and attempts against us, our crown and dignity. . . .

GOD save the KING.

38. How does the king characterize the American colonists who have resisted his laws?

Answer: George III describes them as dangerous, ill designing, d____________, unlawful, hostile, rebellious, t____________, wicked, and desperate.

New Windsor June 27th, 1779
Your letter of yesterday came safe to my hand, and by . . . the bearer of it I send you Ten guineas for C-r. -His successor (whose name I have no desire to be informed of provided his intelligence is good, & seasonably transmitted) should endeavor . . . upon some certain mode of conveying his information quickly, for it is of little avail to be told of things after they have become matter of public notoriety, and known to every body. - This new agent should communicate his signature and the private marks by which genuine papers are to be distinguished from counterfeits. - There is a man on York Island living on or near the North River, of the name of George Higday who I am told hath given signal proofs of his attachment to us, & at the same time stands well with the enemy. - If upon inquiry this is found to be the case (and much caution should be used in investigating the matter, as well as on his own account as on that of Higday) he will be a fit instrument to convey intelligence to me while I am on the west side of the North River, as he is enterprising and connected with people in Bergen County who will assist in forming a chain to me, in any manner they shall agree on. . . .

39. Why does Washington use the code "C-r"?

Answer: Washington is concerned that his letter might end up in the hands of the enemy, so he uses the code to protect the identity of the s____________.

40. For how long might the fighting in the colonies have continued after the peace had officially gone into effect?

Answer: Because fighting was to c___________ on March 20, 1783, but this notice was not published until March 25, 1783, fighting might have continued for ___ days or more after the peace was reached and the news reached the armies.
41. What similarities exist between the forms of communication used in the 1770s and 1780s and those used today? How is communication different today? Complete the summation below in response to these questions, citing evidence and examples from the three documents.

  • In both eras, people have relied on n_______________ to provide accurate and timely information (Document 3).

  • Both then and now, consumers must be careful to analyze information for bias and p_______________ (Document 1).

  • Encrypted electronic messages would likely replace handwritten letters, especially for sensitive m_______________ information (Document 2).

  • Although newspapers are still an important source, there are now many other methods of conveying news, such as t_______________, radio, telephone, and computers.

  • The public today has more instant access to a greater amount of i_______________ than ever before.

Answer the following four questions by writing the thesis statement (main idea) of an essay and completing the pre-writing graphic organizer for each. The summation will help you do both tasks. You are NOT writing an essay, yet.

42. Compare the Stamp Act with the Intolerable Acts. Consider what each called for, Britain's reasons for passing each, and how the colonists responded to each.

The Stamp Act:

  • required colonists to buy special stamped paper when purchasing certain printed items

  • to gain revenue from the colonies

  • finance debts from the French and Indian War


  • organized the Sons of Liberty

  • harassed customs workers and stamp agents

  • passed anti-Stamp Act resolutions

  • held the Stamp Act Congress

  • wrote the Declaration of Rights and Grievances

  • began boycotting British goods

The Intolerable Acts

  • shut down Boston Harbor

  • authorized British commanders to house soldiers in private homes

In response

  • pulled together to support the protests in Massachusetts

  • held the First Continental Congress

  • stepped up military preparations for war

Thesis Statement (main idea of an essay answer): _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
43. Explain the roles played by the following documents during the struggle for American independence: the Olive Branch Petition, Common Sense, and the Declaration of Independence.

The Olive Branch Petition

  • last, desperate attempt by the colonists to reconcile with Britain

  • King George's rejection of the Olive Branch Petition undoubtedly helped to convince many colonists that efforts to reconcile were hopeless

  • the king was bent on punishing the colonists.

Common Sense

  • helped to convince many colonists that King George was a tyrant

  • it was time for independence

  • independence would improve the lives of the colonists

The Declaration of Independence

  • formally declared the colonists' reasons for declaring independence

  • helping to justify-to themselves and to the world-the drastic actions they were taking

Thesis Statement (main idea of an essay answer): _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
44. Discuss the struggles faced by American soldiers, civilians, and the Continental Congress during the Revolutionary War. (Underline key terms/phrases in each bullet)

Soldiers struggled

  • to stay alive

  • to stay clothed, housed, fed, warm, and healthy

  • to keep their spirits up despite facing a better-prepared, better-armed, more numerous enemy.

Civilians struggled

  • to manage the farms, businesses, families, and households left behind by the soldiers

  • to cope with rapidly rising prices and a scarcity of goods

  • to care for the soldiers in the field

The Continental Congress struggled

  • to finance the war

  • battle inflation

  • equip the army

  • negotiate with France

Thesis Statement (main idea of an essay answer): _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

45. What are some of the ideals that Americans fought for during the Revolutionary War? In what ways did American society reflect these ideals after the war, and in what ways did it fail to live up to them?

  • Americans fought to defend various individual freedoms and their natural rights to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."

  • After the war, the blurring of class distinctions stirred a rise in egalitarianism and a new idea

    • ability, effort, and virtue

    • not wealth or family--defines one's worth

    • this idea of egalitarianism, however, applied only to white males

    • African Americans, whether enslaved or free, faced oppression

    • white women had few political rights

    • American settlers continued to move onto Native American lands

Thesis Statement (main idea of an essay answer): _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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