b. In other words, scientists have created the notion of species, and if it wasn’t for this word or way of classifying organisms, they would have each been thought of as just “things” in our environment.
a. A species is a single lineage of populations or organisms that maintains an identity separate from other such lineages and which has its own evolutionary tendencies and historical fate (Futuyma 354).
b. The application of the biological species concept to multidimensional assemblages of populations (Mayr 1988).
a. Species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups (Mayr 1988)
b. Properties for a species to fit in this concept:
B. Good quote by Ernst Mayr:
“It seems as if every scientist has come up with their own species concept on the problem of species. It must be emphasized that the species is not an invention of taxonomists or philosophers, but that is has reality in nature” (Mayr 1988)
A. The accidental explorer. He was at the right place at the right time.
6. Joined the faculty at Harvard University in 1953, where he also served as director of Museum of Comparative Zoology from 1961 to 1970
7. Retired in 1975 as emeritus professor of Zoology
8. He received awards including the National Medal of Science, the Balzan Prize, the Sarton Medal of the History of Science Society, the International Prize for Biology, and the Lewis Thomas Prize for Writing about Science
9. Died in February 3, 2005 at the age of 101
C. Contributions to Biology:
1. Solomon Islands and Fiji
a. Using the Island’s robins, Mayr was able to show that the sexes are not determined by sex hormones, but by geographic isolation.
b. On one island, both sexes of the robin species were drably colored. The other had them both brightly colored, and on another island the male was bright and the female drab.
2. Redefined Species in Terms of Breeding Populations
a. If two subspecies of geese that look alike are in contact but do not interbreed, they are considered separate species.
b. On the other hand when the snow goose and the blue goose look very different they are also considered different species. That is until the naturalists found that they flock together and interbreed, they were reclassified as a color phase belonging to a single species.
i. A cross between bottlenose dolphin and a false killer whale.
ii. Have been reported to exist in the wild
Currently kept in captivity and can produce fertile offspring
References Futuyma, D. (2005). Evolution. Sinauer Associates Inc.
Mayr, Ernst. (1988). Toward a New Philosophy of Biology. Harvard University Press Cambridge, Massachusettes. (1)
Mayr, Ernst. (1963). Systematics and the Origin of Species from the Viewpoint of A Zoologist.
Mayr, Ernst (1990). Populations, Species, and Evolution. Oxford University Press. London, England.
Milner, Richard. (1990). The Encyclopedia of Evolution. Facts on File Inc. New York, NY.