In each Paragraph Support …Support your argument/ claim Topic Sentence/ Incorporating Question

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lQ: To what extend can Germany be blamed for the War?

State your claim…./Argument-To a certain extend Germany can be blamed for starting for the following reasons, ………..1-2-3-. However, one country cannot be totally to blame because……….

In each Paragraph Support …Support your argument/ claim

Topic Sentence/ Incorporating Question Paragraph 1-Germany can be blamed for staring WWI because of Kaiser Wilhelm’s policy of Weltpolitik’s.

Explanation-Explain what Welt. Pol was

Evidence of what he did with this policy and how it caused tension)

Analysis-Refer back to the Question (keep your eye on the ball) If he had taken this approach……..maybe it would not have caused tension between Germany and Britain and they would not have formed an alliance against Germany. (the If he had done…..has to based on your knowledge /facts not hypothetical…)

  1. Wilhelm’s/ Caprivi (Chancellor) Policies of Weltpolitik’s-Colonial Aggression

Germany can be blamed for staring WWI because of Kaiser Wilhelm’s policy of Weltpolitik’s. 1890-Wilhelm II and German Chancellor Leo Von Caprivi t took German foreign policy on a new course of Weltpolitik. Weltpolitik was an aggressive foreign policy that hoped to make Germany a colonial power with an overseas empire like the British Empire. This new aggressive policy carried out by the Kaiser and the chancellor over turned Bismarck policy of Realpolitik’s which had carefully formed alliances to prevent Germany having to fight a war on both fronts. Bismarck had signed the re-insurance treaty with Russia but Kaiser Wilhelm had allowed this to lapse. Because of Kaiser aggressive colonial policies it caused tension between Germany B/F and Russian. …..Course of Weltpolitik-caused tension between Germany & Colonial powers Britain/France …..

  1. Wilhelm’s-Militarism

Topic Sentence-Another reason why Germany can be blamed for starting WWi was because of Germany’s militarism policy/laws.

Explain-Nobody readied themselves more for war prior to WWI than Germany

Evidence: -Naval Law-Naval Arms Race w/ Britain 1870-1914 (Caused Britain to form Alliances w/France/ Japan/Russia)-Two alliances formed…..

Buildup of greatest battleship-Dreadnought-Germany viewed by Britain as a threating enemy

Increase in standing army/ conscription introduced 1871

Increase in armament Germany biggest percentage increase

Analysis- …….

  1. Blank Cheque-Kaiser/ Chancellor-Hollweg-issued Austria-Hungarian Blank Cheque- German Guarantee of Unconditional Support-ALLIANCE

Germany did not exercise its power to restrain Austria-Hungary-

Kaiser-encouraged A-H to seize opportunity to attack Serbia

Distract from German Domestic problems-Increase support for the Kaisser

  1. The War Council 1912-War Council 1912-meeting of the Highest German Diplomats-Plans for war

  1. Violating Belgium Neutrality

Germany Attack France through Neutral Belgium

Thus escalated the War by Bringing in France

Localized dispute turned into involving all alliances

U.S –Belgium-Press

Counter Argument

  1. Austria-Hungaria-Ultimately to Blame--Demand of the A-H ultimatum to Serbia- very Sever

Serbs responded A-H said to late

Germany accepted Serbians responses-Kaiser stated that Serb response to Ultimate had removed the rational for war

However A-H still declared war

  1. Serbia-To Blame-carried out the Assassination

Historian Viewpoint

Barnes-France-Russia to blame

Balkans. Russia Dardanelles/ France Alsace-Lorraine

Fischer-Blames Germany-September Program- Written by Hollweg set out Germanys aim for domination of Europe

War wld allow them to fulfill expansionist aims

Consolidate their power at home and deal with the threat of Socialism

Q Analysis the main reasons for Germany’s defeat in WWI?

  1. Weak Allies-“ Germany shackled to a Corpse”

Allies-Austria-Hungarian Bulgaria-Defeated

Ottoman Empire—Surrender of Turkey October

  1. Germany’s Weakness-Failure of the -Schlieffen Plan/Verdun/Unrestricted Submarine Warfare-Failed

-Schlieffen Plan-Von Schlieffen’s war plan-Required the German Armies to sweep through northern France via neutral Belgium advance towards Paris then move eastwards to defeat the French forces. Then Troops move to eastern Front- to confront Russia

Plan failed –Explain WHY…. Belgium Resistance Attack on Belgium brought Britain into the war…..--Caused a Two Front War

-Battle of Verdun-Wear down France and Britain –Failed

-Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

-Failure of The Ludendorff Offensive critical 1918 offensive failed- critical to Germany’s defeat-

Watson-Ludendorff/Hindenburgs-defeat of offensive broken German armies will to fight

Ludendorff-armistice-October 1918

  1. Economic Situation in Germany at Home- In 1918

Supplies not reaching German army

German Population-Uprising-Revolution

Allied/British blockade-Germany-Lacked vital supplies /resources to fight because of the British blockade

Gov. ineffective-83% -military / 2% civilian

Shift away from production of Civilian Goods to Army-Agriculture-hard hit fell 70%

Russian Civil War-Disruption –resources

  1. Arrival of US troops-New soldiers/ massive economic/war resources-1917-huge advantage to Allies-Fresh U.S soldiers-Germany troops tired-worn out by this point-Germany Sent Zimmerman Note-Mexico to join on their side-They didn’t

300,000/month U.S Troops)

Allied Strengths/Success

Allied more men and resources-Allies-U.S troops joined 2 million U. S Troops 1918

Allies Successful-Maintaining the Control of the Sea/Blockade/Convoy system-

Greater Coordination of Efforts between the Allies nations-Using Modern Technology

U.S Economic Resources-$$$$/ Weaponry/ Warships-lent $ 7.7 billion

Historian-Hans Delbruck-Germany should have attacked east first then on western front –might have won

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