In protestant theological institutions: a critical appraisal of contextual challenges in kerala, india jessy jaison b b s., M d


Table 11- Men Students’ Views on the Attitudes and Practices of the Church 156



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Table 11- Men Students’ Views on the Attitudes and Practices of the Church 156


Table 12- Men Students’ Views of the Practice of Seminaries 157

Table 13- Men Students’ Views on Women Students 159

Table 14- Criticisms by Men Students at the Attitudes and Practices of Parents 161

Table 15-Men Students’ Views on Cultural Attitudes towards Women 162


Table 16- Men Students’ Personal Views on the Role of Women 164

Table 17-Women’s Ministries as Perceived by Women 167

Table 18-Women Students’ Comments on Seminary Education 168

Table 19- Women Students’ Comments on Seminary 169

Table 20- Women Students’ Comments on Church’s Attitude 175

Table 21- Culture Related Responses by Women Students 177

Table 22- Personal Concerns of Women Students 180

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1-Seminary Leaders’ Views on Married Female Students in Training 149


Figure 2-Seminary Leaders’ Views on Unmarried Female Students in Training 150


Figure 3-Suggestions by Men Students to Better the Status of Women 165

Figure 4-Women Students’ Suggestions to Seminaries to Improve their Status in Training 182


Figure 5-Cultural Situation: Three-fold Process 238

CONTENTS

Page No.

Title Page i


Declaration Page ii

Library Form iii

Abstract iv

Acknowledgements v

List of Abbreviations vii

List of Tables ix

List of Figures x

Contents xi


INTRODUCTION 1


CHAPTER 1: Women in Theological Seminaries – A Literature Review

Raising Prospects and Concerns 4



1.1 Foundational Textual Resources 5

1.2 Influx of Women into Seminaries 6

1.3 Theological Education for Women in the US and the Firsthand Challenges 9

1.3.1 A Broader Concept of Ministry 10

1.3.2 A Plea for Equality 10

1.3.3 Higher Positions of Power 12



1.4 Student Orientation in Accrediting Policies 13

    1.4.1Outcome Oriented Educational Strategy of ATS 13

    1.4.2 Shulman’s Taxonomy in Educational Assessment 15

    1.4.3 International Council for Evangelical Theological Education 16

    1.4.4 Learner-Oriented Theological Education: EEAA 18

    1.4.5 EEAA’s Use of Dublin Descriptors in Educational Designing 20


1.5 Major Debates Relating to Women’s Theological Education 20 1.5.1 Hierarchical Structures 21 1.5.2 Traditional Concept of Teaching and Teacher 24 1.5.3 Criticism of Inclination to the University Model 26 1.5.4 Criticism of the Use of Sexist Language 29

1.5.5 Consciousness-Raising at Male Stream Epistemology 30 1.5.6 Segregation of Women 32

1.5.7 Divorce of Theory and Practice 34 1.5.8 Neglect of Experiential Learning 35

1.6 Women’s Major Struggles in Theological Education 38

1.6.1 Structural Issues 38

1.6.2 Discriminatory Issues 39

1.6.3 Vocational Issues 40


CHAPTER 2: Contextual Distinctiveness -Women’s Education and

Theological Education in India 42

2.1 Women in India 42

2.2 Women’s Movements in India 45

2.2.1 Committee on the Status of Women in India 48



2.3 Indian Educational Setting for Women 49 2.3.1 Sharp Distinctions 49 2.3.2 Towards Emancipation through Women’s Studies 51

2.3.3 Challenge of Contextual Orientation 53



2.4 Women’s Concerns in Theological Education 54 2.4.1 Downgraded Mission Involvement, Private Learning of the Bible 55 2.4.2 Women in Seminaries and Women’s Studies Programmes 57

2.4.3 Awareness of Marginalization of Women 59

2.4.4 Churches’ Attitude towards Women 61

2.4.5 Attitudinal and Practical Base of Denigration 62

2.4.6 Women’s Concerns in the Context of Theological Education 64 2.5 The Status Mystique of Women in Kerala 66

2.5.1 High Profile but in Flux 69



2.6 Observations Connecting Background Literature to Empirical Data Theory 72

CHAPTER 3: Christian Feminism, Cultural Hermeneutic and the Bible 77
3.1 Christian Feminist Thinking 77

3.2 Feminist Contribution to Contextualization and Biblical Hermeneutics 84

3.3 Impact of Culture on the Biblical Interpretation of the Ministry of Women 85

3.3.1 Cultural Embedding in Scripture as and when it was written 86

3.3.2 Cultural Embedding of the Readers of the Scripture 87

3.3.3 Culture in which the Conclusions are applied 89



3.4 Women in the Bible- A Distinctive View 91 3.4.1 The Old Testament and Women 91 3.4.2 Jesus’ Approach to Women 93 3.4.3 No Woman among the Twelve 95 3.4.4 Apostle Paul’s Attitude towards Women 96

3.4.5 Central Issues of Authority and Submission 99



3.5 Summary Observations 101

CHAPTER 4: Contextual Challenges of Women in Theological Education

in Kerala: Methodology and Conduct of Research 105 4.1 Qualitative Inductive Approach- A Practical Theology Focus 105

4.2 Influence of Feminist Scholarship on the Research 108

4.3 Feminist Epistemologies 110

4.3.1 Empiricist Epistemology 111

4.3.2 Standpoint Epistemology 112

4.3.3 Post-Modernist Epistemology 114



4.4 The Interpretive, Critical Social Science Approach 116

4.5 Limitations of the Study 121

4.5.1 The Contextual Limitation-Kerala 121

4.5.2 Seminaries 122

4.5.3 Women Students 122



4.6 Sources and Tools of Data Generation 123

4.6.1 Personal Interviews 123

4.6.2 Focus Groups 124

4.7 Sampling Pattern and Selection of Institutions 124

4.7.1 Non-Probability-Purposive Technique in Sampling 124

4.7.2 Sample Institutions 126

4.8 Data Gathering and Processing 126

4.8.1 Description of Sample Seminaries 127

4.8.2 Data Generation Tool-1 129

4.8.3 Data Generation Tool-2 130



4.9 Sampling and the Question of Bias 131

4.9.1 Analytical Induction 131

4.9.2 Combination of Methods 132

4.9.3 Triangulation of Methods and Cross Checking 134

4.9.4 Reliability and Validity 135

4.10 Data Analysis Method 136

4.10.1 Data Description and Interpretation 136



4.11 Summary 137

CHAPTER 5: Scenario of Women’s Theological Training in Kerala:

Presentation, Analysis and Findings of the Data 139
5.1 Data Gathered from Seminary Leadership 139

5.1.1 Different Cases in the Sample 140 5.1.2 Data from the Leaders 141

5.1.3 Summary Observations 150

5.2 Data Gathered from Men Students 151

5.2.1 Interviewees and the Data 151

5.2.2 Summary Observations 166

5.3 Data Gathered from Women Students 166

5.3.1 Interviewees and the Data 166

5.3.2 Summary Observations 184

5.4 Data Gathered from Focus Groups 185

5.4.1 Theologically Trained Women-Focus Group 185

5.4.2 Data Summary 188

5.4.3 Women Students in Seminaries-Focus Group 188

5.4.4 Data Summary 191

5.5 Findings and Interpretations 192

5.5.1 Cultural Dimension- Finding1 192

5.5.1(a) Segregation is Essential 192

5.5.1(b) Motives of Women Challenged 193 5.5.1(c) Seminaries Offer the Best for Women 194

5.5.1(d) Criticism on Women’s Passivity 195

5.5.1(e) Complexity of Cultural Aspects 195

5.5.1(f) Women- the Helpless Aliens in Theological Education 196

5.5.1(g) Cultural Paradoxes in Women’s Training 197

5.5.1(h) Discriminatory Practices in Seminaries 198 5.5.2 Theological Dimension-Finding 2 200

5.5.2(a) Increasing Entry of Women in Theological Education 200

5.5.2(b) Bias in Women’s Potential Level of Contribution 201

5.5.3 Ecclesiastical Dimension-Finding 3 203

5.5.3(a) Negligence of Churches on Women 204

5.5.3(b) No Ministry-Placement Liability on Seminaries 205 5.5.4 Structural Dimension-Finding 4 206

5.5.4(a) No Need of Gender Policy 207

5.5.4(b) Men’s High Profile in Ministry 208 5.5.5 Pedagogical Dimension-Finding 5 209

5.5.5(a) Financial Constraints and Flexibility in Course

Designs 209

5.5.5(b) Priority to Fulfil Academic Requirements 210

5.5.6 General Factors Causing the Secondary Status of women

-Finding 6 211
CHAPTER 6: The Role of Theological Seminaries in Mediating the Cultural Impact on Women: A Theological-Cultural Hermeneutic 215
6.1 Introduction 215

6.2 Baseline for Discussion Rising from Previous Analysis of Data 216

6.3 Seminaries as Agents of Cultural Arbitration 219

6.3.1 Theological and Missiological Necessity 219

6.3.2 Seminaries as Agents of Structural Transformation 220

6.3.3 Seminaries as Agents of Reconciliation in Dialectical Views 222

6.3.4 Seminaries as Agents of Change in Inherited Ministry

Perceptions 223



6.4 Seminaries as Mediators between Theology and Culture 224

6.4.1 Hermeneutical Interaction between the Bible and Culture 225

6.4.2 A Synthetic Model on Specific Issues 227

6.4.3 A Dialectical Model in Cultural Transformation 229



6.5 A Biblical Perspective on Cultural Hermeneutics 232

6.5.1 Cultural Adaptability/ Sensibility is Biblically Valid 232

6.5.2 Balanced Cultural Relativism is Biblical 234

6.5.3 God is not bound by Culture 235



6.6 The Jesus-Model of Theology-Culture Hermeneutical Equilibrium 239

6.6.1 Balance between Larger Vision and Contemporary Cultural

Values 239

6.6.2 Choice of Right Sequence and Pace in Actions 240

6.6.3 Determination for Progression in Transforming Culture 242

6.7 A Practical Work Plan for Effectiveness in Theological Education of Women 245

6.7.1 Towards a Culture-Theology Correspondence 245

6.7.2 From Fragmentation to Organizational Learning 247

6.7.3 From Static Theology to Kingdom Vision 248

6.7.4 From Apathy to Transformative Teaching 250

6.7.4(a) Church Focus 251

6.7.4(b) Parents Focus 251

6.7.4(c) Men on Campus 251

6.7.4(d) Women Students 252

6.8 Recommendations to Seminaries 252
CONCLUSION 256
BIBLIOGRAPHY- BOOKS 262
ARTICLES, REPORTS, CHAPTERS FROM BOOKS AND THESES 279
URL REFERENCES 289
APPENDIX-1 Focused Interview Schedule – Seminary Leaders 292
APPENDIX-2 Focused Interview Schedule – Men Students 293
APPENDIX-3 Focused Interview Schedule – Women Students 294




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