Portal of exit means how the pathogen is released into
Portal of exit means how the
pathogen is released into the
ambient air. Examples would be
opening in walls, doors, ductwork,
open ceilings, and plumbing.
Proper barriers and work practices
link within the chain.
ASK THE CLASS:
Are there other Portals of Exit that have not been mentioned?
Write their responses on a whiteboard or flip chart.
Pathogens are spread by three routes that are a concern
for infection control.
NOTES FOR SLIDE 30
A mode of transmission is the
movement or the transmission of
pathogens from a reservoir to a
susceptible host. Once a pathogen is
released it can be transmitted over
large areas through air current, water
supply, construction equipment,
carts and debris and clothing of
Pathogens are spread by three routes that are a concern for infection control:
In the air (airborne)
In water (waterborne)
On surfaces (surface transfer)
When pathogens become airborne, meaning moved by or through air, they can
be inhaled into the respiratory system, ingested or enter the body through open
wounds or sores. Pathogens can become airborne through common activities,
Pathogens can be waterborne, meaning moved by or through water. With any
supply system can become contaminated in a variety of ways, such as sediment
buildup in plumbing, stagnant water or a backed up sewer.
Pathogens are transferred by skin or clothing coming in contact with a
construction, renovation, maintenance and demolition because of the amount of
airborne particles that settle out of the air onto a surface.
The Portal of Entry is the opening that allows the
The Portal of Entry is the opening
that allows the pathogen to enter the
host. As construction workers we are
not in direct contact with the patients
but how we do our work directly
affects whether we indirectly expose
the patients through the above
portals. Improper control at the
care workers, water and HVAC system. Using proper ICRA controls at the Portal
of Exit has a tremendous impact on HAIs at the Portal of Entry.
Immunocompromised patients are most at risk during
The medical term for a weakened
immune system is
A susceptible host is a person who has
pathogen and who, if exposed to this
pathogen, is likely to contract an infection. When healthy people are exposed to
small amounts of pathogens, their immune systems can fight off the invaders and
deadly infection, since their defenses are compromised.
Examples of patients who are immune compromised.
NOTES FOR SLIDE 33
Only show the title of the
patients who are immune
ASK THE CLASS:
Now that we know what a susceptible
host is, can you think of any type of patients in a hospital who would be
considered immunocompromised patients?
Write the participant responses on a whiteboard or flipchart.
Click on the PowerPoint to reveal the examples of immunocompromised patients.
Compare the list the class generated with the list from the PowerPoint.
Ask the class if there are any other groups of patients they have thought of after
You have completed all of the slides related to the Chain of Infection.