The objective of this study is to analyze the job burnout and job satisfaction levels of super league referees actively working in Turkey Football Leagues in terms of some variables. The universe of the study consists of 80 upper division referees and assistant referees of Turkish Football Federation. The personal information form prepared by the researcher, Maslach Burnout Inventory (1981) and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, which was developed in 1967 to find out job satisfaction level and adapted into Turkish by Gökçora (1985), were used in the study as data collection tools. Kolmogorov-smirnov test, Mann-whitney U test, Kruskal-wallis test and Spearman correlation coefficient were used to analyze and comment on the data.
As a conclusion, football referees were found to have high levels of job satisfaction. Significant difference was found in job satisfaction levels in terms of the variables of marital status, football experience and referee post; however, no significant difference was found in job satisfaction levels in terms of the variables of educational status, occupation, duration of refereeing and age. At the same time, while significant difference was found in burnout levels in terms of the variables of marital status, referee post and duration of refereeing, no significant difference was found in terms of football experience, age, occupation, duration of refereeing and educational status. A negative and significant association was found between job satisfaction dimensions and burnout.
Key Words: Burnout , job satisfaction, referee, football
TÜRKİYE SÜPER LİG FUTBOL HAKEMLERİNİN İŞ DOYUMU VE TÜKENMİŞLİK DÜZEYLERİNİN İNCELENMESİ ÖZET
Bu çalışmanın amacı, Türkiye Futbol Liglerinde faal olarak görev yapan süper lig futbol hakemlerinin mesleki tükenmişlik ve iş doyum düzeylerinin bazı değişkenler açısından incelemektir. Çalışmanın evrenini Türkiye futbol federasyonuna bağlı 80 Üst klasman hakem ve yardımcı hakem oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak araştırmacı tarafından hazırlanan kişisel bilgi formu, Maslach tükenmişlik envanteri (1981) ve iş doyumu düzeyini belirlemek amacıyla 1967 yılında geliştirilen ve Gökçora (1985) tarafından Türkçeye uyarlanan (Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire) minoseta iş doyumu ölçeği uygulanmıştır. Verilerin çözümlenmesi ve yorumlanmasında, kolmogorov-smirnov testi, mann-whitney U testi ve kruskal-wallis testi, spearman korelasyon katsayısı kullanılmıştır.
Sonuç olarak; futbol hakemlerinin iş doyumlarının yüksek düzeyde olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Medeni durum, futbol deneyimi ve hakemlik görevi değişkenlerine göre iş doyumu düzeylerinde anlamlı farklılığa rastlanmış; fakat eğitim durumu, meslek, hakemlik süresi ve yaş değişkenlerine iş doyumu düzeylerinde anlamlı farklılığa rastlanmamıştır. Aynı zamanda tükenmişlik düzeylerinde medeni durum, hakemlik görevi, hakemlik süresi değişkenlerine göre anlamlı farklılığa rastlanırken; futbol deneyimi, yaş, meslek, hakemlik süresi, eğitim durumuna göre anlamlı farklılığa rastlanmamıştır. İş doyumu boyutları ve tükenmişlik arasında negatif yönde ve anlamlı bir ilişki tespit edilmiştir.
Anahtar Kelimler:Tükenmişlik , iş doyumu, hakem, futboll
Sport, which is one of the most widespread and effective social institutions of the 21st century modern society, has been developing significantly as a social and cultural sector. Especially football has a very important place in Turkey, too, just like the whole world. Football referees are also one of the most important building stones of this sector. Refereeing is a physical action with psychological and cognitive aspects (Cel, 1994). A referee is a person chosen by the authorities of sports organizations who referees matches and settles the points taken, wins, losses and penalties (Cengiz, 2004). They have very important effects on teams, athletes, trainers and game results with the decisions they make. The fact that they are always on the public agenda and the greatness of the responsibilities they take cause them to get more attention. Thus, the occupational difficulties, stresses, failures, negative conditions that they may come across in this job they do apart from their own occupations, the decrease in their mental and physical energy, their success in their occupations increase the significance of determining the levels of satisfaction and burnout they have as a result of refereeing.
The concept of burnout was first defined by German Herbert J. Freudenberger (Freudenberger, 1974). In his book “Burnout: The High Cost of High Achievement”, Freudenberger defined burnout as an emotional burnout which means a state of not being able to meet the requirements of a job as a result of over working (Özgen, 2007). Maslach (1981) defined burnout as a syndrome that results in emotional burnout due to extreme stress in people working in jobs related with humans, becoming indifferent to people to whom one serves and a gradually increasing personal failure (Maslach, 1981). Burnout occurs when individuals face situations that exceed their strength and energy capacities. Burnout is defined as feelings of negative thoughts for the job and self and a continuous feeling of mental fatigue (Treven, 2005). In general, burnout causes physical problems such as headache and stomach ache, intestinal problems, high blood pressure, muscle strain and chronic fatigue. Occupational burnout causes problems such as anxiety and depression (Maslach, 2003). Burnout syndrome occurs as a result of being exposed to long term occupational stress and in general it is seen in people who work in occupations that are in close relationship with people. According to Maslach and Jackson (1981), burnout can be approached in three dimensions (a) emotional exhaustion, which means being emotionally exhausted; (b) personal accomplishment, means a person’s tendency to evalaute himself/herself negatively (Maslach, et al., 2001), (c) depersonalization is developing negative attitudes and feelings about the job (Maslach, et al., 1981).
There are various factors that influence burnout and these factors can be grouped in two as individual and organizational (environmental) factors. Individual factors have characteristics such as having an A type personality, having an external focus of control, being deprived of self-sufficiency, empathy and emotional control and having unrealistic levels of expectation; while organizational (environmental) factors are grouped under work load, control, awards, belonging, justice and values (Sürgevil, 2006). In general, the consequences of burnout are a decrease in job satisfaction, a decrease in organizational committment, an increase in physical and emotional symptoms, collapse of family life (Çelik, 2003:34), the wish to transfer to other occupational areas, deterioration and unconformity in human relations at work and outside work and increases in not coming to work or coming late because of reasons related with health (Sürgevil, 2006). Exhaustion is a negative experience and it is resulted in mutual interaction between a person and his environment. It is a response to chronic job stress. It can be seen that exhaustion, which occurs in individuals who have human-related jobs, is grouped in different ways according to the definition of levels, types and states (Tatlıcı et al., 2008).
Job satisfaction is a positive emotional state that results from the assessment of the job related with a person’s demands of the job and the attainments from the job Arches, 1991). According to another view, job satisfaction is the assessment of job conditions (the job itself, physical environment, the attitudes of the management) or the outcomes of the job (pay, job safety) by the employee ( Çekmecelioğlu, 2006) and the emotional response of employees to their jobs. The positive response to job is defined as job satisfaction, while negative response is defined as job dissatisfaction (Chen, 2007). Lam (1995) groups some factors that cause the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of employees under two groups as individual and organizational. Individual factors are values, expectations, gender, personality, education, intelligence, status, age, socio-cultural environment; while organizational factors are pay, stress, quality of the job, coworkers and safety (Lam, 1995). Attitudes about work can be defined by internal factors (characteristics) or external factors (environmental powers that influence a person). As a conclusion, job satisfaction interacts with a great number of different factors.
When job burnout and satisfaction are examined, although they look different conceptually, it can be seen that they are similar when their reasons and effects are examined. Job satisfaction occurs due to reasons such as a person’s feeling sufficient in his job, getting the moral and material rewards of what he produces and having peace at work, while exhaustion occurs due to reasons such as stress, conflict, mobbing, not getting rewards and superior-subordinate relationships. When the explanations of the concepts of exhaustion and job satisfaction are analyzed, it can be seen that there is an inverse correlation between them. Dressel (1982) argued that job dissatisfaction and exhaustion resulted from insufficient working conditions. Job dissatisfaction is the joint production of the features of the job, job environment and the characteristics of the employee and the interaction between these three variables (Kumar, 2015). As stated by various researchers, as the level of exhaustion increases, job satisfaction decreases and the person who is exhausted can lose mental or physical health as a result of depression or anxiety (Ersoy, 2001). When job satisfaction levels of employees decrease, their exhaustion levels are expected to increase, while their exhaustion levels are expected to decrease as their job satisfaction levels increase (Hock, 1988).
The association between burnout and job satisfaction are not separated from each other with definite borders. Unhappiness of employees with their jobs most probably cause job dissatisfaction. While an employee who is dissatisfied with his work does not like his job, an employee who is experiencing burnout may be loving his job but thinking that he is not sufficient for the job. While the negative aspects of the job are on the forefront in job satisfaction, a person’s point of view and assessments are also added to these in burnout. If an employee cannot get the satisfaction that he wants in his job, he is said to be experiencing dissatisfaction, and if he is also feeling insufficient, then he is experiencing burnout (Sat, 2011).
The general purpose of this study is to examine burnout and job satisfaction, which are factors that may influence football referees’ decisions, in terms of some variables. As a result of the findings obtained from this examination, job burnout and job satisfaction levels of A division and division football referees will be examined in terms of the referees’ personal variables and thus the problems of referees will be determined. While there are few studies about football referees, it is known that most of these studies are about physical performances of football referees. Thus, the fact that this study focuses on the psychological characteristics of referees shows the significance of the study.
MATERIAL AND METHOD This descriptive study was conducted on a total of 80 football referees, who were upper division referees and assistant referees working in 2015-2016 season Turkey Football Federation. As for data collection tools, the short version of Pines and Aronson’s (1988) burnout scale which was shortened by Maslach-Pines (2005) and tested for reliability and validity (Maslach-Pines, 2005) was used to measure burnout level, while Short Form Minnesota Satisfaction Questionaire, which was developed by Dawis, Weis, England and Lofquist (Weiss, 2002) and translated into Turkish by Deniz and Güliz Gökçora from Hacettepe University, was used to find out levels of job satisfaction. Later, the translation was remade, its validity was proven and it was tested on workers by Baycan from Boğaziçi University (Baycan, 1995). Kolmogrov-Smirnov test, Mann- Whitney U Test and Kruskal- Wallis H Test were used in the statistical analysis of the study, while Spearman correlation analysis method was used for the analysis of associations. The level of significance was accepted as p<.05.
RESULTS Table 1. Assessment of the Job Satisfaction Levels of the Study Group
According to Table 1, referees were found to have high levels of total job satisfaction ( =82,16)
Table 2. Demographic Features of the Study Group