Journal of management style guide

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Revised 7/28/09

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The Journal of Management publishes publishes scholarly empirical, theoretical, and review articles dealing with management. Manuscripts suitable for publication in the Journal of Management cover such areas as business strategy and policy, entrepreneurship, human resource management, organizational behavior, organizational theory, and research methods.


Manuscripts should be typed in a 12-point font. They must be double spaced (including references, appendices, tables, and figures). As reviewers often prefer to write notes on the manuscript, authors should use one inch (2.54 centimeters) margins. Every page in the manuscript should contain a short running head and the page number. This information should be right justified. Pages should measure 8.5 by 11 inches. Manuscript length should be limited to 50 pages inclusive of references, appendices, tables and figures.



During the electronic submission process, there will be specific fields for entering a manuscript title (limit 15 words) as well as an abstract (limit 250 words). The abstract should not be included in the main document of the manuscript. Do not submit a title page with your main manuscript document.


The principle divisions of the manuscript should appear in the following order: body of the article, references, footnotes, tables, figures, and appendices. The body of the article begins immediately on page 1. The title of the paper should appear at the top of this first page. It should be centered, bold-faced, and in all capital letters. Number all pages, including those with references, appendices, tables, and figures. Group these, in the order just given, on separate pages at the end of the article. The manuscript (body, references, footnotes, table, figures and appendices) will be uploaded to the Journal of Management as a single document called “main document” during the electronic submission process.


When preparing a manuscript for electronic submission, the authors should remove all identifying information such as names or affiliations or author notes. Instead, the title should only appear at the beginning of the text. This will facilitate the blind review process. There is a separate area for uploading a title page with author information that will not be visible to reviewers.


Do not place acknowledgements into the manuscript, as these could compromise the blind review process. If authors wish to acknowledge the contribution of individuals or institutions that are not authors, they are encouraged to do so. At the time of submission the website offers a place in which acknowledgements can be directly typed.


Do not use footnotes (or endnotes) in your text. As alluded to above, footnotes should be placed in a separate section of the paper that appears after the author notes and before the tables. This should be treated as a major heading with the word FOOTNOTES (or FOOTNOTE if there is only one) as the title. The heading FOOTNOTES should be centered, bold-faced, and typed in capital letters. Each footnote should be consecutively numbered, beginning with 1 and corresponding to its citation in the text.


Main headings should be used to designate the major sections of an article. Within the main body of the paper, the major headings typically include such things as INTRODUCTION, METHOD, RESULTS, and DISCUSSION. Supporting material, such as references, tables, and appendices are also treated as major headings. In all cases, major headings should be centered, bold-faced, and typed in all capital letters.



Secondary headings should be typed flush with the left margin, in title case (small letters with major words beginning with capitals), and in bold. Example:

Data and Sample

Third-order or paragraph headings should begin with a standard paragraph indention, be typed in sentence case (small letters with only the initial word capitalized), followed by a period, and in bold. The text should follow on the same line.


Manager sample. Respondents consisted of a random sample of 300 managers who worked full time at a large manufacturing facility...

When a section of text is divided, there should be at least two subsections.


In manuscripts reporting tests of formal hypotheses, these should be explicitly identified as such. State each hypothesis that is tested in your analyses separately and give it a distinct number.


The names of constructs and variables should be expressed using ordinary words; in general, do not use unconventional abbreviations, acronyms, or code names. For industry accepted acronyms, please spell out the term initially then use acronyms in subsequent references.


“Recently, research related to Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) has increased. SME literature….”

Be sure to use the same name for each variable in your text, tables, and figures.


Useful tables and figures do not duplicate the text; they supplement and clarify it. Because tables and figures are considerably more expensive to prepare for publication than text, please carefully consider what they add to your manuscript’s impact.

Place each table or figure on a separate page. Double-space all text. Number tables and figures consecutively (one series for tables, one for figures) from the beginning to the end of the article. Indicate the position of each in the text as follows:


Insert Table 2 about here

  1. Center the word TABLE (all capital letters) and the number of the table (Arabic numeral) at the top of the page.

  2. Center the title (in title case) under the table heading.

  3. Report the results of only one type of analysis in each table.

  4. Range headings across the top of the table. Do not add new headings in the body of the table.

  5. Do not use abbreviations or computer code names for variables. Also, please do not use table notes. Use the same names you used in the text.

  6. Use only two decimal places for statistics.

  7. For most articles, the first table should report descriptive statistics, including means, standard deviations, and a full correlation matrix. Correlations should fill the lower-left corner of the page.

  8. To distinguish some numerals (for instance, to indicate which loadings define a factor), boldface type can be used. Do not use this option when other conventions, such as footnotes, are sufficient.

  9. Use plain type in capital and small letters—no italic or bold, except as noted above.

  10. Designate a general footnote that explains the whole table or a column, row, or item with a superscript small letter (a, b, c).

  11. Place footnotes indicating levels of significance under general footnotes. Use this format:

  12. * p < .05

  13. ** p < .01

  14. *** p < .001

Note that each level is on a separate line.


  • Center the word FIGURE (all capital letters) and the number of the figure (Arabic numeral) at the top of the page.

  • Center the title (in title case) under the Figure heading.

  • Spell out all words in the body of the figure.

  • Use the same variable names you used in the tables and text.

  • Avoid stacking words or numbers (listing characters vertically).

  • Make sure lines and graphic elements are crisp and clear.

  • Use letters for footnotes, as in tables.


Giving proper credit to the sources of original ideas and previous work is an important aspect of good scholarship. Inappropriate or inaccurate citations do not do justice to the authors cited and can be misleading to readers.

A tendency and a desire to cite one's own previous or current work is understandable. However, excessive use of self-citations is frowned upon. When submitting your manuscript for publication consideration, use self-citations cautiously. Minimize references that would reveal the manuscript's authorship. Doing this is important for protecting the double-blind review process.

Citations should be made in the text by enclosing the cited authors' names and the year of the work cited in parentheses.


Several studies (Ferris & Kacmar, 1992; Malhotra & Bazerman, 2008; Morrison, 1993a, 1993b) support this conclusion.

Please note the use of alphabetical order and ampersands. Also note that two or more works by the same author (or by an identical group of authors) published in the same year are distinguished by "a," "b," etc., added after the year.

Citations to the source of a direct quotation must give a page number or numbers; these follow the date of publication and are separated from it by a colon. Example: Adams has said that writing a book is "a long and arduous task" (1974: 3). Also cite page numbers when you paraphrase or summarize specific arguments or findings of authors.

If a work has two authors, give both names every time the work is cited in the text. If a work has between two and six authors, list all authors the first time it is cited, then use "et al."


Emotional exhaustion is related to work attitudes (Cropanzano, Rupp, & Byrne, 2003).

(first citation)

... exhaustion was also related to job performance (Cropanzano et al., 2003).

(subsequent citation)

For more than six authors, use the "et al." form even for the first citation. But the matching reference at the end of the article should include a complete list of the authors.

When citing the same manuscript more than once in the same paragraph, provide the date during the initial citation. For subsequent citations in the same paragraph, use only the names of the author(s).


Include an alphabetically ordered list of the works you have cited in your article. This list should begin on a separate page headed REFERENCES. As this is a major heading, the word “REFERENCES” should be centered, in all capital letters, and bold-faced.

References should follow hanging indentation format. Specially, the first line should be flush with the left margin. Subsequent lines should be indented.


Amit, R., & Zott, C. 2001. Value creation in E-business. Strategic Management Journal, 22: 493-520.
Barney, J. 1991. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17: 99-120.
Campion, M. A., Maertz, C. P., Palmer, D. K., & Tan, H. 1997. Rules for references: Suggested guidelines for choosing literary citations for research articles in applied psychology. Personnel Psychology, 50: 165-167.

Haleblian, J., Devers, C. E., McNamara, G., Carpenter, M. A., & Davison, R. B. 2009. Taking stock of what we know about mergers and acquisitions: A review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 35: 469-502.

Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. 1978. The social psychology of organizations (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Mathieu, J., Maynard, M. T., Rapp, T., & Gilson, L. 2008. Team effectiveness 1997-2007: A review of recent advancements and a glimpse into the future. Journal of Management, 34: 410-476.

Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. 1986. Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12: 531-544.

Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. 2000. The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25: 217-226.

U.S. Department of Labor Statistics. 1976-83. Employment and earnings. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Alphabetize references by the last name of the author (the first author) or the editor, or by the name of the corporate author (e.g., U.S. Census Bureau) or periodical (e.g., Wall Street Journal, p. A1) if there is no individual author or editor. Several works by an identical author (or group of authors) are ordered by year of publication, with the earliest listed first. If the years of publication are also the same, differentiate entries by adding small letters ("a," "b," etc.) after the years. Authors' names are repeated for each entry.

Book entries follow this form: Authors' or Editors' Last Names, Initials. Year. Title of book. (Book titles are italicized and typed in lowercase letters except for the first letter of the first word and the first word after a long dash or colon). City Where Published, State or Country (add only if needed to identify the city, and use U.S. Postal Service abbreviations for states): Name of Publisher. Please note and follow the punctuation used in these and subsequent examples.

Periodical entries follow this form: Authors' Last Names, Initials. Year. Title of article or paper (in lowercase letters except for the first letter of the first word and the first word after a long dash or colon). Name of Periodical, volume number (issue number if needed): page numbers.

Goggin, W. C. 1974. How the multi-dimensional structure works at Dow Corning. Harvard Business Review, 55(1): 54-65.

Include an issue number only if a periodical's pages are not numbered consecutively throughout its volumes---that is, if each issue begins with a page numbered "1."

If a periodical article has no author, treat the name of the periodical like a corporate author, in both the citation and reference.

Citation: There is fear that Social Security rates may rise (Wall Street Journal, 1984).
Reference: Wall Street Journal. 1984. Inflation rate may cause Social Security increase. September 24: 14.
Chapters in books follow this form: Authors' Last Names, Initials. Year. Title of chapter (in lowercase letters except for the first letter of the first word and first word after a colon). In Editors' Initials and Last Names (Eds.), Title of book: page numbers. City Where Published, State or Country (only if necessary to identify the city): Name of Publisher.
Berg, N. A. 1973. Corporate role in diversified companies. In B. Taylor & I. MacMillan (Eds.), Business policy: Teaching and research: 298-347. New York: Wiley.

Roberts, F. S. 1976. Strategy for the energy crisis: The case of commuter transportation policy. In R. Axelrod (Ed.), Structure of decision: 142-179. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Unpublished papers, dissertations, and presented papers should be listed in the references using the following formats:
Duncan, R. G. 1971. Multiple decision-making structures in adapting to environmental uncertainty. Working paper no. 54-71, Northwestern University Graduate School of Management, Evanston, IL.

Smith, M. H. 1980. A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin.

Wall, J. P. 1983. Work and nonwork correlates of the career plateau. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Dallas, TX.

A reference to an electronic document should include the author's name, if known; the full title of the document; the full title of the work it is part of, if there is one; the ftp, http, or other address; and the date the document was accessed.

To cite an article that is in press, include the publication information from the source (as much as possible). If the article has a DOI (digital object identifier) such as the Journal of Management Online First system generates, give that number at the end.
Schleicher, D., Bull, R.A., & Green, S.G. in press. Rater reactions to forced distribution rating systems. Journal of Management. doi:10.1177/0149206308318618


The appendices present lengthy but essential methodological details, such as explanations of the calculation of measures or items in a new survey instruments. Presentation should be concise but not abbreviated. Each appendix should be treated as a major heading. The title of each appendix should be typed in all capital letters, centered, and bold-faced. Multiple appendices are APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, etc. A single appendix does not require a letter.


Authors should avoid terms or usages that are denigrating to ethnic or other groups or that may be interpreted as such. Be particularly careful in dealing with gender, where long-established customs, such as the use of "he" as a generic pronoun ("a manager ... he"), can imply gender-based discrimination. Using plural pronouns—changing "the manager ... he" to "managers ... they"—is preferred.


Thank you in advance for paying careful attention to the details of this journal's style set forth in this guide when making your submissions. We appreciate your efforts, as adherence to Journal of Management guidelines will smooth and expedite both review and publication. Properly prepared manuscripts tend to be more favorably received by reviewers.
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