Laboratoriya ishi



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____________viloyat _________ tuman

№ _____ maktab 9___-sinf o`quvchisi

______________________________ning

Fizika fanidan Labaratoriya ishi

DAFTARI


Sana____________________

  1. LABORATORIYA ISHI.

QATTIQ JISMLARNING SOLISHTIRMA ISSIQLIK SIG`IMINI ANIQLASH

Kerakli jihozlar:

kalorimetr, tarozi, tarozi toshlari, termometr, solishtirma sig`imi aniqlanadigan 3 ta jism, qaynoq suv.



Ishni bajarish tartibi:

  1. Kalorimetr pasportidan uning aralashtirgich bilan birgalikdagi issiqlik sig`imi Ck ni yozib oling.

  2. Menzurka yordamida suv hajmi V ni o`lchab, uni kalorimetrning ichki idishiga quying va issiqlik muvozanati qaror topgandan keyin uning temperaturasi ts ni termometr yordamida o`lchang.

  3. Kalorimetrga quyilgan suv massasini ms = ps V formuladan foydalanib hisoblang. Bunda ps— suvning zichligi.

  4. Solishtirma Issiqlik sig'imi aniqlanayotgan jismning massasi mj ni tarozi yordamida o'lchang.

  5. Jismni ipga bog`lab, qaynab turgan suvga solib qo'ying. Jism va suv o'rtasida issiqlik muvozanati qaror topgandagi jismning temperaturasi tj ni yozib oling. Bunda tj = 100°C deb olish mumkin. Jismni tezlik bilan sovuq suv solingan kalorimetrga botiring.

  6. Qaynab turgan suvdan olingan jismni tezlik bilan sovuq suv solingan kalorimetrga botiring. Aralashtirgich bilan kalorimetrdagi suvni aralashtiring va termometr ko'rsatgan aralashmaning ta temperaturasini yozib oling.

  7. Jismning solishtirma issiqlik sig'imini aniqlang:

Cj=




  1. Massalari turlicha, lekin xuddi shunday moddadan yasalgan yana ikkita jismning solishtirma issiqlik sig'imini yuqorida keltirilgan tartibda aniqlang.

  2. Birinchi, ikkhichi va uchinchi jismlar uchun aniqlangan solishtirma issiqlik sig'imlari uchun o'rtacha cj ni hisoblang.

  3. Olingan natijalarni 3- jadvalga yozing.

3- jadval



C, J.K

V, l

ts, 0C

m, kg

ms, kg

tj, 0C

ta, 0C

cj, J/kg.K

cj, J/kg.K

1




























2
















3



















  1. Solishtirma issiqlik sig'imi deb nimaga aytiladi va qanday ifodalanadi?

  2. 3-jadvaldagi natijalarni tahlil qiling va xulosa chiqaring.

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Labaratoriya ishining baxosi ______________
Sana____________________

II - LABORATORIYA ISHI.

TURLI TEMPERATURALI SUV ARALASHTIRILGANDA ISSIQLIK MIQDORLARINI TAQQOSLASH



Kerakli jihozlar:

  1. litr sig`imli ikkita idish, termometr, menzurka, issiq va sovuq suv.

Ishni bajarish tartibi:

  1. Menzurka yordamida m1 massali issiq suvni o'lchab, birinchi idishga quying va uning tcmperaturasi t1 ni o'lchang.

  2. Menzurka yordamida m2 massali sovuq suvni o'lchab ikkinchi idishga quying va uning temperaturasi t2 ni o'lchang.

  3. Ikkinchi idishdagi sovuq suvni birinchi idishdagi issiq suvning ustiga quying va aralashmaning muvozanatlashgan temperaturasi t ni o'lchang.

  4. Aralashmada issiq suv bergan issiqlik miqdorini Q1 = cm1(t1 - t) formula yordamida hisoblang, bunda с suvning solishtirma issiqlik sig'imi.

  5. Aralashmada sovuq suv olgan issiqlik miqdorini Q2 = cm2(t - t2) formula yordamida hisoblang.

  6. Aralashtiriladigan issiq va sovuq suvning massalarini o'zgartirib, 1-5-bandlarga muvofiq ishni uch marta takrorlang.

  7. O'lchash va hisoblash natijalarini 4- jadvalga yozing.

4- jadval



M1, kg

t1, 0C

m2, kg

t2, 0C

t, 0C

c, J/kg.K

Q1, J

Q2, J

1

























2






















3

























  1. O'lchash va hisoblash natijalari asosida olingan Q1 va Q2 issiqlik miqdorlarining qiymatlarini taqqoslang. Nima uchun Q1 = Q2 shart bajarilishi kerak?

  2. Issiqlik miqdori formulasida nima sababdan absolut temperaturalar ayirmasi o'rniga Selsiy shkalasi bo'yicha o'lchangan temperaturalar ayirmasini qo'llash mumkin?

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Labaratoriya ishining baxosi ______________
Sana____________________

II - LABORATORIYA ISHI.

SUYUC1 JKNING SIRT TARANGLIK KOEFFITSIENTINI ANIQLASH



Kerakli jihozlar:

maxsus dinamometr, shtativ, uzunligi 5 sm atrofida bo'lgan П shaklida bukilgan sim. sovunli suv eritmasi, suyuqlik solinadigan idish.

Ushbu laboratoriya ishida o'lchash aniqligi yuqori bo'lgan maxsus dinamometrdan foydalaniladi.

Ishni bajarish tartibi:


  1. Dinamometrni yuqori halqasidan shtativga o'rnating.

  2. Chizg'ich yordamida П shaklida bukilgan simning perimetri l ni o`lchang.

  3. Dinamometrning pastki halqasiga П shaklidagi simni iling va simning og'irlik kuchi F1 ni olchang.

  4. Alohida idishda sovunli suv eritmasini tayyorlang va uni ko'pirtiring.

  5. Dinaniometrga osilgan simni idishdagi eritmaga tushiring.

  6. Eritma solingan idishni astalik bilan pastga tomon siljitib, simning eritmadan uzilishi davridagi dinamometrning ko'rsatishi F2 ni yozib oling.

  7. F= F1 - F2 formuladan sirt taranglik kuchini toping.

  8. formula yordamida suyuqlikning sirt taranglik koeflifsientini hisoblang.

  9. Tajribani uch marla takrorlang. formula yordamida sirl taranglik koeffilsientining o'rtacha qiymatini hisoblang.

  10. Tajriba davomidagi o'lchash va hisoblash natijalarini 6- jadvalga yozing.

6- jadval



M, kg

L, m

F, N

N/m

N/m

1
















2













3
















  1. Sirt tarangiik kuchi nimaligini tushuntirib bering?

  2. Nima sababdan simni sovunli eritmadan ajratib olishda kuch kerak bo'ladi?

  3. Tajriba natijalarini tahlil qilib, xulosangizni yozib keling?

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Labaratoriya ishining baxosi ______________
Sana____________________

IV - LABORATORIYA ISHI.

SHISHANING NUR SINDIRISH KO'RSATKICHINI ANIQLASH



Kerakli jihozlar:

Elektr lampa, tirqishli to'siq, uchburchakli shisha prizma, ip, transportir.



Ishni bajarish tartibi:

  1. S manbani yoqib, uning yo'liga tirqishli to'siqni shunday joylashtiringki, to'siq ortida ingichka dastali nur hosil bo'lsin. Nur yo'lini stol ustiga chiziqtortish orqali belgilang.

  2. Nur dastasi yo'liga uchburcliakli shisha prizmani 55-rasmda ko'rsatilgandek joylashtiring. Prizmaning yuqori uchidagi burchakni yozib oling (bu burchak prizmaga yozilgan bo'ladi).

  3. Prizma qo'yilganda nur dastasi О nuqtada sinadi va o'z yo'lini o'zgartirib, burchakka buriladi. Nurning singan yo'lini ignalar bilan belgilang va burchakni transportir bilan o'lchang.

  4. Nur sindirish ko'rsatkichi n bo'lgan shisha prizmadan havoga o'tish holati uchun yorug'likning sinish qonunini quyidagicha ifodalash mumkin:

(1) yoki (2)


bunda shisha va havo chegarasiga nurning tushish burchagi bo'lib, uning kattaligi prizmaning yuqorigi burchagiga teng. va ning o'lchangan qiymatini (2) formulaga qo'yib, berilgan shishaning nur sindirish ko'rsatkichini aniqlang.

  1. Shisha prizmani manbadan turli uzoqlikka qo'yib, tajribani uch marta
    takrorlang. Har bir holat uchun burchakni o'lchang va shishaning nur sindirish

ko'rsatkichini aniqlang.

  1. O'tkazilgan uchta tajribadan olingan natijalar asosida shishaning nur
    sindirish ko'rsatkichining o'rtacha qiymati no`rt ni hisoblang.

Tajriba jarayonidagi o'lchash va hisoblash natijalarini 11- jadvalga yozing.

11-jadval






sin







n

no`rt

1



















2
















3
















  1. Tajribadagi yorug'lik nurining yo'lini tahlil qiling, tushish va sinish burchaklarini ko'rsating?

  2. Shishaning nur sindirish ko'rsatkichini hisoblashda nima uchun o`rniga

formuladan foydalanildi?

  1. Tajriba jarayonini va natijalarini tahlil qiling.

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Labaratoriya ishining baxosi ______________

Sana____________________

V - LABORATORIYA ISHI.

LINZA YORDAMIDA TASVIR HOSIL QILISH

(laboratoriya ishi)
Kerakli jihozlar: optik kuchi 2.5-5 dptr atrofida bo'lgan qavariq linza, elektr lampa, ekran va masshtabli chizg'ich.

Ishni bajarish tartibi

1. Elektr lampa, linza va ckranni stol ustiga
63-rasmda ko'rsatilgandek joylashtiring.
Bunda d va / taxminan 40 - 60 sm atrofida

63- rasm bo Ism.

2. Lampani yoqing. Ekranni oldinga-orqaga
surib, lampa tolasining eng aniqroq tasviri hosil bo'ladigan masofani loping.
Buvumdan (lampadan) linzagacha bo'lgan dx masofani va lin/adan lasvirgacha
(ekrangacha) bo'lgan/j masofani o'lchang.

Lampa bilan linza orasidagi masofani d2 va J3 ga o'zgartirib, tajribani takrorlang. Ekranda lampa tolasining eng aniqroq tasviri hosil bo'lgan masofada/i va/? larni o'lchang.

Linza formulasidan foydalanib har bir tajribadan olingan d\ va/b d2 va/j, d2 va/3 uchun fokus masofasi I\, ¥ъ 1\ ni hisoblang.

5- F0-n = {Fi+F2+Ft,)/?> formulaga qo'yib, fokus masofasining o'rtacha qiymatini hisoblang.

/)= l/i"formuladanlinzaning optik kuchini hisoblang.

O'lchash va hisoblash natijalarini 12- jadvalga yozing.



12- jadval




d, m

/, m

F, m

F0

D, dptr

1
















2










3










Tajriba va o'lchashlar natijasida topilgan F01t ni linza fokus masofasining haqiqiy qivmati Fsifatida qabul qilib tajribani davom ettiring. Linzani lampadan shunday masofaga qo'yingki, bunda d > 2Fshart bajarilsin. Ekranni oldinga-orqaga surib, unda lampa tolasining tasvirini hosil qiling.

Lhizani lampadan d = IF masofaga qo'ying. Ekranni oldinga-orqaga surib. unda lampa tolasi tasvirini hosil qiling.



10. Linzani lampadan shunday masofaga qo'yingki, bunda F< d < 2/shart bajarilsin. Ekranni surib, unda lampa tolasining tasvirini hosil qiling.





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