Laboratory Disease Descriptions



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SFR 458 – Tree Pests and Disease Lab
November 4, 2013

Laboratory Disease Descriptions.


You are expected to complete descriptions of specific disease complexes. Many of the descriptions for the complexes can be viewed at

http://apollo.umenfa.maine.edu/SFR457_458_557/SFR457CourseInfo.html

For each sample that you needed to describe, complete the following components:



Disease complex name:

Disease complex components - disease triangle.


Stress Agent [pathogen(s)].

Factor(s) or name(s):
Signs:
Mechanism of how disease is caused:

Diseased tree (plant) (s).

Susceptible species:
Symptom(s):
Diseased function(s):
Tissue function:
Tree/stand impact:

Environment (where to monitor):


Sketches should be made of disease symptoms and pathogen signs. Use proper terminology in labeling various parts of the sketches. These drawings need not be works of art, but they should serve as study aids in reviewing for quizzes and exams. Your description grade will be mostly based on your sketches.

Complete descriptions for disease complexes listed on the backside of this paper. These were viewed in the forest on Monday, October 28, 2013.

i.Needle cast (Necrophytes). Symptoms are dead tissue or needles

Obtain pine (Pinus spp.) needles infected with Lophodermium.

Using a dissecting microscope, learn to recognize the distinctive fruiting structure of this fungus (elongated apothecia or hysterothecia).

Obtain balsam fir (Abies balsamea) needles infected with Isthmiella (= Bifusella) and learn to recognize the pycnidia (asexual) and hysterothecia (sexual) of this species. (http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/howtos/ht_bfir/ht_bfir.htm) (class web site)

ii.Red belt fungus. (class web site)

Fomitopsis pinicola (Fomes pinicola) is the most common decay of slash and logs in North America (conifers and deciduous trees). It causes a brown, cubical, crumbly rot.

iii.Phellinus trunk rot of aspen. (class web site)

Phellinus tremulae (Fomes igniarius var. populinus) is the most serious decay of aspen (Populus spp.). It causes a white trunk rot of living trees.

iv.Phellinus trunk rot of hardwoods

Phellinus igniarius (Fomes igniarius) is a common decay of living and dead hardwoods including birch and maple.

v.Tinder fungus. (class web site)

Fomes fomentarius. commonly causes white rot in dead stems of hardwoods, such as birches (Betula), beeches (Fagus), maples (Acer), and poplars (Populus).

vi.Artist's Conk. (class web site)

Ganoderma applanatum (Fomes applanatus) can cause a white rot of dead hardwood stems, occasionally attacking heartwood of live trees.

vii.Birch Polypore. (class web site)

Piptoporus betulinus (Polyporus betulinus) is the most common decay causing a brown rot in dead birch.

viii.Shoe string root rot, Armillaria root disease. (incited by Armillaria spp., Agaricaceae).
http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/fidls/armillaria/armillaria.htm (and class web site)

ix.Fir broom rust incited by Melampsorella caryophyllacearum, a macrocyclic rust.

Spermagonia and aecia occur on balsam fir needles.

Infection results in "broom" formation.

x.Pine-pine gall rust incited by Endocronartium harknessii (= Peridermium harknessii) on pines. (class web site)

xi.Black knot (incited by Dibotryon morbosum = Apiosporina morbosa) of cherry (Prunus), a perennial gall/canker.

xii.Eastern dwarf mistletoe (incited by Arceuthobium pusillum).
http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/fidls/dwarf_mistletoe/fidl-dm.htm (class web site)



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