Language as a medium of instruction of other subjects



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LANGUAGE AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION OF OTHER SUBJECTS

LA LANGUE COMME MOYEN D’ENSEIGNEMENT DANS LES AUTRES DISCIPLINES



End of level ISCED 2 – End of compulsory education - Fin du niveau CITE 2 - Fin de la scolarité obligatoire

CODE

Questions / Issues


1. The curricula recognise explicitly that the language dimension is essential to the teaching of subject content - Les curricula des autres disciplines reconnaissent de façon explicite la dimension langagière comme indispensable à l’enseignement des contenus disciplinaires

001

Five basic skills are described for all subject curricula in Norway. They are: being able to express oneself orally and in writing, being able to read, being able to do mathematics and being able to use digital tools.
Example from natural science currilculum:

Basic skills are integrated in the competence aims where they contribute to development of the competence in the subject, while also being part of this competence. In the natural science subject the basic skills are understood as follows:


Being able to express oneself orally and in writing in the natural science subject means presenting and describing one's own experiences and observations from nature. In the natural science subject, written reports from experiments, fieldwork, excursions and technological development processes are an important part of the work. This includes the ability to formulate questions and hypotheses and to use natural science terms and concepts. Arguing for one's own assessments and giving constructive feedback is important in the natural science subject.
Being able to read in the natural science subject means collecting information, interpreting and reflecting on the content of natural science texts, brochures, newspapers, books and information on the internet. Reading in the natural science subject also includes reading manuals, recipes, tables, various graphs and symbols.

002

    At the end of compulsory education the pupil should be able to

  • use commonly used terms, signs and symbols; makes connections between things; interconnects knowledge from various educational areas into larger wholes and based on this forms a more complex view of mathematical, scientific, social and cultural phenomena;

  • formulate and express his/her ideas and opinions in a logical sequence; express himself/herself pertinently, coherently and in a cultivated manner in both oral expression and writing;

  • understand various types of texts and records, graphic materials, commonly used gestures, sounds and other information and communication means, reflect on them, react to them and uses them creatively for his/her development and active engagement in social events.

    The instruction is aimed at forming and developing key competences by guiding the pupil towards:



  • employing appropriate means of communication to express his/her ideas, feelings, opinions and attitudes, towards taking and defending his/her viewpoints and defending his/her rights appropriately;

  • creating the ability to use diverse verbal as well as non-verbal texts of a social and social-science character as sources of information;

  • acquiring the ability to formulate his/her request and use algorithmic thinking when interacting with a computer;

  • using software and hardware tools creatively when presenting the results of his/her work.

003

NB : Cette partie du questionnaire ne sera pas remplie en l’absence des programmes des disciplines « dites non linguistiques » adaptées à la réalité valdôtaine prévus par l’article 40 du Statut Spécial de la région Vallée d’Aoste

004

Mathematics: One of the general aims of mathematical curriculum are:

* learners must be able to communicate their ideas and interpret the ideas of others;

* learners must be able to justify their reasoning and elaborate their conclusions.
Geography: In Portuguese curricula we can see that students should use the Portuguese language correctly in order to communicate in a suitable manner and the structure his/her thinking.


005

Maths

Verbal expression of arguments, quantitative and spatial relationships, and procedure for problem-solving with the precision and rigour appropriate to the situation.



006

All subject teachers specialists are also language teachers. Language plays a major role in understanding subject content

007

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3. The curricula recognise explicitly that communication, interaction and negotiation between all those concerned in the classroom are essential to the teaching of subject content - Les curricula des autres disciplines reconnaissent de façon explicite la dimension de la communication, de l’interaction et de la négociation entre les divers acteurs dans la classe comme indispensable à l’enseignement / apprentissage des contenus disciplinaires


001

chair and keep minutes from meetings and discussions, express his or her own opinions and assess what is factual argumentation (social science)

002

    At the end of compulsory education the pupil should be able to

  • use his/her acquired communication skills to form relations necessary for full-fledged coexistence and quality cooperation with others.

  • cooperate effectively in a group; participates - along with the teachers - in establishing the rules of teamwork; affects positively the quality of collaborative work by recognising or accepting a new role in work activities;

  • contribute to a discussion within a small group as well as to an open debate of the entire class; understand the need to cooperate effectively with others when addressing an assigned task; appreciate the experience of others; respect different viewpoints and draw lessons from what other people think, say and do.

The instruction is aimed at forming and developing key competences by guiding the pupil towards:

  • becoming aware of his/her own identity and the identity of others, towards developing a realistic self-awareness and self-evaluation, accepting one’s personality as well as the personality of others;

  • forming positive relationships with the opposite sex at school as well as outside of school, towards recognising stereotypes of the roles of men and women in the family, at work and in political life, being aware of prejudice concerning the role of women in society;

  • gaining a basic orientation in opinions on what is healthy and can benefit health, as well as what endangers and harms health.

The pupil should be able to recognise and express social issues of the past and present, to gather and process information necessary for their solution, to find solutions and draw conclusions, and to reflect on them and apply them in real-life situations.

The pupil should be able to:



  • apply adequate forms of behaviour and communication in various real-life situations, resolve possible disputes or conflicts with others without violence.

    Verifying the communicative effect involves activities which make it possible for the pupil to create the content of visual-representation expressions in the process of communicating and seeking new and unusual possibilities for the application of the outcomes of his/her own production, the works of fine arts as well as works of further graphic media.



003

NB : Cette partie du questionnaire ne sera pas remplie en l’absence des programmes des disciplines « dites non linguistiques » adaptées à la réalité valdôtaine prévus par l’article 40 du Statut Spécial de la région Vallée d’Aoste

004

Mathematics:

One of the transversal processes of Mathematical curriculum is the mathematical communication:

“Mathematical communication involves the oral and written parts, including the progressive field of the symbolic language of mathematics. The learner should be able to express their ideas, but also to interpret and understand the ideas that are presented and to participate constructively in discussions about ideas, processes and mathematical results. The oral communication takes place both in situations of discussion in the class at work in small groups, and written records, in particular as regards the preparation of reports associated with the completion of tasks and short texts on mathematical issues, promote written communication.” (p. 8, Mathematics Program for Basic Education, 2007)
Geography:

In general competences of Portuguese curricula we can see that students should be able to adopt strategies appropriate to problem solving and decision making.



005

Social Sciences

Carry out group tasks and participate in debates adopting a constructive, critical and tolerant attitude, giving well-thought out opinions and evaluating dialogue as a necessary means to solve human and social problems.



006

A good command of expression in all its forms is fundamental to learning.

007

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5. The curricula emphasise the key role of language in the cognitive processes of discovery, exploration and the formulation of hypotheses for the purposes of learning subject content - Les curricula des autres disciplines soulignent la fonction centrale de la langue dans les processus cognitifs de découverte, d’exploration, de formulation d’hypothèses… pour l’apprentissage des contenus disciplinaires

001

  • find examples of events that have helped shape modern Norway, and reflect on how society might have been different if these events had developed differently (social science)

  • plan and carry out experiments to test the validity of his or her own hypotheses and choose the publication method (natural science)

002

    At the end of compulsory education the pupil should be able to:

  • seek and classify information, and having understood, interlinked and systematised it, use it effectively within the learning process, in creative activities and real life

  • find information useful for solving the problem; identify its identical, similar and different features; apply the knowledge acquired to discover various solutions, deal with a failure (and to be discouraged by it) i.e. should there be one, and persistently seek the conclusive solution to the problem

  • understand various types of texts and records, graphic materials, commonly used gestures, sounds and other information and communication means, reflect on them, reacts to them and uses them creatively for his/her development and active engagement in social events

  • systematically, objectively and reliably observe, experiment and measure, make and test hypotheses regarding the essence of observed natural phenomena, analyse the results of their verifications and on this basis to draw conclusions, ask questions (how? why? what will happen if?) and seek to answer them, explain observed phenomena, seek out and solve cognitive or practical problems, and use their knowledge of the laws of natural processes in order to predict or influence them.



    The instruction is aimed at forming and developing key competences by guiding the pupil towards:

  • uncovering the roots of social phenomena, events and changes, considering their connections and mutual conditionality in real and historical time

  • finding parallels between past and present events and comparing them with similar or different phenomena and processes on the European and global scale

  • separating myth from reality, recognising manifestations and causes of the subjective selection and assessment of facts as well as towards the attempt to evaluate social phenomena of the past and present objectively

  • needing to ask questions regarding the course and causes of various natural processes, to formulate these questions properly and to seek adequate answers to them

  • understanding art and culture in their interconnectedness as indispensable parts of human existence… towards developing his/her creative potential, cultivating his/her own expressions and needs; and towards forming a hierarchy of values

  • learning about Man as a biological individual dependent in the individual stages of his/her life on his/her own behaviour and decision making, on the quality of interpersonal relations and on the quality of the environment.

003

NB : Cette partie du questionnaire ne sera pas remplie en l’absence des programmes des disciplines « dites non linguistiques » adaptées à la réalité valdôtaine prévus par l’article 40 du Statut Spécial de la région Vallée d’Aoste

004

Mathematics:

Ín investigative and exploratory tasks, learners explore an open-ended situation, looking for regularities, making and testing conjectures, discussing, communicating orally, writing down conclusions.



Geography:

In Portuguese/geography curricula students should be able to interpret, analyse and identify problems of interaction between physical and human phenomena, formulate conclusions and present them in simple written or oral descriptions or by audiovisual means



005

The Spanish curriculum starts with a chapter of basic competences aimed at applying the knowledge acquired. The first one is Linguistic competence. This competence refers to the use of language as an instrument of oral and written communication, of representation, interpretation and understanding of reality, of the construction and communication of knowledge and of the organisation and self-regulation of thought, feeling and behaviour.

Every single subject starts with this chapter: Contribution of the subject to the development of the basic competences. Then there are contents and assessment criteria related with the language required in each specific subject.



006

Language and communication support understanding and allow student’s reflection and expression

007

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7. The curricula include school- and non-school-based discursive and textual genres (for example, in the case of history, school textbooks, reports, maps, diagrams, teacher discourse, discussions and historical films) in the teaching of subject content. - Les curricula des autres disciplines indiquent les genres discursifs et textuels, scolaires ou non (par ex. pour l’histoire, textes du manuel, reportages, cartes, schémas, discours de l’enseignant, débats, films historiques etc.) à utiliser dans l’enseignement des contenus disciplinaires

001

  • talk about the perception of how artists at different times and different cultures have expressed themselves through photo, film and video, and use this as the basis for his or her own work (arts and crafts)

  • read, interpret and use printed and digital maps and be able to use map scales and read map legends (social science)

002

    At the end of compulsory education the pupil should be able to:

  • understand various types of texts and records, graphic materials, commonly used gestures, sounds and other information and communication means, reflect on them, react to them and uses them creatively for his/her development and active engagement in social events

  • give examples of sources of information on the past; name institutions where these sources are accumulated

  • be able to read timelines and historical maps, order the main historical periods chronologically

  • assess the offer of cultural institutions and select the targeted events that interest him/her

  • approach media information critically, express his/her attitude towards the effects of propaganda and advertising on public opinion and people’s behaviour

  • organise and evaluate geographic information and data sources adequately from available cartographic products and studies, from graphs, diagrams, statistical and other information sources.

  • become oriented in instruction manuals for common household appliances.

    The instruction is aimed at forming and developing key competences by guiding the pupil towards:



  • comparing information and knowledge from a greater number of alternative information sources, and thus achieving higher credibility of the information found

  • getting a broader view of culture and art, learning historical and cultural contexts which have influenced art and culture. Works of literature and drama (theatre, film) represent another source of inspiration for artistic activities, as do multimedia works and notational systems

003

NB : Cette partie du questionnaire ne sera pas remplie en l’absence des programmes des disciplines « dites non linguistiques » adaptées à la réalité valdôtaine prévus par l’article 40 du Statut Spécial de la région Vallée d’Aoste

004

Geography: In geography curricula students should be use different types of language such texts, charts, graphs, photographs, films and videos as a means to gather, analyse and communicate geographical information

005

  • I.e. Interpret data and information about nature and use this information to become familiar with nature.

  • Describe (the composition and properties of the atmosphere)

  • Provide a reasoned description of certain observations and scientific procedures

  • Establish procedures for describing the properties of materials…

  • Explain (the water cycle in nature).

006

The curriculum stresses the fundamental importance of communication, verbal and non-verbal, in realizing the aims of the subjects.

007

Classe de 10e

  • Connaissance du Monde contemporain : Expliquer les répercussions internationales sur le Luxembourg

  • Statistiques sur la situation économique

  • Texte de l’article 1 de la loi d’ordre

  • - Matériel de « propagande » en rapport avec la loi d’ordre
















9. The curricula refer explicitly to the social uses of discursive and textual genres that characterise particular subjects, that is the social circumstances in which these genres are used, for example, in the case of history, political discourse, articles in the press, films, documentaries and debates. - Les curricula des autres disciplines font référence explicite aux usages sociaux des genres discursifs et textuels caractéristiques des disciplines (c’est-à-dire aux situations de la vie sociale où ces genres sont utilisés : par exemple, pour l’histoire, discours politiques, articles dans la presse, films, documentaires, débats…)

001

  • read and write texts in various genres, including fiction and factual texts in the first-choice and second-choice Norwegian languages, such as articles, discussion input, formal letters, short stories, narratives, poems, drama texts and informal talks (Norwegian)

  • read and discuss a representative selection of literary texts from the genres poetry, short stories, novels and drama from the English-speaking world (English)

002

    At the end of compulsory education the pupil should be able to:

  • use commonly used terms, signs and symbols; makes connections between things; interconnects knowledge from various educational areas into larger wholes and based on this forms a more complex view of mathematical, scientific, social and cultural phenomena

  • understand various types of texts and records, graphic materials, commonly used gestures, sounds and other information and communication means, reflects on them, reacts to them and uses them creatively for his/her development and active engagement in social events

  • use information and communication means and technologies for quality, effective communication with the surrounding world

  • approach media information critically, express his/her attitude towards the effects of propaganda and advertising on public opinion and people’s behaviour.

    The instruction is aimed at forming and developing key competences by guiding the pupil towards:



  • creating the ability to use diverse verbal as well as non-verbal texts of a social and social-science character as sources of information.

003

NB : Cette partie du questionnaire ne sera pas remplie en l’absence des programmes des disciplines « dites non linguistiques » adaptées à la réalité valdôtaine prévus par l’article 40 du Statut Spécial de la région Vallée d’Aoste

004

Geography: In geography curricula students should be research, selection and organisation of the geographical information necessary for analysing and understanding specific World problems. And, also, discuss geographical aspects of places/regions/issues e.g. TV programs, films, videos, printed press news, books and encyclopaedias

005

Carry out individually and in groups, with the help of the teacher, a simple project of a descriptive nature about an event or subject using diverse sources (observation, the Press, bibliographies, the Internet, and so on). Select the pertinent information, integrate it in an outline or script and communicate the results of the corrected study using the appropriate vocabulary.

006

Language and communication support understanding and allow student’s reflection and expression

007

Classe de 10e, Histoire :

  • Montrer comment l’État nazi essayait de procéder par étapes à une totale « germanisation » du Luxembourg. L’invasion, l’occupation allemande, l’intimidation, la répression (la terreur)

  • Film « Little Big One »

  • Vidéo “Besatzung”, “Dée Zwee vum Bierg”

  • Musée de la Déportation (Gare de Hollerich)
















11. The curricula specify the study skills useful for learning subject content, for example taking notes of oral presentations, reading and understanding subject textbooks, summarising texts or reworking information. - Les curricula des autres disciplines définissent les habiletés d’étude utiles à l’apprentissage des contenus disciplinaires (par exemple, prendre des notes à partir d’un exposé oral, lire et comprendre le manuel de la discipline, résumer un texte, réélaborer des informations, …)

001

  • assess his or her own and other people’s oral presentations (Norwegian)

  • identify important linguistic similarities and differences between English and the native language and use this knowledge in his or her own language learning (English)

  • use learning aids critically and independently (Finnish as a second language)

  • keep records during experiments and fieldwork and present reports using digital aids (natural science)

002

    At the end of compulsory education the pupil should be able to:

  • select and employ suitable procedures, methods and strategies for effective learning; plans, organise and manage his/her learning; demonstrate willingness to carry out further studies and lifelong learning

  • seek and classify information, and having understood, interlinked and systematised it, he/she uses it effectively within the learning process, in creative activities and real life

  • find and process the necessary information by means of the Internet and other digital media.

003

NB : Cette partie du questionnaire ne sera pas remplie en l’absence des programmes des disciplines « dites non linguistiques » adaptées à la réalité valdôtaine prévus par l’article 40 du Statut Spécial de la région Vallée d’Aoste

004

Geography:

In Portuguese/geography curricula students should be carrying out of activities in an autonomous and creative manner such fieldwork, role plays, case studies, thereby applying geographical skills”



005

Compose, on paper or in a digital format, academic texts, especially essays, texts which explain and argue based on information from different sources and produced using mind maps and summaries, and the preparation of plans and reports on tasks and learning.

006

The generic tools for learning are applicable to all areas of study in addition to those that are subject-specific skills

007

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13. The curricula ask learners to take account not only of verbal language but also of symbolic and semiotic systems and forms of conceptual representation pertaining to specific subjects, such as diagrams, chronological friezes, cross tabulations, drawings and maps. Les curricula des autres disciplines invitent à prendre en compte, en plus du langage verbal, les autres systèmes symboliques et sémiotiques et les moyens de représentation conceptuelle propres à la discipline (par ex. diagrammes, frises chronologiques graphiques, tableaux à double entrée, dessins, cartes etc)

001

  • use various media, sources and aesthetic expressions in personal texts relating to the Norwegian subject curriculum and interdisciplinary texts (Norwegian)

  • assess aesthetic techniques in composite texts taken from information and entertainment media, advertising and art and reflect upon how we are influenced by sounds, language and images (Norwegian)

  • read, interpret and use printed and digital maps and be able to use map scales and read map legends (social science) (social science)

002

    At the end of compulsory education the pupil should be able to:

  • use commonly used terms, signs and symbols; make connections between things; interconnect knowledge from various educational areas into larger wholes and based on this forms a more complex view of mathematical, scientific, social and cultural phenomena

  • understand various types of texts and records, graphic materials, commonly used gestures, sounds and other information and communication means, reflect on them, react to them and use them creatively for his/her development and active engagement in social events

  • make use of technical documentation, create his/her own simple product sketch

  • assemble a given model according to instructions, sketches, plans or simple programs

  • read timelines and historical maps, order the main historical periods chronologically.

    The instruction is aimed at forming and developing key competences by guiding the pupil towards:



  • expressing himself/herself accurately and concisely by using the language of mathematics, including mathematical notation, and by performing analyses and keeping records during problem solving, and towards improving his/her graphic expression.

003

NB : Cette partie du questionnaire ne sera pas remplie en l’absence des programmes des disciplines « dites non linguistiques » adaptées à la réalité valdôtaine prévus par l’article 40 du Statut Spécial de la région Vallée d’Aoste

004

Mathematics:

The Mathematics Program for Basic Education refer that learner should be able Represent mathematical information and ideas in various ways, using pictorial, graphic and symbolic representation, tables and diagrams.



Geography:

In geography curricula students should be able to use the appropriate form graphical and cartographical techniques in order to understand and explain the distribution of geographical phenomena. The students must select and use appropriate graphic techniques, handling geographic data in a clear and appropriate manner in graph (linear, histograms, sectograms, age pyramids) maps (choroplets or others) and diagrams.



005

  • Identify the mathematical elements (statistical and geometric data, graphics calculations and so on) which are present in the media, on the Internet, in advertising and other sources of information. Critically analyse the role that these mathematical elements play, and evaluate their contribution to a better understanding of the messages

  • Create documents that contain text, images and graphics, using spreadsheets and word processors.

005

See item 6. The Spanish curriculum starts with a chapter of basic competences aimed at applying the knowledge acquired. The first one is Linguistic competence. This competence refers to the use of language as an instrument of oral and written communication, of representation, interpretation and understanding of reality, of the construction and communication of knowledge and of the organisation and self-regulation of thought, feeling and behaviour.

Every single subject starts with this chapter: Contribution of the subject to the development of the basic competences. Then there are contents and assessment criteria related with the language required in each specific subject



006

The generic tools for learning are applicable to all areas of study in addition to those that are subject-specific skills

007

Classe de 10e, Histoire :

  • Graphique des élections législatives (Statistiques historiques)













15. The curricula explicitly include other aspects of language as a medium of instruction of other subjects not covered here. - D’autres dimensions de la langue comme moyen d’enseignement d’autres disciplines non prises en compte ici figurent explicitement dans les curricula.

004

Geography: In geography curricula students should be able to use geographical vocabulary in oral and written descriptions of places, regions and distribution of geographical phenomena; use fieldwork techniques and instruments to register geographical information and analyse specific and reflect upon possible solutions, using geographical resources, techniques and knowledge.













16. If you have circled 1 or 2, please specify - Précisez le cas échéant lesquelles














CODE

Commentaires éventuels –Any comments



























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