Lbj disgraced



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LBJ disgraced

  • LBJ disgraced

    • Tet offensive
    • Refuses to run for Presidency in 1968
  • Democratic Party collapses

    • Eugene McCarthy vs. Robert Kennedy for control of party
      • Both gain anti-war support
      • Kennedy assassinated----Sirhan, Sirhan
    • Democratic National Convention in Chicago
      • mass protests against war
      • Americans witness the radical “anti-war and counter culture” on TV
    • VP Hubert Humphrey wins Democratic nomination






I do not believe that I should devote an hour or a day of my time to any personal partisan causes, or to any duties other than the awesome duties of this office, the Presidency of your country.

  • I do not believe that I should devote an hour or a day of my time to any personal partisan causes, or to any duties other than the awesome duties of this office, the Presidency of your country.





Although he had a reserved and remote personality, many Americans respected Nixon for his experience and service.

  • Although he had a reserved and remote personality, many Americans respected Nixon for his experience and service.

  • Nixon was willing to say or do anything to defeat his enemies, who included political opponents, the government bureaucracy, the press corps, and leaders of the antiwar movement.

  • Believing that the executive branch needed to be strong, Nixon gathered a close circle of trusted advisors around him.



Nixon’s Close Advisors

  • Nixon’s Close Advisors

  • H. R. HaldemanAfter campaigning tirelessly for Nixon, advertising executive H. R. Haldeman became Nixon’s chief of staff.

  • John Ehrlichman — Lawyer John Ehrlichman served as Nixon’s personal lawyer and rose to the post of chief domestic advisor.

  • John Mitchell — Asked to be Attorney General after working with Nixon’s campaign in New York, Mitchell often spoke with Nixon several times a day.

  • Henry KissingerAlthough he had no previous ties to Nixon, Harvard government professor Henry Kissinger first became Nixon’s national security advisor and later his Secretary of State.





During Nixon’s first few years in office, unemployment and inflation rose, and federal spending proved difficult to control.

  • During Nixon’s first few years in office, unemployment and inflation rose, and federal spending proved difficult to control.

  • In response, Nixon turned to the practice of deficit spending, or spending more money in a year than the government receives in revenues. He also imposed two price freezes lasting several months each.

  • When the United States supported its ally Israel in a war against Egypt and Syria in 1973, the Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) imposed an embargo, or ban, on shipping oil to the United States.

  • The resulting shortage resulted in high oil prices, which in turn drove inflation even higher.



Although Nixon himself supported cutting back or eliminating federal social programs, he did not want to alienate those voters who favored them.

  • Although Nixon himself supported cutting back or eliminating federal social programs, he did not want to alienate those voters who favored them.

  • Under Nixon’s New Federalism, states were asked to assume greater responsibility for the well-being of their citizens, taking some of this responsibility away from the federal government.



Nixon’s Views on Civil Rights

  • Nixon’s Views on Civil Rights

  • Nixon did not support advances in civil rights, believing that to do so would cost him the support of many white southern voters.

  • Hoping to win over white southern Democrats, Nixon sought a “southern strategy” which would keep his supporters happy.



During Nixon’s first term in office, four of the nine Supreme Court justices either died, resigned, or retired. This gave him the opportunity to name four new justices and, thus, reshape the court.

  • During Nixon’s first term in office, four of the nine Supreme Court justices either died, resigned, or retired. This gave him the opportunity to name four new justices and, thus, reshape the court.

  • Warren Burger, Nixon’s choice for Chief Justice, was a moderate. However, Nixon’s later appointees reflected his conservative views.

  • The Senate rejected two of Nixon’s nominees from the South, charging that they showed racial bias.



During Nixon’s presidency, the United States achieved its goal of a successful moon landing.

  • During Nixon’s presidency, the United States achieved its goal of a successful moon landing.

  • On July 20, 1969, Neil A. Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon. He was joined by Edwin E. “Buzz” Aldrin, Jr., a fellow crewman on the Apollo 11 spacecraft.

  • Television viewers around the world watched the moon landing, and Apollo 11’s crew were treated as heroes when they returned.





















Détente = easing of tensions between US, Soviet Union and China. Nixon visits

  • Détente = easing of tensions between US, Soviet Union and China. Nixon visits

    • China
    • Soviet Union
  • SALT I

  • Vietnam War

    • Vietnamization
    • Peace With Honor
    • Cambodian bombing raids
    • Paris Peace Accords of 1973


Practical Politics

  • Practical Politics

  • Kissinger admired the European political philosophy of realpolitik, or practical politics.

  • Under this policy, nations make decisions based on maintaining their strength rather than on moral principles.

  • Kissinger applied a realpolitik approach to his dealings with China and the Soviet Union, which led to better diplomatic relations with both nations.



Détente

  • Détente

  • Although Nixon had built a reputation as a strong anti-Communist, he and Kissinger reversed the direction of postwar American foreign policy by holding talks with China and the Soviet Union.

  • Nixon and Kissinger’s greatest accomplishment was in bringing about détente, or a relaxation in tensions, between the United States and these Communist nations.

  • Nixon visits China, meets with Chou En Lai and Chaiman Mao.



Advisor Henry Kissinger creates détente, warming Cold War relationships

  • Advisor Henry Kissinger creates détente, warming Cold War relationships

  • Goes to both the USSR and China in 1972 becoming first President to visit those nations

  • SALT agreement with the Soviets



Easing Relations Between the United States and China

  • Easing Relations Between the United States and China

  • Historical Background — After its Communist takeover in 1949, the United States refused to recognize the People’s Republic of China, viewing the government of Taiwan as the legitimate Chinese rulers.

  • Steps to Ease Relations — During the early 1970s, relations eased between the United States and the People’s Republic of China. Nixon referred to the nation by name, travel and trade restrictions were lifted.

  • Nixon’s Visit to China — In February 1972, Nixon became the first American President to visit China. Touring Chinese sites in front of television cameras, Nixon established the basis for future diplomatic ties during his visit.

  • Recognizing the Chinese Government — The United States decided to join other nations in recognizing the Chinese government.



Uses new relations with China to get USSR to talk, wants to limit Anti-Ballistic Missiles (ABMs), leads to Strategic Arms Limitations Talks—helped reduce tensions

  • Uses new relations with China to get USSR to talk, wants to limit Anti-Ballistic Missiles (ABMs), leads to Strategic Arms Limitations Talks—helped reduce tensions

  • In 1972, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, known as SALT I.

  • SALT I froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers at existing levels, and provided for the addition of new submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers only after the same number of older intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had been dismantled.

  • SALT I demonstrated that arms control agreements between the superpowers were possible.

  • However, it did not reduce the number of weapons that either nation possessed, nor did it halt the development of conventional weapon technologies.



Peace With Honor Nixon's idea of "peace with honor" in Vietnam was designed to contrast his plan with that of the Democrats, who just wanted to dump US allies in South Vietnam and allow them to be taken over by the Communists.

  • Peace With Honor Nixon's idea of "peace with honor" in Vietnam was designed to contrast his plan with that of the Democrats, who just wanted to dump US allies in South Vietnam and allow them to be taken over by the Communists.

  • Vietnamization Nixon had hoped to slowly remove US from the war while helping South Vietnam to defend itself.  He tried to force North Vietnam into accepting a peace plan by increasing bombing on North Vietnam and by attacking North Vietnamese strongholds in Cambodia.

  • For more information on Nixon’s Vietnam policy and the Vietnam War, look at the Vietnam War PowerPoint.



Watergate Scandal

  • Watergate Scandal

    • Pentagon Papers = New York Times vs. US Govt.
    • CREEP, the “plumbers”, and the enemies list
      • Committee to Re-elect the President
    • Senate Investigation = Impeachment charges
    • Resignation on August 9, 1974
    • Aftermath
  • Succeeded by Gerald R. Ford





Nixon’s suspicious and secretive nature caused the White House to operate as if it were surrounded by political enemies.

  • Nixon’s suspicious and secretive nature caused the White House to operate as if it were surrounded by political enemies.

  • One result of this mind-set was the creation of an “enemies list,” a list of prominent people seen as unsympathetic to the administration.

  • When someone in the National Security Council appeared to have leaked secret government information to the New York Times, Nixon ordered that wiretaps, or listening devices, be installed on the telephones of some news reporters and members of his staff.

  • Leaks to the press continued, including former Defense Department official Daniel Ellsberg’s leak of the Pentagon Papers, a government study that revealed widespread deception about the situation in Vietnam.

  • In response, Nixon organized a special White House unit, nicknamed the Plumbers, to stop government leaks. In September 1971, the Plumbers broke into the office of Ellsberg’s psychiatrist, hoping to punish Ellsberg by disclosing damaging personal information about him.



In June 1971, Daniel Ellsberg leaked the Pentagon Papers to the NY Times

  • In June 1971, Daniel Ellsberg leaked the Pentagon Papers to the NY Times

  • These are a detailed study of US policy in Vietnam commissioned in 1967

  • Because they showed that US leaders had planned all along to expand the war even while promising not to, Nixon and Kissinger felt threatened

  • They tried to stop publication and even burgled Ellsberg's psychiatrist’s office looking for evidence to discredit him







Campaign Funding

  • Campaign Funding

  • The Committee to Reelect the President, led by John Mitchell, aimed to collect as much campaign money as possible before a new law required such contributions to be reported.

  • The money that the Committee collected was intended to fund both routine campaign activities and secret unethical actions.



Nixon established a secret group known as the plumbers to plug leaks

  • Nixon established a secret group known as the plumbers to plug leaks

  • Started campaign of dirty tricks that included IRS harassment and derailing of Democratic frontrunner Edmund Muskie.

  • Used methods as calling New Hampshire voters in the middle of the night and claiming to be from Harlem for Muskie or putting signs around Florida stating “Help Muskie in busing more children now”

  • Funded by Committee to Re-Elect the President (CREEP) which used highly questionable fund raising tactics and raised over $20 million



In March 1972, a group within the Committee to Reelect the President made plans to wiretap the phones at the Democratic National Committee Headquarters at the Watergate apartment complex in Washington, D.C.

  • In March 1972, a group within the Committee to Reelect the President made plans to wiretap the phones at the Democratic National Committee Headquarters at the Watergate apartment complex in Washington, D.C.

  • This group was led by E. Howard Hunt and G. Gordon Liddy. The group’s first attempt failed. During their second attempt on June 17, 1972, five men were arrested.

  • The money they carried was traced directly to Nixon’s reelection campaign, linking the break-in to the campaign.

  • The break-in and the cover-up which resulted became known as the Watergate scandal.



Some of the money raised by CREEP went to pay for the break in at the Democratic Headquarters located in the Watergate Hotel in Washington

  • Some of the money raised by CREEP went to pay for the break in at the Democratic Headquarters located in the Watergate Hotel in Washington

  • 5 burglars caught June 17, 1972, carrying cameras, wiretapping equipment and large amounts of cash

  • Nixon administration denied any knowledge

  • Burglars were convicted in January 1973 and, despite offers of $400K in hush money from White House Counsel John Dean, one of the burglars started to talk

  • At same time, reporters Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward began to expose cover-up





Although Nixon had not been involved in the break-in, he became involved in its coverup.

  • Although Nixon had not been involved in the break-in, he became involved in its coverup.

  • He illegally authorized the CIA to try to persuade the FBI to stop its investigation of the break-in, on the grounds that the matter involved “national security.”

  • Nixon advisors launched a scheme to bribe the Watergate defendants into silence, as well as coaching them on how to lie in court.

  • During the months following the break-in, the incident was barely noticed by the public. Nixon won the 1972 election by a landslide.



The Watergate Trial

  • The Watergate Trial

  • At the trial of the Watergate burglars in early 1973, all the defendants either pleaded guilty or were found guilty.

  • Judge John J. Sirica, presiding over the trial, was not convinced that the full story had been told.

  • He sentenced the burglars to long prison terms, suggesting that their terms could be reduced if they cooperated with upcoming Senate hearings on Watergate.



In February 1973, the Senate voted to establish a select committee to investigate the scandal

  • In February 1973, the Senate voted to establish a select committee to investigate the scandal

  • In April, 3 of Nixon’s top aides resigned after their implication and Dean, who was getting nervous, was fired while press secretary Ron Zeigler declared all previous statements on the subject “inoperative”



The Senate Investigates

  • The Senate Investigates

  • Aided by Woodward and Bernstein and by the testimony of one of the Watergate burglars, a Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities began to investigate the Watergate affair.

  • Millions of Americans watched the Senate hearings unfold on national television.

  • Nixon attempted to protect himself by forcing two top aides to resign and by proclaiming that he would take final responsibility for the mistakes of others.



In May, the Senate Watergate Committee chaired by Sam Ervin of North Carolina began nationally televised hearings

  • In May, the Senate Watergate Committee chaired by Sam Ervin of North Carolina began nationally televised hearings

  • On June 14, Jeb Magruder, former Asst. Sec of Commerce, confessed his guilt and implicated Attorney General John Mitchell, John Dean and others

  • Dean then implicated Nixon and an aide revealed that there was a secret taping system in the White House



In an effort to demonstrate his honesty, in May 1973 Nixon agreed to the appointment of a special prosecutor for the Watergate affair.

  • In an effort to demonstrate his honesty, in May 1973 Nixon agreed to the appointment of a special prosecutor for the Watergate affair.

  • A special prosecutor works for the Justice Department and conducts an investigation into claims of wrongdoing by government officials.

  • The Watergate special prosecutor, Archibald Cox, insisted that Nixon release the White House tapes.

  • Nixon ordered him fired on Saturday, October 20, 1973, beginning a series of resignations and firings that became known as the “Saturday Night Massacre.”



Nixon stonewalled turning over tapes citing executive privilege and national security

  • Nixon stonewalled turning over tapes citing executive privilege and national security

  • Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox successfully petitioned a lower court to force Nixon to hand over tapes

  • Nixon refused and ordered Attorney General Elliott Richardson to fire Cox

  • Richardson refused and resigned as did Asst. AG William Ruckelshaus

  • Third in line, Solicitor General Robert Bork complied

  • Became known as Saturday Night Massacre and sparked outrage and new demands for tapes

  • Finally after new round of subpoenas, Nixon released heavily edited transcripts in spring of 1974 included a suspicious 18 minute gap in one of the tapes



Problems in the Nixon Administration, 1973–1974

  • Problems in the Nixon Administration, 1973–1974

  • Nixon’s public approval rating plummeted after his firing of Cox.

  • When Cox’s replacement, Leon Jaworski, also requested that Nixon turn over the tapes, Nixon turned over edited transcripts instead. Feelings of anger and disillusionment arose among many who read them.

  • Vice President Spiro Agnew, accused of evading income taxes and taking bribes, resigned in early October 1973. His successor, Gerald Ford, was not confirmed until two months later.



Nixon’s belligerent Vice-President who took on opponents much like Nixon did for Ike

  • Nixon’s belligerent Vice-President who took on opponents much like Nixon did for Ike

  • Alliteratively referred opponents and the press as “hopeless, hysterical hypochondriacs of history”

  • Pleaded ‘no contest’ to bribe charges, resigns from office in late 1973

  • Gerald Ford replaces



After the Saturday Night Massacre, Congress began the process of determining if they should impeach the President, or charge him with misconduct while in office.

  • After the Saturday Night Massacre, Congress began the process of determining if they should impeach the President, or charge him with misconduct while in office.

  • In the summer of 1974, the House Judiciary Committee voted to impeach Nixon on numerous charges. Conviction, and removal from office, seemed likely.

  • On August 5, 1974, Nixon released the White House tapes, with an 18 1/2 minute gap. Even with this gap, the tapes revealed his involvement in the Watergate cover-up.

  • On August 9, 1974, Nixon resigned, the first President ever to do so. Gerald Ford was sworn in as the new President.



In summer of 1974, a committee of the House convened to consider impeachment

  • In summer of 1974, a committee of the House convened to consider impeachment

  • On July 30, 7 Republicans joined Democratic majority to vote three articles of impeachment

    • obstruction of justice
    • abuse of power
    • subverting the Constitution
  • 2 days later, Supreme Court ruled that Nixon had no right to claim executive privilege as justification for turning over additional tapes

  • On August 5 Nixon released the unexpurgated tapes which contained shocking evidence that he had ordered the cover up as early as 6 days after the break in



A delegation of the most senior members of Congress, led by Barry Goldwater, informed the President that no more than 15 Senators still supported him

  • A delegation of the most senior members of Congress, led by Barry Goldwater, informed the President that no more than 15 Senators still supported him

  • On August 9, 1974, Nixon resigned

  • Vice President Gerald Ford became President and a month later pardoned Nixon





26th Amendment gave 18 year olds the right to vote. If 18 year olds young men could fight and die this country, than they should have the right to vote.

  • 26th Amendment gave 18 year olds the right to vote. If 18 year olds young men could fight and die this country, than they should have the right to vote.

  • In middle of crisis, Congress, over Nixon’s veto had passed the War Powers Resolution that limited presidential commitment of troops overseas to 60 days, after that required to get congressional approval

  • 1974 strengthened Freedom of Information Act gave citizens greater access to files that federal government agencies had on them

  • Fair Campaign Practices Act of 1974 limited campaign contributions and provided for stricter accountability and public financing of presidential campaigns

  • Independent Counsel Act of 1978 required Attorney General, in cases of suspected criminal activity in the executive branch, to call on three federal judges to appoint a special prosecutor

  • American distrust of its government, “credibility gap”



Only non-elected VP and President.

  • Only non-elected VP and President.

  • Famous quote: “HEALING PROCESS MUST BEGIN”

  • Pardoned Richard Nixon and granted amnesty

  • Did little domestically or in foreign affairs because Congress was controlled by the Democrats.

    • Instituted campaign to “Whip Inflation Now” (WIN)
    • He was a Republican
  • 1975, Saigon fall to the North Vietnam and Vietnam was united under Communism.

  • HELSINKI ACCORDS



When Gerald Ford took over the Presidency following Nixon’s resignation, he was viewed as a popular and noncontroversial political figure.

  • When Gerald Ford took over the Presidency following Nixon’s resignation, he was viewed as a popular and noncontroversial political figure.

  • Ford named New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller as Vice President, rounding off an administration in which neither the President nor the Vice President had been elected.



At the beginning of Ford’s presidency, Time magazine noted “a mood of good feeling and even exhilaration in Washington.” However, this was soon to change.

  • At the beginning of Ford’s presidency, Time magazine noted “a mood of good feeling and even exhilaration in Washington.” However, this was soon to change.

  • A month after Nixon’s resignation, Ford pardoned the former President for “all offenses” he might have committed, avoiding future prosecution.

  • This decision proved to be unpopular, both among the general public and among Nixon loyalists still facing prosecution. As a result, many Republicans were voted out of office in the 1974 congressional elections.



The Economy Stalls

  • The Economy Stalls

  • Preoccupation with Watergate had prevented Nixon from dealing with the economy.

  • By 1974, both inflation and unemployment were rising, making the economy stagnant. Economists named this situation stagflation.

  • Although Ford tried to restore public confidence in the economy with the voluntary “Whip Inflation Now,” or WIN program, he later recognized the need for more direct action.



When North Vietnam began a new offensive against the South in the spring of 1975, Ford asked for military aid to help South Vietnam.

  • When North Vietnam began a new offensive against the South in the spring of 1975, Ford asked for military aid to help South Vietnam.

  • However, both Congress and the American people were against further involvement in Vietnam.

  • To prevent such involvement, Congress was prepared to invoke the War Powers Act, a Nixon-era law limiting the President’s ability to involve the United States in foreign conflicts without receiving a formal declaration of war from Congress.

  • When Communist Cambodia captured the American merchant ship Mayaguez, Ford sent the marines to recapture the ship. Forty-one American lives were lost in the effort, but the incident dispelled impressions of American weakness in Southeast Asia.



Asia — Ford continued Nixon’s goals of friendship with China and was the first American President to visit Japan.

  • Asia — Ford continued Nixon’s goals of friendship with China and was the first American President to visit Japan.

  • Europe and the Soviet Union — In 1975, Ford signed the Helsinki Accords, a series of agreements on European security. He also continued Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) with the Soviet Union.

  • Africa — Ford’s administration aimed to develop relationships with African countries newly independent from colonial rule.



1975 Conference on security and cooperation held in Helsinki, Finland

  • 1975 Conference on security and cooperation held in Helsinki, Finland

  • Between Eastern and Western Europe

  • Agreement sets forth basic human rights all nations acknowledge and accept - Soviets generally ignore

  • Sought cooperation between Soviets & the west to recognize & accept spheres of influence throughout Europe & the world





America’s bicentennial, or 200th anniversary, provided Americans, discouraged by Watergate, Vietnam, and the economy, an opportunity to celebrate.

  • America’s bicentennial, or 200th anniversary, provided Americans, discouraged by Watergate, Vietnam, and the economy, an opportunity to celebrate.

  • Parades, concerts, air shows, political speeches, and fireworks took place on and around July 4, 1976, the 200th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence.



Americans were attracted to Carter

  • Americans were attracted to Carter

    • “Washington outsider”
    • Unwilling to participate in consensus politics, alienates key Democrats
  • Human Rights Diplomacy

  • Panama Canal

  • Camp David Accords (1978)

  • Iran Hostage Crisis (1979)

  • Afghan Invasion (1980)

  • Inflation

  • Rising Interest Rates

  • Gives ‘crisis of confidence’ speech reflecting what voters see in him

  • Loses re-election campaign to Reagan



Although Gerald Ford had the advantage of being the incumbent, or current office holder, he faced strong opposition from Republicans inside his own party during the 1976 presidential election. Democrat James Earl (“Jimmy”) Carter won the election by a narrow margin.

  • Although Gerald Ford had the advantage of being the incumbent, or current office holder, he faced strong opposition from Republicans inside his own party during the 1976 presidential election. Democrat James Earl (“Jimmy”) Carter won the election by a narrow margin.

  • Carter had no national political experience and lacked an ability to win reluctant politicians over to his side. Nevertheless, he was well-liked for his informal approach to the presidency.

  • As President, Carter appointed more women and minorities to his staff than previous administrations.



Economic Issues

  • Economic Issues

  • Carter had inherited an unstable economy in which inflation and unemployment continued to grow.

  • In response, Carter cut federal spending, mostly on social programs. This cut angered liberal Democrats.

  • As bond prices fell and interest rates rose, Americans lost confidence in Carter and his economic advisors.



Energy Issues During Carter’s Presidency

  • Energy Issues During Carter’s Presidency

  • Carter’s Energy Plan — To save on rising oil prices, Carter asked Americans to conserve fuel in their homes, cars, and businesses. He also created a new Cabinet department, the Department of Energy.

  • Response to Carter’s Energy Plan — States that produced oil and gas fiercely opposed Carter’s conservation plans. The National Energy Act, passed in 1978, incorporated many of Carter’s directives.

  • Alternative Energy Sources and Three Mile Island — One of Carter’s goals was to seek alternative energy sources. A partial meltdown of a nuclear reactor at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, eroded people’s confidence in nuclear power.











Carter’s concern for moral values influenced his civil rights actions. Soon after taking office, he granted amnesty, or a general pardon, to those who had evaded the draft during the Vietnam War.

  • Carter’s concern for moral values influenced his civil rights actions. Soon after taking office, he granted amnesty, or a general pardon, to those who had evaded the draft during the Vietnam War.

  • Many of Carter’s staff appointments won the approval of African Americans. However, many African Americans were disappointed by his weak support for social programs.

  • Affirmative action policies, which aimed to make up for past discrimination against women and minorities, were a controversial issue during Carter’s presidency. In the landmark case Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, the Supreme Court ruled that race could be a factor in school admissions but that numerical quotas could not be used.



Camp David Accords

  • Camp David Accords

  • In 1978, Carter brought Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin together for negotiations at Camp David.

  • The resulting framework for Middle East peace, known as the Camp David Accords, was an important step toward peace in the Middle East.

  • Under its terms, Israel agreed to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula, and Egypt became the first Arab country to recognize Israel officially.





Late in 1979, the Soviet Union invaded neighboring Afghanistan to bolster a Soviet-supported government there. Carter called the invasion “a clear threat to the peace” and took steps to show American disapproval of the Soviet aggression.

  • Late in 1979, the Soviet Union invaded neighboring Afghanistan to bolster a Soviet-supported government there. Carter called the invasion “a clear threat to the peace” and took steps to show American disapproval of the Soviet aggression.

  • As one of these steps, Carter imposed a boycott on the 1980 summer Olympic Games to be held in Moscow. Sixty other nations eventually joined the boycott.









In January 1979, revolution broke out in Iran, replacing its pro-American shah, Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi, with Ayatollah Rahall Khomeini, an anti-Western leader.

  • In January 1979, revolution broke out in Iran, replacing its pro-American shah, Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi, with Ayatollah Rahall Khomeini, an anti-Western leader.

  • When Carter allowed the displaced shah to enter the United States for medical treatment, angry Khomeini followers seized the American embassy in Tehran, Iran’s capital. Fifty-two Americans were taken hostage and moved from place to place over the course of 444 days.

  • Carter’s failed attempts to secure the hostages’ freedom decreased his popularity and made his chances for reelection appear slim.







Carter vows to make human rights concerns paramount in dealing with other nations instead of strategic concerns

  • Carter vows to make human rights concerns paramount in dealing with other nations instead of strategic concerns

  • But to facilitate cooperation, Carter overlooks violations in China, Iran, South Korea and the Philippines !

  • Carter recognizes Sandinistas in Nicaragua because of friendliness to US

  • Carter pays Panamanians back for violations of national sovereignty by guiding return of Panama Canal





By the end of Carter’s term, his administration had lost the confidence of many Americans. Although Carter ran for reelection, the nation instead chose conservative Republican candidate Ronald Reagan by a landslide.

  • By the end of Carter’s term, his administration had lost the confidence of many Americans. Although Carter ran for reelection, the nation instead chose conservative Republican candidate Ronald Reagan by a landslide.

  • In early 1981, following months of secret talks, Iran agreed to release the hostages. President Reagan sent Carter to greet the hostages as they arrived at a US military base in West Germany.









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