Lexstat 18 usc section 1001 united states code service



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LEXSTAT 18 USC SECTION 1001
UNITED STATES CODE SERVICE

Copyright © 2010 Matthew Bender & Company, Inc.

a member of the LexisNexis Group (TM)

All rights reserved.


*** CURRENT THROUGH PL 111-193, WITH A GAP OF PL 111-192, APPROVED 6/28/2010 ***
TITLE 18. CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I. CRIMES

CHAPTER 47. FRAUD AND FALSE STATEMENTS
Go to the United States Code Service Archive Directory
18 USCS § 1001
§ 1001. Statements or entries generally
(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, whoever, in any matter within the jurisdiction of the executive, legislative, or judicial branch of the Government of the United States, knowingly and willfully--

(1) falsifies, conceals, or covers up by any trick, scheme, or device a material fact;

(2) makes any materially false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement or representation; or

(3) makes or uses any false writing or document knowing the same to contain any materially false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement or entry;

shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 5 years or, if the offense involves international or domestic terrorism (as defined in section 2331 [18 USCS § 2331]), imprisoned not more than 8 years, or both. If the matter relates to an offense under chapter 109A, 109B, 110, or 117, or section 1591 [18 USCS §§ 2241 et seq., 2250, 2251 et seq., 2421 et seq., or 1591], then the term of imprisonment imposed under this section shall be not more than 8 years.

(b) Subsection (a) does not apply to a party to a judicial proceeding, or that party's counsel, for statements, representations, writings or documents submitted by such party or counsel to a judge or magistrate in that proceeding.

(c) With respect to any matter within the jurisdiction of the legislative branch, subsection (a) shall apply only to--

(1) administrative matters, including a claim for payment, a matter related to the procurement of property or services, personnel or employment practices, or support services, or a document required by law, rule, or regulation to be submitted to the Congress or any office or officer within the legislative branch; or

(2) any investigation or review, conducted pursuant to the authority of any committee, subcommittee, commission or office of the Congress, consistent with applicable rules of the House or Senate.
HISTORY:

(June 25, 1948, ch 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 749; Sept. 13, 1994, P.L. 103-322, Title XXXIII, § 330016(1)(L), 108 Stat. 2147; Oct. 11, 1996, P.L. 104-292, § 2, 110 Stat. 3459; Dec. 17, 2004, P.L. 108-458, Title VI, Subtitle H, § 6703(a), 118 Stat. 3766.)

(As amended July 27, 2006, P.L. 109-248, Title I, Subtitle B, § 141(c), 120 Stat. 603.)
HISTORY; ANCILLARY LAWS AND DIRECTIVES

Prior law and revision:

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., § 80 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 35, 35 Stat. 1095; Oct. 23, 1918, ch. 194, 40 Stat. 1015; June 18, 1934, ch. 587, 48 Stat. 996; Apr. 4, 1938, ch. 69, 52 Stat. 197).

Section 80 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., was divided into two parts.

The provision relating to false claims was incorporated in section 287 of this title.

Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of "principal" in section 2 of this title.

Words "or any corporation in which the United States of America is a stockholder" in said section 80 were omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of "agency" in section 6 of this title.

In addition to minor changes of phraseology, the maximum term of imprisonment was changed from 10 to 5 years to be consistent with comparable sections. (See reviser's note under section 287 of this title.)

Amendments:


1994. Act Sept. 13, 1994, substituted "under this title" for "not more than $ 10,000".


1996. Act Oct. 11, 1996, substituted the text of this section for text which read: "Whoever, in any matter within the jurisdiction of any department or agency of the United States knowingly and willfully falsifies, conceals or covers up by any trick, scheme, or device a material fact, or makes any false, fictitious or fraudulent statements or representations, or makes or uses any false writing or document knowing the same to contain any false, fictitious or fraudulent statement or entry, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.".


2004. Act Dec. 17, 2004, in subsec. (a), in the concluding matter, substituted "be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 5 years or, if the offense involves international or domestic terrorism (as defined in section 2331), imprisoned not more than 8 years, or both" for "be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both".


2006. Act July 27, 2006, in subsec. (a), in the concluding matter, added the sentence beginning "If the matter relates . . .".

Short titles:

Act Dec. 31, 1982, P.L. 97-398, § 1, 96 Stat. 2009, provides: "This Act may be cited as the 'False Identification Crime Control Act of 1982'.". For full classification of this Act, consult USCS Tables volumes.

Act Oct. 12, 1984, P.L. 98-473, Title II, Ch XVI, § 1601, 98 Stat. 2183, provides: "This chapter may be cited as the 'Credit Card Fraud Act of 1984'.". For full classification of such Chapter, consult USCS Tables volumes.

Act Oct. 12, 1984, P.L. 98-473, Title II, Ch XXI, § 2101, 98 Stat. 2190, provides: "This chapter may be cited as the 'Counterfeit Access Device and Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1984'.". For full classification of such Chapter, consult USCS Tables volumes.

Act Oct. 16, 1986, P.L. 99-474, § 1, 100 Stat. 1213, provides: "This Act may be cited as the 'Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986'.".

Act Nov. 19, 1988, P.L. 100-700, § 1, 102 Stat. 4631, provides: "This Act may be cited as the 'Major Fraud Act of 1988'.". For full classification, consult USCS Tables volumes.

Act Oct. 23, 1989, P.L. 101-123, § 1, 103 Stat. 759, provides: "This Act may be cited as the 'Major Fraud Act Amendments of 1989'.". For full classification of such Act, consult USCS Tables volumes.

Act Nov. 29, 1990, P.L. 101-647, Title XXV, § 2500, 104 Stat. 4859, provides: "This title may be cited as the 'Comprehensive Thrift and Bank Fraud Prosecution and Taxpayer Recovery Act of 1990'.". For full classification of such title, consult USCS Tables volumes.

Act Sept. 13, 1994, P.L. 103-322, Title XXIX, § 290001(a), 108 Stat. 2097, as amended by Act Oct. 11, 1996, provides: "This section [amending 18 USCS § 1030] may be cited as the 'Computer Abuse Amendments Act of 1994'.".

Act Oct. 11, 1996, P.L. 104-292, § 1, 110 Stat. 3459, provides: "This Act [amending 18 USCS §§ 1001, 1515, and 6005, and 28 USCS § 1365] may be cited as the 'False Statements Accountability Act of 1996'.".

Act April 24, 1998, P.L. 105-172, § 1, 112 Stat. 53, provides: "This Act [amending 18 USCS § 1029 and appearing in part as a note to 28 USCS § 994] may be cited as the 'Wireless Telephone Protection Act'.".

Act Oct. 30, 1998, P.L. 105-318, § 1, 112 Stat. 3007, provides: "This Act may be cited as the 'Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act of 1998'.". For full classification of such Act, consult USCS Tables volumes.

Act Dec. 28, 2000, P.L. 106-578, § 1, 114 Stat. 3075, provides: "This Act [amending 18 USCS § 1028, repealing 18 USCS § 1738, and appearing in part as 18 USCS § 1028 note] may be cited as the 'Internet False Identification Prevention Act of 2000'.".

Act April 30, 2003, P.L. 108-21, Title VI, § 607(a), 117 Stat. 689, provides: "This section [amending 18 USCS § 1028] may be cited as the 'Secure Authentication Feature and Enhanced Identification Defense Act of 2003' or 'SAFE ID Act'.".

Act July 15, 2004, P.L. 108-275, § 1, 118 Stat. 831, provides: "This Act may be cited as the 'Identity Theft Penalty Enhancement Act'.". For full classification of such Act, consult USCS Tables volumes.
NOTES:
Code of Federal Regulations:

Department of the Army--Entry authorization regulation for Kwajalein Missile Range, 32 CFR 525.1 et seq.

Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior--Location, recording, and maintaining mining claims or sites; general provisions, 43 CFR 3830.1 et seq.

Related Statutes & Rules:

Sentencing Guidelines for the United States Courts, 18 USCS Appx § 2B1.1.

Conspiracy to defraud Government in regard to false claims, 18 USCS § 286.

Fraudulent claims, generally, 18 USCS § 287.

False claims for postal losses, 18 USCS § 288.

False claims for pensions, 18 USCS § 289.

Conspiracy to defraud United States, 18 USCS § 371.

Passports, false statements in application, 18 USCS § 1542.

Falsification of postal returns to increase compensation, 18 USCS § 1712.

False entry or certificate by revenue officer or agent, 26 USCS § 7214.

Patent declaration in lieu of oath; warning in document of punishment for willful false statements and the like under this section, 35 USCS § 25.

Public buildings, section as applicable to statements by contractors, 40 USCS § 3145.

National Science Foundation scholarships or fellowships, applicability of section to loyalty affidavits, 42 USCS § 1874.

This section is referred to in 2 USCS § 437g; 7 USCS §§ 12a, 136h, 511r, 1314i, 5662, 6519; 8 USCS § 1324a; 12 USCS § 1833a; 15 USCS §§ 637, 657a, 6003; 17 USCS § 1312; 18 USCS §§ 24, 981, 982, 1345; 19 USCS §§ 2515, 3391, 3432; 21 USCS § 374; 22 USCS §§ 1623, 3622; 35 USCS § 25; 40 USCS § 3145; 42 USCS §§ 2000b-3, 2000c-6, 3795a; 43 USCS § 1212; 49 USCS §§ 5307, 30170.

Research Guide:

Federal Procedure:

26 Moore's Federal Practice (Matthew Bender 3d ed.), ch 632, Sentencing and Judgment § 632.20.

26 Moore's Federal Practice (Matthew Bender 3d ed.), ch 635, Correcting or Reducing a Sentence § 635.02.

28 Moore's Federal Practice (Matthew Bender 3d ed.), ch 672, Motion Attacking Sentence § 672.06.

3 Fed Proc L Ed, Armed Forces, Civil Disturbances, and National Defense § 5:551.

4 Fed Proc L Ed, Aviation and Space §§ 7:119, 792, 796.

4A Fed Proc L Ed, Banking and Financing §§ 8:595, 607.

4B Fed Proc L Ed, Banking and Financing §§ 8:1368, 1978, 1980, 1986.

6 Fed Proc L Ed, Civil Rights §§ 11:387, 441.

8A Fed Proc L Ed, Criminal Procedure § 22:74.

9A Fed Proc L Ed, Criminal Procedure §§ 22:1462, 1685.

10B Fed Proc L Ed, Elections and Elective Franchise §§ 28:270, 331.

11A Fed Proc L Ed, Environmental Protection §§ 32:600, 660.

11B Fed Proc L Ed, Environmental Protection §§ 32:1613, 1675.

13 Fed Proc L Ed, Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 35:1.

13A Fed Proc L Ed, Foreign Relations §§ 36:18, 21, 41.

15A Fed Proc L Ed, Government Contracts § 39:383.

16 Fed Proc L Ed, Government Office and Employees §§ 40:102, 135, 230, 438.

17A Fed Proc L Ed, Health, Education, and Welfare § 42:1313.

18 Fed Proc L Ed, Highways and Bridges §§ 43:77, 164.

18 Fed Proc L Ed, Housing and Urban Development § 44:713.

18B Fed Proc L Ed, Immigration, Naturalization, and Nationality §§ 45:2247, 2563, 2565-2567, 2572, 2573.

19 Fed Proc L Ed, Injunctions and Restraining Orders § 47:141.

20A Fed Proc L Ed, Internal Revenue §§ 48:1574, 1588.

22 Fed Proc L Ed, Labor and Labor Relations § 52:710.

23A Fed Proc L Ed, Natural and Marine Resources §§ 56:34, 66.

24A Fed Proc L Ed, Natural and Marine Resources § 56:2394.

25 Fed Proc L Ed, Navigable Waters § 57:427.

26 Fed Proc L Ed, Patents §§ 60:68, 73.

31 Fed Proc L Ed, Telecommunications § 72:522.

31 Fed Proc L Ed, Tort Claims Against the United States §§ 73:2, 5.

32 Fed Proc L Ed, Trademarks § 74:67.

33A Fed Proc L Ed, Witnesses §§ 80:321, 350.

Am Jur:


3C Am Jur 2d, Aliens and Citizens §§ 2661, 2683-2686.

9 Am Jur 2d, Bankruptcy § 605.

15 Am Jur 2d, Civil Rights § 279.

17 Am Jur 2d, Contempt § 92.

21 Am Jur 2d, Criminal Law § 475.

26 Am Jur 2d, Elections § 471.

32 Am Jur 2d, False Personation § 5.

32 Am Jur 2d, False Pretenses §§ 9, 76, 79, 81-84.

35A Am Jur 2d, Federal Tax Enforcement §§ 1198, 1215.

37 Am Jur 2d, Fraud and Deceit §§ 19, 107, 116.

45B Am Jur 2d, Job Discrimination § 1657.

54 Am Jur 2d, Monopolies, Restraints of Trade, and Unfair Trade Practices § 252.

58 Am Jur 2d, Obstructing Justice §§ 31, 33.

59A Am Jur 2d, Partnership §§ 512, 514.

59A Am Jur 2d, Passports § 54.

60 Am Jur 2d, Patents § 64.

61B Am Jur 2d, Pollution Control §§ 579, 630.

61C Am Jur 2d, Pollution Control §§ 1791, 1853.

69 Am Jur 2d, Securities Regulation--Federal § 549.

70B Am Jur 2d, Social Security and Medicare §§ 1380, 1389.

Am Jur Trials:

13 Am Jur Trials, Defending Federal Tax Evasion Cases, p. 1.

14 Am Jur Trials, Representing the Government Contractor, p. 437.

Am Jur Proof of Facts:

23 Am Jur Proof of Facts, Confidence Games and Swindles, p. 1.

Forms:

16 Bender's Federal Practice Forms, Form CrR7:23, Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.



16 Bender's Federal Practice Forms, Form CrR11:10, Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

17 Bender's Federal Practice Forms, Form CrR30:86, Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

Fed Procedural Forms L Ed, Transportation (2007) § 66:107.

2 Fed Procedural Forms L Ed, Appeal, Certiorari, and Review § 3:338.

3 Fed Procedural Forms L Ed, Armed Forces, Civil Disturbances, and National Defense (2009) §§ 5:241-244.

10 Fed Procedural Forms L Ed, Foreign Trade and Commerce § 33:286.

13A Fed Procedural Forms L Ed, Patents (2005) §§ 52:49, 157, 159-163, 165-168.

15B Fed Procedural Forms L Ed, Trademarks (2010) §§ 64:217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235-239, 241, 243, 245, 247, 249, 251, 253, 255-261, 263-265.

3 Am Jur Legal Forms 2d, Atomic Energy § 28:10.

7 Am Jur Legal Forms 2d (2006), Customs Duties and Import Regulations §§ 82:94-96.

8A Am Jur Legal Forms 2d (2007), Federal Tort Claims Act, § 113:6.

9B Am Jur Legal Forms 2d, Housing Laws and Urban Redevelopment §§ 138:11-13.

17 Am Jur Legal Forms 2d, Telecommunications §§ 245:95, 97, 100-106, 108-115.

17A Am Jur Legal Forms 2d, Telecommunications §§ 245:119, 122, 123, 125, 126, 128-130.

17A Am Jur Legal Forms 2d, Trademarks and Tradenames §§ 247:6-9, 11.

20 Am Jur Legal Forms 2d (2009), War, § 257:12.

20 Am Jur Legal Forms 2d (2009), Welfare Laws, § 264:8.

12 Am Jur Pl & Pr Forms (2008), Fish and Game, § 38.

23A Am Jur Pl & Pr Forms (Rev ed), Trademarks and Tradenames §§ 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 41, 43, 45.

Intellectual Property:

4 Chisum on Patents (Matthew Bender), ch 11, Patent and Trademark Office Procedures § 11.03.

6 Chisum on Patents (Matthew Bender), ch 19, Defenses § 19.03.

4 Gilson on Trademarks (Matthew Bender), ch 21, Declaration and Verification Forms for Applications, Amendments to Allege Use and Statements of Use § 21.01.

4 Nimmer on Copyright (Matthew Bender), ch 15, Criminal Actions § 15.03.

Commercial Law:

1 Goods in Transit (Matthew Bender), ch 5, Carrier Litigation § 5.11.

Criminal Law and Practice:

2 Criminal Constitutional Law (Matthew Bender), ch 6, Grand Jury Procedures § 6.03.

3 Criminal Constitutional Law (Matthew Bender), ch 14, Trial by Jury § 14.04.

1A Criminal Defense Techniques (Matthew Bender), ch 12, Misjoinder and Prejudicial Joinder of Offenses and Defendants § 12.03.

3 Criminal Defense Techniques (Matthew Bender), ch 56, Defense of a Securities Case §§ 56.02, 56.03, 56.06.

3 Criminal Defense Techniques (Matthew Bender), ch 56A, Defense of a Tax Case §§ 56A.06, 56A.08.

3 Criminal Defense Techniques (Matthew Bender), ch 60A, Defending Aliens in Criminal Cases §§ 60A.07, 60A.10.

3A Criminal Defense Techniques (Matthew Bender), ch 71, Representing A Witness Before A Congressional Committee § 71.05.

4 Criminal Defense Techniques (Matthew Bender), ch 85, Essentials for the Prosecution and Defense of Federal Program Fraud §§ 85.02, 85.04, 85.10.

4 Criminal Defense Techniques (Matthew Bender), ch 88, Defense of Bank Crimes § 88.03.

1 Business Crime (Matthew Bender), ch 4, Pretrial Motions Directed at Indictment PP 4.07, 4.12, 4.13.

2 Business Crime (Matthew Bender), ch 6A, Preventing Corporate Criminal Liability P 6A.01.

4 Business Crime (Matthew Bender), ch 15, Appellate Practice P 15.05.

4 Business Crime (Matthew Bender), ch 17, Securities Fraud PP 17.11, 17.14.

4 Business Crime (Matthew Bender), ch 18A, Corporate Criminal Responsibility--Conducting an Internal Investigation P 18A.02.

5 Business Crime (Matthew Bender), ch 19, Criminal Antitrust P 19.02.

5 Business Crime (Matthew Bender), ch 20, Bank Fraud P 20.02.

5 Business Crime (Matthew Bender), ch 27, Tax Fraud PP 27.01, 27.05, 27.08.

6 Business Crime (Matthew Bender), ch 31, Environmental Law Violations P 31.06.

6 Business Crime (Matthew Bender), ch 36, Insurance Fraud P 36.03.

6 Business Crime (Matthew Bender), ch 38A, Representing Businesses Abroad: The Bank Records and Foreign Transaction Act P 38A.06.

6 Business Crime (Matthew Bender), ch 35, 18 U.S.C. § 1001: The General False Statements Statute PP 35.01-35.05.

Bankruptcy:

1 Collier on Bankruptcy (Matthew Bender 15th ed. rev), ch 7, Bankruptcy Crimes P 7.08.

Immigration:

6 Immigration Law and Procedure (rev. ed.), ch 71, Grounds for Deportation § 71.07.

8 Immigration Law and Procedure (rev. ed.), ch 111, Civil Liabilities and Criminal Offenses §§ 111.07, 111.08.

Corporate and Business Law:

5 Antitrust Laws and Trade Regulation, 2nd Edition (Matthew Bender), ch 92, Full-Scale Investigations by the Department of Justice § 92.06.

1 Antitrust Counseling and Litigation Techniques (Matthew Bender), ch 3, Information Management and Document Control § 3.07.

5 Antitrust Counseling and Litigation Techniques (Matthew Bender), ch 53, Responding to a Grand Jury Investigation § 53.04.

5 Antitrust Counseling and Litigation Techniques (Matthew Bender), ch 55, Defending a Subject or Target of an Antitrust Grand Jury Investigation § 55.01.

1 Liability of Corporate Officers and Directors (Matthew Bender), ch 8, Criminal Liability § 8.09.

6 Securities Law Techniques (Matthew Bender), ch 82, Complying with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act §§ 82.03, 82.08.

6 Securities Law Techniques (Matthew Bender), ch 88, Securities Enforcement Investigations §§ 88.07-88.09.

Federal Taxation:

5 Rabkin & Johnson, Federal, Income, Gift and Estate Taxation (Matthew Bender), ch 88, Criminal Penalties and Procedures § 88.01.

Annotations:

Supreme Court's views as to validity, construction, and application of 18 USCS § 1001 (and similar predecessor provisions), making it a criminal offense to falsify material facts or to make false statements on any matter under jurisdiction of any department or agency of United States. 131 L Ed 2d 1103.

Construction and Application of United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea--Global Cases. 21 ALR Fed 2d 109.

What constitutes a "material" fact for purposes of 18 USCS § 1001, relating to falsifying or concealing facts in matter within jurisdiction of United States department or agency. 49 ALR Fed 622.

What statements fall within exculpatory denial exception to prohibition, under 18 USCS § 1001, against knowingly and willfully making false statement which is material to matter within jurisdiction of department or agency of United States. 102 ALR Fed 742.

Giving false information to federal department or agency as violation of 18 USCS § 1001, making it criminal offense to make false statements in any matter under jurisdiction of department or agency of United States. 111 ALR Fed 295.

Liability Under Common Law for Wrongful or Retaliatory Discharge of At-Will Employee for In-House Complaints or Efforts Relating to Health or Safety. 93 ALR5th 269.

Common-Law Retaliatory Discharge of Employee for Refusing to Perform or Participate in Unlawful or Wrongful Acts. 104 ALR5th 1.

Common-Law Retaliatory Discharge of Employee for Disclosing Unlawful Acts or Other Misconduct of Employer or Fellow Employees. 105 ALR5th 351.

Filing of false insurance claims for medical services as ground for disciplinary action against dentist, physician, or other medical practitioner. 70 ALR4th 132.

What constitutes a public record or document within statute making falsification, forgery, mutilation, removal, or other misuse thereof an offense. 75 ALR4th 1067.

Texts:

1 Banking Law (Matthew Bender), ch 3, Creation, Organization, and Reorganization of Banks § 3.07.



2 Banking Law (Matthew Bender), ch 22, Organization of a National Bank § 22.03.

2 Banking Law (Matthew Bender), ch 45, Enforcement Powers § 45.10.

7 Banking Law (Matthew Bender), ch 156, Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act § 156.07.

13 Banking Law (Matthew Bender), ch 255, National Bank Regulatory Forms §§ 255.01, 255.07, 255.11, 255.17.

13 Banking Law (Matthew Bender), ch 256, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Regulatory Forms § 256.03.

3 Benedict on Admiralty, Marine Oil Pollution § 114.

2A Environmental Law Practice Guide (Matthew Bender), ch 12C, Criminal Enforcement §§ 12C.03, 12C.04.

4 Environmental Law Practice Guide (Matthew Bender), ch 18, Water Pollution § 18.15.

4 Environmental Law Practice Guide (Matthew Bender), ch 20, Safe Drinking Water Act § 20.03.

5 Environmental Law Practice Guide (Matthew Bender), ch 34A, Agricultural Environmental Law § 34A.03.

5A Environmental Law Practice Guide (Matthew Bender), ch 37, Used Oil Management § 37.02.

4 Frumer & Friedman, Products Liability (Matthew Bender), ch 35, Manufacturers' Liability § 35.01.

1B Government Contracts: Law, Administration & Procedure (Matthew Bender), ch 10, Procurement by Sealed Bidding § 10.240.

2 Government Contracts: Law, Administration & Procedure (Matthew Bender), ch 14, Fraud, Conflicts of Interest and Gratuities § 14.40.

2 Government Contracts: Law, Administration & Procedure (Matthew Bender), ch 23, Allowable Costs § 23.140.

7 Government Contracts: Law, Administration & Procedure (Matthew Bender), ch 46, Industrial Security § 46.30.

Homeland Security Deskbook (Matthew Bender), ch 16, Food and Drug Protective Measures § 16.03.

1 The Law of Advertising (Matthew Bender), ch 11, Federal Remedies Available to Competitors § 11.03.

Law Review Articles:

Sanchirico. Detection Avoidance. 81 NYU L Rev 1331, October 2006.



Interpretive Notes and Decisions:


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