Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 2016:23(1);84-88
Aim Young people who are socially engaged with people who inject drugs are at higher risk of transitioning to injecting drug use. We aimed to examine rates of exposure to injecting among young people in an online survey, and whether exposure to injecting was related to hepatitis C (HCV) knowledge. Methods A cross-sectional, online survey was completed by 827 young people (aged 16–26 years) in New South Wales, Australia. Exposure to injecting in the preceding 12 months was measured by asking participants whether close friends and romantic/sexual partners had injected, and whether somebody had offered them an injection. HCV knowledge was measured using items adapted from a survey of Australian secondary school students. Findings Eleven percent of participants reported recent exposure to injecting. Participants exposed to injecting were significantly more likely than other participants to report use of injectable drugs. Some aspects of HCV transmission were poorly understood, and exposure to injecting was not significantly associated with higher HCV knowledge. Conclusions While online methods were only moderately successful in recruiting people exposed to injecting, higher rates of use of injectable drugs and HCV knowledge deficits in this group suggests that they are an important target for HCV education and prevention.
Keywords: Hepatitis C; injection drug use; knowledge; vulnerable groups; youth
37. Trends in sources and sharing of needles among people who inject drugs, San Francisco, 2005–2012
Nathan J. Kim, Harry Jin, Willi McFarland, Henry F. Raymond
International Journal of Drug Policy 2015:26(12);1238-1243 Abstract
BackgroundGlobally, people who inject drugs (PWID) are disproportionately at risk for HIV and HCV due to risky injection drug use behaviors, such as sharing used needles and injection kits. In response, San Francisco, one of several cities with a sizable PWID population that had quickly committed to stopping the spread of HIV/HCV, have expanded needle access, including in pharmacies and hospitals, in order to ensure that PWID inject with clean needles. However, there was no current research on whether each source of needles is equally associated with always using new sterile needles in San Francisco. Furthermore, no research in San Francisco had examined behavioral trends in needle-sharing practices, the relationship between PWID and their injection partners, and knowledge of their injection partners’ HIV or HCV status.MethodsTherefore, we analyzed data from three cycles of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance studies from 2005 to 2012 in San Francisco among PWID.ResultsThe results from our analysis suggest that overall risky drug injection practices, such as injecting with used needles, sharing used cookers or water, and dividing drugs with a used syringe, among PWID in San Francisco has decreased from 2005 to 2012. An increasing proportion of PWID are injecting with their friend/acquaintance than with their sex partner. Also, a declining portion of PWID report knowing their last injection partner's HIV-positive or HCV-positive status. In terms of sources of needles, less PWID are getting their needles from friends and drug dealers while a greater proportion are using pharmacies and needle exchanges. However, pharmacies as a source of needles are negatively associated with always using new sterile needles. Conclusion From 2005 to 2012, overall high-risk injection behavior among PWID in SF has decreased including PWID that are injecting with others. However, our results suggest caution over the expansion of pharmacies as a source of needles in San Francisco and in similar cities due to their negative association with always using a new sterile needle. Since more PWID are injecting with their friend/acquaintance, interventions at needle access programs at pharmacies, hospitals, and needle exchanges should stress the potential to transmit HIV and HCV even in one-on-one sharing situations. Furthermore, since a decreasing percentage of PWID know about their injection partner's HIV/HCV status, such interventions should also highlight the importance of having a conversation about HIV and HCV status with one's injecting partner.
Keywords: PWID; Needle exchange; Needle sharing; HIV risk
38. Correlates of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in Injection Drug Users in a Syringe-Exchange Program in Malmö, Sweden
Disa Dahlman, Anders Håkansson, Per Björkman, Marianne Alanko Blomé & Alex H. Kral Substance Use and Misuse 2016:50(12);1529-1535 Abstract
Background Injection drug users (IDUs) are at increased risk of various medical conditions, including bacterial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). SSTIs, which are painful and can lead to life-threatening complications, are common but scarcely studied. Objectives To investigate life time, past 12 month and past 30-day prevalence for SSTI related to injection drug use, in IDUs at Malmö syringe exchange program (Malmö SEP). To investigate factors associated with having ever had an SSTI. Methods IDUs were recruited from Malmö SEP (N = 80). They participated in a survey with questions about demographics, drug use, and experience of SSTIs. Factors independently associated with self-reported SSTI ever were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results The lifetime reported prevalence of SSTI was 58%, past 12 months 30%, and past 30 days 14%. Factors independently associated with SSTI ever were age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–1.18), female sex (AOR = 6.75; 95% CI = 1.40–32.47), having ever injected prescribed drugs (AOR = 52.15; 95% CI = 5.17–525.67), and having ever injected in the neck (AOR = 8.08; 95% CI = 1.16–56.08). Conclusions/Importance SSTI is common among IDUs in Malmö. Women and those injecting in the neck or injecting prescribed drugs (crushed tablets/liquids), are more likely to have had an SSTI.
Keywords: injection drug use; skin and soft tissue infection; abscess; risk injection; syringe exchange
39. Initiation Stories: An Examination of the Narratives of People Who Assist With a First Injection
Gillian Kolla, Carol Strike, Élise Roy, Jason Altenberg, Raffi Balian, Rey Silver & Neil Hunt Substance Use and Misuse 2015:50(13);1619-1627 Abstract
Background Research in the area of initiation to injection drug use that focuses on the perspective of initiators, or those who help with a first injection, is rare. Objective To explore the process of initiation to injection drug use from the point of view of initiators. Methods Semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted at a harm reduction program in Toronto, Canada. Twenty participants who had injected drugs in the last 30 days and who reported ever having initiated another person to injection drug use were recruited. A narrative analytic approach was used to explore the spectrum of narratives surrounding their experiences initiating others to injection drug use. Results Initiation events arise in a complex interplay of individual circumstances and social contexts. People who inject may assist with a first injection for a variety of reasons, from conceding to social pressure, to wanting to help reduce a perceived risk of harm, to assisting because it provides a sense of pride at possessing a skill or of having helped someone achieve a desired state, to assisting to obtain drugs or to cope with withdrawal, or a mix of several of these reasons at once. Conclusions/Importance Narratives reveal that preventing all instances of initiation is unrealistic. Combining elements from existing interventions that focus on enhancing reluctance to assist with initiation with safer injection training has the potential to reduce initiations and perhaps reduce injection related harm for novices if initiation occurs.
Keywords: initiation; initiators; injection drug use; harm reduction; narrative analysis; HIV prevention; peer injecting
40. Not in the vein: ‘missed hits’, subcutaneous and intramuscular injections and associated harms among people who inject psychoactive drugs in Bristol, United Kingdom
International Journal of Drug Policy 2016:28;83-90 Abstract
Background The extent of intentional or accidental subcutaneous and intramuscular injections and the factors associated with these have rarely been studied among people who inject drugs, yet these may play an important role in the acquisition bacterial infections. This study describes the extent of these, and in particular the factors and harms associated with accidental subcutaneous and intramuscular injections (i.e. ‘missed hits’). Methods People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent driven sampling. Weighted data was examined using bivariate analyses and logistic regression. Results The participants mean age was 33 years (31% aged under 30-years), 28% were women, and the mean time since first injection was 12 years (N = 329). During the preceding three months, 97% had injected heroin, 71% crack-cocaine, and 16% amphetamines; 36% injected daily. Overall, 99% (325) reported that they aimed to inject intravenously; only three aimed to inject subcutaneously and one intramuscularly. Of those that aimed to inject intravenously, 56% (181) reported ever missing a vein (for 51 this occurred more than four times month on average). Factors associated with ‘missed hits’ suggested that these were the consequence of poor vascular access, injection technique and/or hygiene. ‘Missed hits’ were twice as common among those reporting sores/open wounds, abscesses, or redness, swelling and tenderness at injection sites.
Conclusion Intentional subcutaneous and intramuscular injections are rare in this sample. ‘Missed hits’ are common and appear to be associated with poor injection practice. Interventions are required to reduce risk through improving injecting practice and hygiene.
Keywords: People who inject drugs; Subcutaneous; Intramuscular; Risk behaviours; Infections