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Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 2016:40(2);385-392



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Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 2016:40(2);385-392



Abstract

Background Our goal was to investigate the role of behaviors amenable to policy change in mediating the relationship between alcohol consumption in off and on premises, age, and 2 measures of socioeconomic status (education and income). Methods A cross-sectional general population survey was analyzed by using Bayesian path analysis to understand direct and mediating pathways. A total of 1,900 drinkers (past 6 months), aged 18 to 65 years, living in households with landline phones participated in the study. Measures were as follows: typical quantities of alcohol consumed per occasion, frequency of drinking, both off and on premise; gender, age groups; and years of education, personal income, prices paid, time of purchase, and liking for alcohol advertisements. Results Later times of purchase predicted larger quantities consumed (on and off premise) and more frequent drinking (on premise only). Younger people and males purchased later, and this mediated their heavier consumption. Lower prices paid predicted larger quantities consumed (on premise) and higher frequency of drinking (off premise). Younger and male respondents paid lower prices, and this mediated larger quantities consumed on premise and more frequent drinking off premise. Less well educated paid lower prices, and this mediated drinking more frequently off premise among this group. Liking for alcohol ads predicted drinking larger quantities and higher frequency both off and on premise. Younger and male respondents reported greater liking for ads, and this mediated their consumption of larger quantities and more frequent drinking both on and off premise. Those with higher income drank larger amounts on premise and more frequently on and off, but there were no mediating effects from the policy-relevant variables. Conclusions Heavier drinking patterns by young people and those less well educated could be ameliorated by attention to alcohol policy.

Keywords: Alcohol Policy; Alcohol Consumption; Age; Socioeconomic Status

ALCOHOL SCREENING AND BRIEF INTERVENTION

20. Which women are missed by primary health-care based interventions for alcohol and drug use?


SCM Roberts, L.J. Ralph, S.C. Wilsnack, D.G. Foster

Addictive Behaviours 2016:55;32-37
Abstract

Background Women of reproductive age who binge drink or have alcohol-related problem symptoms (APS) and who do not use contraception are considered at risk of an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP). In the U.S., efforts to prevent AEPs focus largely on delivering interventions in primary health care settings. While research suggests that these interventions are efficacious for women reached, it is unclear to what extent these interventions are likely to reach women at risk of AEPs. Methods Data are from the Turnaway Study, a study of 956 women seeking pregnancy termination at 30 U.S. facilities between 2008 and 2010, some of whom received and some of whom were denied terminations because they were past the gestational limit. We examined associations between binge drinking, APS, and drug use prior to pregnancy recognition and having a usual source of health care (USOC). Results Overall, 59% reported having a USOC. A smaller proportion with than without an APS reported a USOC (44 vs. 60%, p < .05) and a smaller proportion using than not using drugs reported a USOC (51 vs. 61%, p < .05). This pattern was not observed for binge drinking. In multivariate analyses, an APS continued to be associated with lack of a USOC, while drug use was no longer associated with lack of a USOC. Conclusions As more than 40% did not have a USOC, with higher proportions among women with an APS, primary health-care based approaches to AEP prevention seem unlikely to reach the majority of women who have an APS and are at risk of an unintended pregnancy.


Keywords: Alcohol; Illicit drug use; Pregnancy


ALCOHOL TREATMENT
21. Studying an unreal world: incentives on internet-based interventions for alcohol use

André Bedendo and Ana Regina Noto


Addiction 2016:111(2);373-374




No abstract available

22. Hospital Stay and Engagement in Outpatient Follow-Up After Alcohol Emergency Detox: A 1-Year Comparison Study

Julien Azuar, Frank Questel, Eric Hispard, Jan Scott, Florence Vorspan and Frank Bellivier


Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 2016:40(2);418-421



Abstract

Background Inpatient alcohol detoxifications are only proposed after motivational outpatient encounters because detoxification directly from the emergency department (ED) is believed to be associated with early dropout and poor adherence to outpatient follow-up. The aim of this prospective follow-up study was to test the feasibility of unscheduled (UP) alcohol detoxification directly from the ED and to compare the 1-year follow-up of these patients to that of scheduled (SP) patients. Methods A quasi-naturalistic prospective follow-up study of 120 patients: 60 consecutively admitted patients referred directly by the ED for alcohol detoxification (UP) were compared to 60 consecutively admitted patients who had undergone the usual preparation for an inpatient detoxification program (SP). The length of hospitalization (in days) and attendance to postdischarge outpatient visits during the first year was compared. Results UP patients were older, less frequently employed, and had more somatic comorbidities compared with SP patients. The UP length of stay was significantly longer (20 ± 16 vs. 14 ± 6, = 0.04). No difference in their postdischarge attendance was observed; the number of patients attending 1 session (57% UP vs. 65% SP, p = 0.227) and 5 sessions (22% UP vs. 32% SP, p = 0.151) and the mean number of postdischarge visits attended were comparable between the UP and SP groups (2.7 ± 6 vs. 4.5 ± 6; Mann–Whitney U = 1,517, p = 0.124). Conclusions We did not find that UP patients who had been admitted for alcohol detoxification had a significantly higher dropout rate or lower postdischarge addiction treatment attendance. Because they may have several advantages, detoxification programs directly linked with EDs should be further evaluated.

Keywords: Detoxification; Alcohol; Emergency; Inpatients; Engagement


23. Exercise training – A beneficial intervention in the treatment of alcohol use disorders?


Mark Stoutenberg, Chad D. Rethorst, Olivia Lawson, Jennifer P. Read

Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2016:160;2-11
Abstract

Background

A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise training may have multiple beneficial effects in individuals with mental health or substance use disorders. Yet, relatively little knowledge exists regarding the benefits of exercise training to augment treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Purpose The purpose of this narrative review is to present a summary of the growing body of published literature supporting exercise training as a treatment strategy for individuals with AUDs. We will provide evidence on the myriad of ways in which exercise may exert a positive effect on AUD outcomes including stress, anxiety, impulsivity, and depression. Further, we will explore how these mechanisms share common neurobiological pathways. The role of exercise in enhancing the social environment and increasing individual self-efficacy to reduce excess and/or inappropriate alcohol consumption will also be discussed. Discussion We will conclude with a description of completed investigations involving exercise training and provide suggestions for next steps in this innovative field of study.



Keywords: Alcohol Anxiety Depression Exercise Impulsivity Neurobiology Stress

BENZODIAZEPINE

24. Prevalence, prescribed quantities, and trajectory of multiple prescriber episodes for benzodiazepines: A 2-year cohort study


Yasuyuki Okumura, Sayuri Shimizu, Toshihiko Matsumoto

Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2016:158;118-125
Abstract

Background Little is known about the use of multiple prescribers for benzodiazepines, which might reflect fragmented patient care and increases the risk of hospital admission for drug dependence or poisoning. Therefore, we aimed to identify the prevalence, prescribed quantities, and trajectory of multiple prescriber episodes for benzodiazepines.

Methods We conducted a 2-year cohort study of 1178,361 recipients aged 0–74 years using a large health insurance claims database in Japan. We quantified multiple prescriber episodes for benzodiazepines occurring in ambulatory care settings in a baseline and subsequent year by (1) counting the number of unique providers within a 12-month period, (2) calculating the maximum number of unique providers within a single month, and (3) identifying consecutive overlapping prescriptions of over 30 days duration.

Results Among 58,314 patients with a benzodiazepine prescription during the baseline year, 282 (0.5%) filled prescriptions from four or more providers within a 12-month period, 439 (0.8%) filled prescriptions from three or more providers within a single month, and 757 (1.3%) filled consecutive overlapping prescriptions. The odds for multiple prescriber episodes were significantly higher among patients with multiple chronic conditions. Consecutive overlapping prescriptions had the best accuracy to detect patients with potentially questionable prescribed quantities as well as to predict those with multiple prescriber episodes in the subsequent year. Conclusions These results highlight the need for pharmacists to increase their involvement in prescription oversight and for health insurance agencies to implement a prescription monitoring program to screen for patients with multiple prescriber episodes for benzodiazepines.


Keywords: Abuse; Diversion; Doctor shopping; Pharmacoepidemiology; Prescription monitoring


25. Attitudes towards a maintenance (-agonist) treatment approach in high-dose benzodiazepine-dependent patients: a qualitative study


Michael Liebrenz, Marcel Schneider, Anna Buadze, Marie-Therese Gehring, Anish Dube and Carlo Caflisch

Harm Reduction Journal 2016:13(1)



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