Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus): a technical Conservation Assessment Prepared for the usda forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Species Conservation Project December 12, 2006 James A. Sedgwick



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discrimination in all its programs and activities on 

the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, 

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genetic  information,  political  beliefs,  reprisal,  or 

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all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons 

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TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). 

To file a complaint of discrimination, write to USDA, 

Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400 Independence 

Avenue,  S.W.,  Washington,  DC  20250-9410,  or  call 

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits 

discrimination in all its programs and activities on 

the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, 

and  where  applicable,  sex,  marital  status,  familial 

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genetic  information,  political  beliefs,  reprisal,  or 

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derived  from  any  public  assistance  program.  (Not 

all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons 

with disabilities who require alternative means for 

communication  of  program  information  (Braille, 

large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA’s 

TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). 

To file a complaint of discrimination, write to USDA, 

Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400 Independence 

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Document Outline

  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • AUTHOR’S BIOGRAPHY
  • COVER PHOTO CREDIT
  • SUMMARY OF KEY COMPONENTS FOR CONSERVATION OF LONG-BILLED CURLEW
    • Status
    • Primary Threats
    • Primary Conservation Elements, Management Implications and Considerations
  • LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES
  • INTRODUCTION
    • Goal
    • Scope
    • Treatment of Uncertainty
    • Publication of Assessment on the World Wide Web
    • Peer Review
  • MANAGEMENT STATUS AND NATURAL HISTORY
    • Management Status
    • Existing Regulatory Mechanisms, Management Plans, and Conservation Strategies
      • Laws, regulations, and management direction
      • Enforcement of existing laws and regulations
    • Biology and Ecology
      • Systematics and species description
      • Distribution and abundance
      • Population trend
      • Activity pattern
      • Habitat
        • Habitat associations
        • Microhabitat
        • Territoriality
        • Spatial patterns, landscape mosaic, juxtaposition of habitats
        • Habitat change and causes
        • Habitat availability relative to occupied habitat
      • Food habits
      • Breeding biology
        • Phenology of courtship and breeding
        • Courtship and breeding behavior
        • Site and mate fidelity
      • Demography
        • Genetic issues
        • Recruitment, survival, immigration, age at reproduction
        • Ecological influences on survival and reproduction
        • Spacing, defense and size of area, and population regulation
        • Dispersal
        • Source/sink, demographically linked populations
        • Factors limiting population growth
        • Life cycle graph and model development
        • Sensitivity analysis
        • Elasticity analysis
        • Other demographic parameters
        • Stochastic model
        • Potential refinements of the models
      • Community ecology
        • Predators and habitat use
        • Parasites and disease
        • Competitors and habitat use
        • Envirogram of ecological relationships
  • CONSERVATION
    • Threats
      • Land-use practices
      • Grazing
      • Fire and fire suppression
      • Exotic species
      • Recreation
      • Energy development
      • Application of chemicals
    • Conservation Status of Long-billed Curlews in Region 2
    • Management of Long-billed Curlews in Region 2
      • Implications and potential conservation elements
      • Fire
      • Grazing
      • Cultivation, seeding, exotics
      • Tools and practices
        • Population or habitat management approaches and their effectiveness
        • Inventory and monitoring of populations and habitat
    • Information Needs
      • Fragmentation
      • Population surveys
      • Wintering ecology
      • Fire and grazing
      • Exotics
      • Human disturbance
      • Taxonomy
      • Habitat restoration
      • Reproduction and foraging
      • Relationship with prey/food populations
      • Relationship with predators
      • Movement patterns
      • Prey response to habitat change
      • Demography
  • DEFINITIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • Table 1. Parameter values for the component terms (Pi and mi) that make up the vital rates in the         projection matrix for long-billed curlew.
  • Table 2. Stable age distribution.
  • Table 3. Reproductive values.
  • Table 4. Results of four different stochastic projections for long-billed curlew.
  • Figure 1. Map of USDA Forest Service Region 2. 
  • Figure 2. Relative breeding season distribution and abundance of long-billed curlew.
  • Figure 3. Relative winter season distribution and abundance of long-billed curlew.
  • Figure 4. Population trend of long-billed curlew survey wide from 1966 to 2004.
  • Figure 5. Population trend of long-billed curlew for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 6 from 1966         to 2004.
  • Figure 6. Population trend of long-billed curlew for Central Region of the Breeding Bird Survey from         1966 to 2004.
  • Figure 7. Breeding Bird Survey trend map for long-billed curlew from 1966 to 2003.
  • Figure 8. Life cycle graph for long-billed curlew.
  • Figure 9a. Symbolic values for the projection matrix of vital rates, A (with cells aij) corresponding to the long-billed curlew life cycle graph of Figure 8.
  • Figure 9b. Numeric values for the projection matrix of vital rates, A (with cells aij) corresponding to the long-billed curlew life cycle graph of Figure 8.
  • Figure 10. Possible sensitivities matrix.
  • Figure 11. Elasticity matrix.
  • Figure 12a. Resources centrum of the long-billed curlew envirogram.
  • Figure 12b. Malentities centrum of the long-billed curlew envirogram.
  • Figure 12c. Predators/competitors centrum of the long-billed curlew envirogram.
  • Figure 13. Map of Bird Conservation Regions of the United States.
  • Figure 14. Map of Breeding Bird Survey strata.
  • Figure 15. Map of Physiographic Areas as defined by Partners in Flight.


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