Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus): a technical Conservation Assessment Prepared for the usda forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Species Conservation Project December 12, 2006 James A. Sedgwick



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Parasites and disease.......................................................................................................................................29



Competitors and habitat use ...........................................................................................................................30

Envirogram of ecological relationships..........................................................................................................30

CONSERVATION.........................................................................................................................................................30

Threats......................................................................................................................................................................30

Land-use practices...............................................................................................................................................30

Grazing................................................................................................................................................................34

Fire and fire suppression .....................................................................................................................................34

Exotic species......................................................................................................................................................34

Recreation............................................................................................................................................................35

Energy development............................................................................................................................................35

Application of chemicals.....................................................................................................................................35

Conservation Status of Long-billed Curlews in Region 2 .......................................................................................35

Management of Long-billed Curlews in Region 2...................................................................................................36

Implications and potential conservation elements ..............................................................................................36

Fire ......................................................................................................................................................................36

Grazing................................................................................................................................................................36

Cultivation, seeding, exotics ...............................................................................................................................37

Tools and practices ..............................................................................................................................................37

Population or habitat management approaches and their effectiveness .........................................................37

Inventory and monitoring of populations and habitat ....................................................................................38

Information Needs....................................................................................................................................................39

Fragmentation......................................................................................................................................................39

Population surveys ..............................................................................................................................................39

Wintering ecology ...............................................................................................................................................39

Fire and grazing...................................................................................................................................................39

Exotics.................................................................................................................................................................39

Human disturbance..............................................................................................................................................39

Taxonomy............................................................................................................................................................39

Habitat restoration...............................................................................................................................................39

Reproduction and foraging..................................................................................................................................39

Relationship with prey/food populations ............................................................................................................39

Relationship with predators.................................................................................................................................39

Movement patterns..............................................................................................................................................39

Prey response to habitat change ..........................................................................................................................39

Demography........................................................................................................................................................39

DEFINITIONS..............................................................................................................................................................41

REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................................................45

EDITOR: Gary Patton, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region





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