Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus): a technical Conservation Assessment Prepared for the usda forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Species Conservation Project December 12, 2006 James A. Sedgwick



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L



IST OF 

T

ABLES AND 

F

IGURES

Figures:

Tables:

Table 1. Parameter values for the component terms (P

i

 and m



i

) that make up the vital rates in the         

projection matrix for long-billed curlew........................................................................................................ 25

Table 2. Stable age distribution...................................................................................................................... 28

Table 3. Reproductive values......................................................................................................................... 28

Table 4. Results of four different stochastic projections for long-billed curlew............................................ 28

Figure 1. Map of USDA Forest Service Region 2.  ......................................................................................... 7

Figure 2. Relative breeding season distribution and abundance of long-billed curlew. ................................ 11

Figure 3. Relative winter season distribution and abundance of long-billed curlew..................................... 12

Figure 4. Population trend of long-billed curlew survey wide from 1966 to 2004. ...................................... 13

Figure 5. Population trend of long-billed curlew for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 6 from 1966         

to 2004. .......................................................................................................................................................... 14

Figure 6. Population trend of long-billed curlew for Central Region of the Breeding Bird Survey from         

1966 to 2004. ................................................................................................................................................. 14

Figure 7. Breeding Bird Survey trend map for long-billed curlew from 1966 to 2003................................. 15

Figure 8. Life cycle graph for long-billed curlew.......................................................................................... 25

Figure 9a. Symbolic values for the projection matrix of vital rates, A (with cells a

ij

) corresponding to the 



long-billed curlew life cycle graph of Figure 8. ............................................................................................ 26

Figure 9b. Numeric values for the projection matrix of vital rates, A (with cells a

ij

) corresponding to the 



long-billed curlew life cycle graph of Figure 8. ............................................................................................ 26

Figure 10. Possible sensitivities matrix. ........................................................................................................ 27

Figure 11. Elasticity matrix............................................................................................................................ 27

Figure 12a. Resources centrum of the long-billed curlew envirogram.......................................................... 31

Figure 12b. Malentities centrum of the long-billed curlew envirogram........................................................ 32

Figure 12c. Predators/competitors centrum of the long-billed curlew envirogram....................................... 33

Figure 13. Map of Bird Conservation Regions of the United States. ............................................................ 42

Figure 14. Map of Breeding Bird Survey strata............................................................................................. 43

Figure 15. Map of Physiographic Areas as defined by Partners in Flight...................................................... 44



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NTRODUCTION

This  conservation  assessment  is  one  of  many 

being  produced  to  support  the  Species  Conservation 

Project  for  the  Rocky  Mountain  Region  (Region  2), 

USDA  Forest  Service  (USFS)  (Figure  1).  The  long-

billed curlew is the focus of an assessment because it 

has  been  added  to  the  Regional  Forester’s  Sensitive 

Species  List  (Revised  2003).  Within  the  National 

Forest System, a sensitive species is a plant or animal 

whose  population  viability  is  identified  as  a  concern 

by  a  Regional  Forester  because  of  significant  current 

or  predicted  downward  trends  in  abundance  and/or 

habitat  capability  that  would  reduce  its  distribution 

(FSM  2670.5  [19]).  Because  a  sensitive  species  may 

require special management, knowledge of its biology 

and ecology is critical. This assessment addresses the 

biology  and  conservation  of  the  long-billed  curlew 

throughout its range, with emphasis on Region 2.



Goal

Species  conservation  assessments  produced  as 

part of the Species Conservation Project are designed 

to  provide  land  managers,  biologists,  other  agencies, 

and  the  public  with  a  thorough  treatment  of  the 

biology,  ecology,  conservation,  and  management  of 

certain species based on current scientific knowledge. 

The  assessment  goals  limit  the  scope  of  the  work  to 

critical  summaries  of  information  needs.  Although 

the  assessment  does  not  seek  to  develop  prescriptive 

management  recommendations,  it  does  develop  the 

ecological  context  upon  which  management  must  be 

based and focuses on the consequences of changes in 

the  environment  that  result  from  management  (i.e., 

management  implications).  Furthermore,  it  discusses 

and evaluates management recommendations currently 

in use or proposed elsewhere.

Figure 1. Regional map of USDA Forest Service Region 2. National grasslands and forests are shaded in green.




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