judgements.. Today, most Western companies prefer to issue a verification of employment on an official
letterhead, but recommendations are more and more often written on an ordinary sheet of paper to
underline the fact that the letter reflects the personal opinion of the referee, rather than the company’s
When it comes to disciplinary punishment, the majority of managers hesitate and prefer to take a wait-
and-see position. Many managers close their eyes to weaknesses of their subordinates and hope that
things will improve of their own accord. At the same time, the imposition of punishment in case of
obvious violations of labour discipline is very important for a number of reasons. In some cases, such
measures help to increase labour productivity, as well as to define precise standards of behaviour
obligatory for all employees.
Psychological tests have been designed and research has been conducted to discover more efficient
in a professional and constructive manner. For example, if a manager shouts at a subordinate for arriving
to work late, this measure is hardly likely to change the behaviour of the culprit. A more feasible way to
achieve the desired results is to talk face to face and to discuss reasons and consequences of being late.
The object of criticism should be the act rather than the individual. It is necessary to listen to explanations
of the other party. Disciplinary punishment should be tough and consistent. It goes without saying that
punishment cannot be more severe, than that provided by the relevant state regulation..
Managing people should be based on such principles as: mutual respect, justice, honest labour,
transparency, etc. These are the main moral values of any society. Respect for human rights implies
following these basic moral values. Every individual, regardless of the position held, is entitled to the
right to life, freedom of opinion, health, security and the right to property. People also have a right to a
private life. In the business context, this means that every employee is free to spend his or her off-the-
work hours as he or she pleases. If an individual has been hired by a company, this does not mean that his
or her private life, rights, or personal secrets automatically become company property. Such integral
rights shall not be forfeited within the work environment. Employers are not entitled to collect personal
information about their employees, or to inspect their personal filing cabinets and desks without duly
justified grounds and authorisation. The right of privacy in the workplace shall be mentioned specifically.
Employees, for their part, are entitled to inquire how their performance is evaluated and to learn the
nature of personal information in their personnel files.
Unfortunately, we have to state that many employers in Azerbaijan completely ignore the right of their
employers. Some employees find themselves in work conditions based on the principle: “we do not have
fixed work hours, you will work as much as needed.” Most enterprises in Azerbaijan do not pay overtime,
despite the fact that the law prohibits overtime without due compensation.
Based upon the above discussion, it should be clear that every employee has a right of grievance, which
means a right to file a complaint to his or her supervisor and, if necessary, to the head of a company on
legal infringements and ethical violations. A claimant should be protected against possible retaliation of
the accused and each manager should, in his turn, create conditions for safe grievance filing. Procedures
to file a grievance should be defined precisely and made known to all staff members in order to eliminate
all potential misunderstanding. For example, an employee is entitled to make a compliant to his or her
immediate supervisor. If not satisfied, an employee can proceed to the next line manager with a copy to
immediate supervisor. Such procedures are designed to ensure subordination in a company, but at the
Safety regulations, labour protection and health preservation
Many companies have special programs on safety regulations, labour protection and health preservation.
The main aim of these programs is to prevent accidents in the work place. Every firm is obliged to ensure
safe labour conditions for its personnel. Staff members, in their turn, are to follow safety regulations. To
create a healthy and safe workplace environment, company strategy in this area usually sets forth the
ensuring that equipment and tools are safe
following safety precautions, monitoring their implementation and explaining these rules to
creating incentives for healthy life style of employees both in and out of the work place;
consistently upgrading safety systems to minimise accidents and traumas.
Any information of a technical or financial nature or of any other sort considered to constitute a
Personal information, records of a company’s customers and personnel, as well as information on a
country’s security which might be available to a company’s officials, should also be considered
In any competitive company that produces quality goods or services, management imposes strict rules to
information is inadmissible from ethical point of view, as well as for commercial considerations,
especially if information in question concerns the market product or service of a company. In short, any
information that might be used by competitors to the ruin a company should be classified as confidential.
In addition, employers shall not use confidential information for their own personal gain, nor should they
pass this information to third parties. If an employee leaves a company, all confidential information shall
be returned to the company.
Many companies have their own rules concerning confidential information:
example, in a conference hall, reception or on the desk;
information on a company or its affiliates shall not be passed on to close friends or relatives
reception areas and off of the company premises, (underground, bus stations, etc.);
public relations department of a company.
These procedures may seem at first glance too severe and bureaucratic, but they are efficient enough and
company in a market. Today in Azerbaijan we do not have many huge companies, and therefore lack
serious competition in the market. Therefore, this problem is not acute for our country. However, some
enterprises, for example, SOCAR (State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic), which concludes multi-
million contracts, should in our view, take this problem quite seriously.
All employees regardless of their professional and personal relationships, must come into contact with