
Maths in the arab world introduction

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INTRODUCTION Greeks ?? Europeans Conquests: Damascus, Jerusalem, Mesopotamia, Alexandria. Spain (including North Africa and South Italy) Library of Alexandria House of Wisdom(“Beit al Hinka”)
Some translations Euclid’s Elements
Ptolemy’s Almagest
Aristotle, Apollonius, Archimedes, Heron, Diophantus and Indian writers.
ALKHWARIZMI Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Mūsā alJwārizmī AlKhorezmi, alKhwarizmi, AlKhawarizmi, AlKhawaritzmi or alKhowarizmi
780 DC  Kharizm (south of Aral Sea) 850 DC  Bagdad
820 DC – Caliph Al'Mamun (House of Wisdom) Travels: Afghanistan, Turkey, Russia...
Main works Maths, Astronomy, Astrology, Geography and History
AlKhwarizmi: father of Algebra Kitab aljabr wa'lmuqabala – ‘algebra’ method for solving linear and quadratic equations Reduction of the equations to one of six standard forms (b,c >0) :  squares equal roots (ax2 = bx)
 squares equal number (ax2 = c)
 roots equal number (bx = c)
 squares and roots equal number (ax2 + bx = c)
 squares and number equal roots (ax2 + c = bx)
 roots and number equal squares (bx + c = ax2)
Solve the equation x2+6x=7 Solve the equation x2+6x=7
(Latin translation)  numerical system
 India
 zero
The Arabic numeral system Different number systems were used simultaneously in the Arabic world over a long period of time. There were three different types of arithmetic (11th century):  counting on the fingers with the numerals written entirely in words
 the sexagesimal system with numerals denoted by letters of the Arabic alphabet
 the arithmetic of the Indian numerals
alSizji (969) alSizji (969) alBiruni (1082) The biggest change was the fact that the 2 and the 3 have been rotated through 90º.
The scribes therefore, instead of writing from right to left (the standard way that Arabic was written) wrote in lines from top to bottom. The scribes therefore, instead of writing from right to left (the standard way that Arabic was written) wrote in lines from top to bottom.
alBanna alMarrakushi (beginning of the 14th century) alBanna alMarrakushi (beginning of the 14th century)
AlHaytham He was the first to attempt to classify all even perfect numbers as those of the form 2k1(2k  1) where 2k  1 is prime. He is also the first person that we know to state Wilson's theorem: If p is prime then 1+(p1)! is divisible by p.
Trigonometry AlBattani, Abu’lWafa, Ibn Yunus, Nasir alTusi The Arabs start their study with the idea of the Greeks and the idea of Hindus.At the end, they prefer the idea of the Hindus.
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