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saitlərsiz təsəvvür etmək çətindir. Lakin ingili dilinin Kanada və ABŞ-da
işlədilən bəzi dialektlərində tərkibində sait səs olmayan sözlər mövcuddur.
F ДЛИННЫЕ И КОРОТКИЕ ГЛАСНЫЕ В ЯЗЫКЕ. РEЗЮМE Одним из наиболее важных факторов в длине звука на разных
языках. Некоторые языки не согласны с условиями фонетического длины
гласной. Многие языки были определены для группы из трех длины
гласной. Английский монофтонги разделены на две группы по длинной и
короткой. Пять из них долгой и семь коротких гласных. Длинные гласные
могут быть использованы в любой части слова, начало, середина и конец,
внутреннего и наружного слога. Согласно правилам фонологических
звуков произносимых звуков окрестности, с воздействием внешних
факторов может измениться.Слова трудно представить себе гласные. Тем
не менее, в некоторых диалектах английского языка, используемых в
Канаде и США, есть слова, которые не являются частью гласного звука.
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RUHANE UMAROVA ASPU PLANNING ENGLISH LANGUAGE LESSONS Açar sözlər: plan, dərs, müəllim, dərslik, motivasiya. Keywords: plan, lesson, teacher, textbook, motivation. Ключевые слова: план, урок, преподаватель, учебник, мотивация. In secondary schools it is very important for us to teach our lessons
according to some methods. Besides, we must use planning forms during the
teaching. Nowadays English is the second language in the entire world. That is
why in our country the English language is taught by teachers. By the way,
whereas today English is the world’s most widely studied foreign language, 500
years ago it was Latin, for it was dominant language of education, commerce,
religion, and government in the Western world (3, 3).
Every lesson is unique and is made up different stages. Lessons can
focus on grammar, vocabulary, reading or writing. They may contain listening
and speaking activities and concentrate on introducing new language items or
on revision. The actual content of any lesson will depend on what the teacher
aims to achieve during the lesson, the students and the teaching situation (1, 7).
Having done some pre planning and made decisions about the kinds of lesson
we want to teach, we can make the lesson plan. This may take a number of
different forms, depending upon the circumstances of the lesson and depending
also, on our attitude to planning in general.
The way that the teachers plan lessons depends upon circumstances in
which the lesson is to take place and on the teacher’s experience. Near one end
of a ‘planning continuum’, teachers may do all the pre-planning in their head
and make actual decisions about what to include in the lesson as they hurry
along the corridor to the class (4, p 365). Those with experience can get away
with this some of the time because they have a number of familiar routines to
fall back on. Another scenario near the same end of the continuum occurs when
teachers are following a course book and they do exactly what the book says,
letting the course book writers, in effect, do their planning for them. This is
especially attractive for teachers under extreme time pressure, though if we do
not spend time thinking about how to use the course book activities we may run
into difficulties later. Really effective course book use is more complex than
It is strange, but some teachers do not complete detailed lesson plans
every day and then wonder why students do not learn. Although years of
experience can shore up less-than complete planning, nothing compares to well-
planned lessons. Comprehensive plans increase the likelihood that lessons run
smoothly, so that students receive quality instruction (2, p 117). Experienced
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teachers may well be able to run effective lessons in this way, without making a
plan at all. When such lessons are successful they can be immensely rewarding
for all concerned.
The vast majority of lesson planning probably takes place between these
two extremes. Teachers may scribble things in their notebooks, sometimes only
nothing the page of a book or the name of an activity. Other teachers may write
down questions they wish to ask. They may make a list of the web sites they
want students to visit together with the information they have to look for online.
The actual form a plan takes is less important than the thought that has
gone into it; the overriding principle is that we should have an idea of what we
hope our students will achieve in the class, and that this should guide our
decisions about how to bring it about. However, written plans do have a
secondary function as a record of what has gone on, and in the lesson itself they
help to remind teachers of what they had decided to do, what materials they
need, and how long they had planned to speed on certain activities.
Planning a sequence of lessons is based on the same principles as
planning a single lesson, but there are number of additional issues which we
need to pay special attention to:
Before and during: however carefully we plan, in practice
unforeseen things are likely to happen during the course of a lesson, and so our
plans are continually modified in the light of these. Even more than a plan for an
individual lesson, a scheme of work for weeks or months of lessons is only a
proposal of what we hope to achieve in that time. We will need to revisit this
scheme constantly to update it.
Short and long term goals: however motivated a student may be
at the beginning of a course, the level of that motivation may fall dramatically if
the student is not engaged or if they cannot see where they are going – or know
when they have got there.
Depending on the circumstances of the plan, the teacher may want to
detail more information about individual students, e.g. Anar has a sound
knowledge of English and is very confident in his reading and writing abilities.
However, he tends to be rather too quiet in group work, since he is not
especially comfortable at ‘putting herself forward’. This tends to get in the way
of the development of his oral fluency. Such detailed description will be
especially appropriate with smaller groups, but becomes increasingly difficult to
do accurately with larger classes.
Planning a lesson is not the same as scripting a lesson. Wherever our
preparations fit on the planning continuum, what we take into the lesson is a
proposal for action, rather than a lesson blueprint to be followed slavishly. And
our proposal for action, transformed into action in the classroom, is bound to
‘evoke some sort of student reaction’. We then have to decide how to cope with
that reaction and whether, in the light of it, we can continue with our plan or
whether we need to modify it as we go along.