Multinuclear nmr study of Lithiated Silver Vanadium Oxide By Christina Zayas, Aquinas High School

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Multinuclear NMR Study of Lithiated Silver Vanadium Oxide

Introduction: Goal of Experiment

  • To test the hypothesis that the Ag + ions are reduced during the beginning stages of lithiation before V4+ at higher lithium content.

  • The ability to determine which undergoes reduction first will enable us to determine what actually happens at a microscopic level.

  • Ag0 is an excellent conductor. Therefore, the ability to reduce Ag 2 +1 to Ag 0 first will allow increased electric conductivity, which would result in longer lasting primary and secondary batteries.

A Lithiated Silver Vanadium Oxide Model

What is NMR Spectroscopy?

  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a phenomenon that occurs when the nuclei of certain atoms are immersed in a static magnetic field and exposed to a second magnetic field.

  • Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter.

NMR Spectroscopy

  • NMR Spectroscopy is the use of the NMR phenomenon to study physical, chemical, and biological properties of matter.

  • Studies are done by analyzing spectrums that are produced through NMR.

NMR and Spin

  • NMR only happens with nuclei with spin.

  • Spin is a fundamental property of all unpaired electrons, protons, and neutrons.

  • In NMR, there is only a concern for the unpaired spin of the nuclei (no electrons)

  • NMR can only be performed on isotopes whose natural abundance is high enough to be detected.

What is Spin?

  • Protons will have a spin that is similar to a magnetic moment vector, causing the proton to behave like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole.

  • When the proton is placed in an external magnetic field, the spin vector of the particle aligns itself with the external field, just like a magnet would.

How can NMR help to create better batteries?

  • NMR spectrum is sensitive to a number of physical parameters that are directly related to the efficacy of the working cell.

    • Li-ion mobility, electronic conductivity, and changes in the valence or electronic structures of the cations that are involved in the redox processes
  • It is element-specific and may be use to directly examine the species that are involved in the working battery.

Why do we need better batteries?

  • To power things like:

The Challenge

  • To create secondary batteries that are the following:

Secondary Batteries


  • This graph indicates that vanadium has an oxidation state of +4 at this level of lithium.

  • It is paramagnetic and parabroading at this level.

  • The electron configuration is 1s22s22p63s23p64s1, which means that it has only one electron and it is paramagnetic.

Experiment -continued


  • It has been concluded so far that lithiated silver vanadium oxide could be useful to create better secondary batteries.

  • Further research is needed to determine its usefulness under all conditions.

    • This has been a delay in our lab because some of the machines were broken.

Pictures of the Hunter NMR Lab

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