Nobel Prizes List from 1901



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Nature and Science, 4(3), 2006, Ma, Nobel Prizes


Nobel Prizes from 1901
Ma Hongbao
East Lansing, Michigan, USA, Email: hongbao@msu.edu
The Nobel Prizes were set up by the final will of Alfred Nobel, a Swedish chemist, industrialist, and the inventor of dynamite on November 27, 1895 at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris, which are awarding to people and organizations who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. The Nobel Prizes are generally awarded annually in the categories as following:

  1. Chemistry, decided by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

  2. Economics, decided by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

  3. Literature, decided by the Swedish Academy

  4. Peace, decided by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, appointed by the Norwegian Parliament, Stortinget

  5. Physics, decided by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

  6. Physiology or Medicine, decided by Karolinska Institutet

Nobel Prizes are widely regarded as the highest prize in the world today. As of November 2005, a total of 776 Nobel Prizes have been awarded, 758 to individuals and 18 to organizations. [Nature and Science. 2006;4(3):86-94].



I. List of All Nobel Prize Winners (1901 – 2005):


  1. 1901 - Chemistry, Jacobus H. van 't Hoff

  2.            Literature, Sully Prudhomme

  3.            Medicine, Emil von Behring

  4.            Peace, Henry Dunant

  5.            Peace, Frédéric Passy

  6.            Physics, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

  7. 1902 - Chemistry, Emil Fischer

  8.            Literature, Theodor Mommsen

  9.            Medicine, Ronald Ross

  10.            Peace, Élie Ducommun

  11.            Peace, Albert Gobat

  12.            Physics, Hendrik A. Lorentz

  13.            Physics, Pieter Zeeman

  14. 1903 - Chemistry, Svante Arrhenius

  15.            Literature, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson

  16.            Medicine, Niels Ryberg Finsen

  17.            Peace, Randal Cremer

  18.            Physics, Henri Becquerel

  19.            Physics, Pierre Curie

  20.            Physics, Marie Curie

  21. 1904 - Chemistry, Sir William Ramsay

  22.            Literature, José Echegaray

  23.            Literature, Frédéric Mistral

  24.            Medicine, Ivan Pavlov

  25.            Peace, Institute of International Law

  26.            Physics, Lord Rayleigh

  27. 1905 - Chemistry, Adolf von Baeyer

  28.            Literature, Henryk Sienkiewicz

  29.            Medicine, Robert Koch

  30.            Peace, Bertha von Suttner

  31.            Physics, Philipp Lenard

  32. 1906 - Chemistry, Henri Moissan

  33.            Literature, Giosuè Carducci

  34.            Medicine, Camillo Golgi

  35.            Medicine, Santiago Ramón y Cajal

  36.            Peace, Theodore Roosevelt

  37.            Physics, J.J. Thomson

  38. 1907 - Chemistry, Eduard Buchner

  39.            Literature, Rudyard Kipling

  40.            Medicine, Alphonse Laveran

  41.            Peace, Ernesto Teodoro Moneta

  42.            Peace, Louis Renault

  43.            Physics, Albert A. Michelson

  44. 1908 - Chemistry, Ernest Rutherford

  45.            Literature, Rudolf Eucken

  46.            Medicine, Paul Ehrlich

  47.            Medicine, Ilya Mechnikov

  48.            Peace, Klas Pontus Arnoldson

  49.            Peace, Fredrik Bajer

  50.            Physics, Gabriel Lippmann

  51. 1909 - Chemistry, Wilhelm Ostwald

  52.            Literature, Selma Lagerlöf

  53.            Medicine, Theodor Kocher

  54.            Peace, Auguste Beernaert

  55.            Peace, Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant

  56.            Physics, Ferdinand Braun

  57.            Physics, Guglielmo Marconi

  58. 1910 - Chemistry, Otto Wallach

  59.            Literature, Paul Heyse

  60.            Medicine, Albrecht Kossel

  61.            Peace, Permanent International Peace Bureau

  62.            Physics, Johannes Diderik van der Waals

  63. 1911 - Chemistry, Marie Curie

  64.            Literature, Maurice Maeterlinck

  65.            Medicine, Allvar Gullstrand

  66.            Peace, Tobias Asser

  67.            Peace, Alfred Fried

  68.            Physics, Wilhelm Wien

  69. 1912 - Chemistry, Victor Grignard

  70.            Chemistry, Paul Sabatier

  71.            Literature, Gerhart Hauptmann

  72.            Medicine, Alexis Carrel

  73.            Peace, Elihu Root

  74.            Physics, Gustaf Dalén

  75. 1913 - Chemistry, Alfred Werner

  76.            Literature, Rabindranath Tagore

  77.            Medicine, Charles Richet

  78.            Peace, Henri La Fontaine

  79.            Physics, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

  80. 1914 - Chemistry, Theodore W. Richards

  81.            Literature, No Prize was Awarded

  82.            Medicine, Robert Bárány

  83.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  84.            Physics, Max von Laue

  85. 1915 - Chemistry, Richard Willstätter

  86.            Literature, Romain Rolland

  87.            Medicine, No Prize was Awarded

  88.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  89.            Physics, William Bragg

  90.            Physics, Lawrence Bragg

  91. 1916 - Chemistry, No Prize was Awarded

  92.            Literature, Verner von Heidenstam

  93.            Medicine, No Prize was Awarded

  94.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  95.            Physics, No Prize was Awarded

  96. 1917 - Chemistry, No Prize was Awarded

  97.            Literature, Karl Gjellerup

  98.            Literature, Henrik Pontoppidan

  99.            Medicine, No Prize was Awarded

  100.            Peace, International Committee of the Red Cross

  101.            Physics, Charles Glover Barkla

  102. 1918 - Chemistry, Fritz Haber

  103.            Literature, No Prize was Awarded

  104.            Medicine, No Prize was Awarded

  105.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  106.            Physics, Max Planck

  107. 1919 - Chemistry, No Prize was Awarded

  108.            Literature, Carl Spitteler

  109.            Medicine, Jules Bordet

  110.            Peace, Woodrow Wilson

  111.            Physics, Johannes Stark

  112. 1920 - Chemistry, Walther Nernst

  113.            Literature, Knut Hamsun

  114.            Medicine, August Krogh

  115.            Peace, Léon Bourgeois

  116.            Physics, Charles Edouard Guillaume

  117. 1921 - Chemistry, Frederick Soddy

  118.            Literature, Anatole France

  119.            Medicine, No Prize was Awarded

  120.            Peace, Hjalmar Branting

  121.            Peace, Christian Lange

  122.            Physics, Albert Einstein

  123. 1922 - Chemistry, Francis W. Aston

  124.            Literature, Jacinto Benavente

  125.            Medicine, Archibald V. Hill

  126.            Medicine, Otto Meyerhof

  127.            Peace, Fridtjof Nansen

  128.            Physics, Niels Bohr

  129. 1923 - Chemistry, Fritz Pregl

  130.            Literature, William Butler Yeats

  131.            Medicine, Frederick G. Banting

  132.            Medicine, John Macleod

  133.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  134.            Physics, Robert A. Millikan

  135. 1924 - Chemistry, No Prize was Awarded

  136.            Literature, Wladyslaw Reymont

  137.            Medicine, Willem Einthoven

  138.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  139.            Physics, Manne Siegbahn

  140. 1925 - Chemistry, Richard Zsigmondy

  141.            Literature, George Bernard Shaw

  142.            Medicine, No Prize was Awarded

  143.            Peace, Sir Austen Chamberlain

  144.            Peace, Charles G. Dawes

  145.            Physics, James Franck

  146.            Physics, Gustav Hertz

  147. 1926 - Chemistry, The Svedberg

  148.            Literature, Grazia Deledda

  149.            Medicine, Johannes Fibiger

  150.            Peace, Aristide Briand

  151.            Peace, Gustav Stresemann

  152.            Physics, Jean Baptiste Perrin

  153. 1927 - Chemistry, Heinrich Wieland

  154.            Literature, Henri Bergson

  155.            Medicine, Julius Wagner-Jauregg

  156.            Peace, Ferdinand Buisson

  157.            Peace, Ludwig Quidde

  158.            Physics, Arthur H. Compton

  159.            Physics, C.T.R. Wilson

  160. 1928 - Chemistry, Adolf Windaus

  161.            Literature, Sigrid Undset

  162.            Medicine, Charles Nicolle

  163.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  164.            Physics, Owen Willans Richardson

  165. 1929 - Chemistry, Arthur Harden

  166.            Chemistry, Hans von Euler-Chelpin

  167.            Literature, Thomas Mann

  168.            Medicine, Christiaan Eijkman

  169.            Medicine, Sir Frederick Hopkins

  170.            Peace, Frank B. Kellogg

  171.            Physics, Louis de Broglie

  172. 1930 - Chemistry, Hans Fischer

  173.            Literature, Sinclair Lewis

  174.            Medicine, Karl Landsteiner

  175.            Peace, Nathan Söderblom

  176.            Physics, Venkata Raman

  177. 1931 - Chemistry, Friedrich Bergius

  178.            Chemistry, Carl Bosch

  179.            Literature, Erik Axel Karlfeldt

  180.            Medicine, Otto Warburg

  181.            Peace, Jane Addams

  182.            Peace, Nicholas Murray Butler

  183.            Physics, No Prize was Awarded

  184. 1932 - Chemistry, Irving Langmuir

  185.            Literature, John Galsworthy

  186.            Medicine, Edgar Adrian

  187.            Medicine, Sir Charles Sherrington

  188.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  189.            Physics, Werner Heisenberg

  190. 1933 - Chemistry, No Prize was Awarded

  191.            Literature, Ivan Bunin

  192.            Medicine, Thomas H. Morgan

  193.            Peace, Sir Norman Angell

  194.            Physics, Paul A.M. Dirac

  195.            Physics, Erwin Schrödinger

  196. 1934 - Chemistry, Harold C. Urey

  197.            Literature, Luigi Pirandello

  198.            Medicine, George R. Minot

  199.            Medicine, William P. Murphy

  200.            Medicine, George H. Whipple

  201.            Peace, Arthur Henderson

  202.            Physics, No Prize was Awarded

  203. 1935 - Chemistry, Frédéric Joliot

  204.            Chemistry, Irène Joliot-Curie

  205.            Literature, No Prize was Awarded

  206.            Medicine, Hans Spemann

  207.            Peace, Carl von Ossietzky

  208.            Physics, James Chadwick

  209. 1936 - Chemistry, Peter Debye

  210.            Literature, Eugene O'Neill

  211.            Medicine, Sir Henry Dale

  212.            Medicine, Otto Loewi

  213.            Peace, Carlos Saavedra Lamas

  214.            Physics, Carl D. Anderson

  215.            Physics, Victor F. Hess

  216. 1937 - Chemistry, Norman Haworth

  217.            Chemistry, Paul Karrer

  218.            Literature, Roger Martin du Gard

  219.            Medicine, Albert Szent-Györgyi

  220.            Peace, Robert Cecil

  221.            Physics, Clinton Davisson

  222.            Physics, George Paget Thomson

  223. 1938 - Chemistry, Richard Kuhn

  224.            Literature, Pearl Buck

  225.            Medicine, Corneille Heymans

  226.            Peace, Nansen International Office for Refugees

  227.            Physics, Enrico Fermi

  228. 1939 - Chemistry, Adolf Butenandt

  229.            Chemistry, Leopold Ruzicka

  230.            Literature, Frans Eemil Sillanpää

  231.            Medicine, Gerhard Domagk

  232.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  233.            Physics, Ernest Lawrence

  234. 1940 - Chemistry, No Prize was Awarded

  235.            Literature, No Prize was Awarded

  236.            Medicine, No Prize was Awarded

  237.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  238.            Physics, No Prize was Awarded

  239. 1941 - Chemistry, No Prize was Awarded

  240.            Literature, No Prize was Awarded

  241.            Medicine, No Prize was Awarded

  242.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  243.            Physics, No Prize was Awarded

  244. 1942 - Chemistry, No Prize was Awarded

  245.            Literature, No Prize was Awarded

  246.            Medicine, No Prize was Awarded

  247.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  248.            Physics, No Prize was Awarded

  249. 1943 - Chemistry, George de Hevesy

  250.            Literature, No Prize was Awarded

  251.            Medicine, Henrik Dam

  252.            Medicine, Edward A. Doisy

  253.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  254.            Physics, Otto Stern

  255. 1944 - Chemistry, Otto Hahn

  256.            Literature, Johannes V. Jensen

  257.            Medicine, Joseph Erlanger

  258.            Medicine, Herbert S. Gasser

  259.            Peace, International Committee of the Red Cross

  260.            Physics, Isidor Isaac Rabi

  261. 1945 - Chemistry, Artturi Virtanen

  262.            Literature, Gabriela Mistral

  263.            Medicine, Ernst B. Chain

  264.            Medicine, Sir Alexander Fleming

  265.            Medicine, Sir Howard Florey

  266.            Peace, Cordell Hull

  267.            Physics, Wolfgang Pauli

  268. 1946 - Chemistry, John H. Northrop

  269.            Chemistry, Wendell M. Stanley

  270.            Chemistry, James B. Sumner

  271.            Literature, Hermann Hesse

  272.            Medicine, Hermann J. Muller

  273.            Peace, Emily Greene Balch

  274.            Peace, John R. Mott

  275.            Physics, Percy W. Bridgman

  276. 1947 - Chemistry, Sir Robert Robinson

  277.            Literature, André Gide

  278.            Medicine, Carl Cori

  279.            Medicine, Gerty Cori

  280.            Medicine, Bernardo Houssay

  281.            Peace, Friends Service Council

  282.            Peace, American Friends Service Committee

  283.            Physics, Edward V. Appleton

  284. 1948 - Chemistry, Arne Tiselius

  285.            Literature, T.S. Eliot

  286.            Medicine, Paul Müller

  287.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  288.            Physics, Patrick M.S. Blackett

  289. 1949 - Chemistry, William F. Giauque

  290.            Literature, William Faulkner

  291.            Medicine, Walter Hess

  292.            Medicine, Egas Moniz

  293.            Peace, Lord Boyd Orr

  294.            Physics, Hideki Yukawa

  295. 1950 - Chemistry, Kurt Alder

  296.            Chemistry, Otto Diels

  297.            Literature, Bertrand Russell

  298.            Medicine, Philip S. Hench

  299.            Medicine, Edward C. Kendall

  300.            Medicine, Tadeus Reichstein

  301.            Peace, Ralph Bunche

  302.            Physics, Cecil Powell

  303. 1951 - Chemistry, Edwin M. McMillan

  304.            Chemistry, Glenn T. Seaborg

  305.            Literature, Pär Lagerkvist

  306.            Medicine, Max Theiler

  307.            Peace, Léon Jouhaux

  308.            Physics, John Cockcroft

  309.            Physics, Ernest T.S. Walton

  310. 1952 - Chemistry, Archer J.P. Martin

  311.            Chemistry, Richard L.M. Synge

  312.            Literature, François Mauriac

  313.            Medicine, Selman A. Waksman

  314.            Peace, Albert Schweitzer

  315.            Physics, Felix Bloch

  316.            Physics, E. M. Purcell

  317. 1953 - Chemistry, Hermann Staudinger

  318.            Literature, Winston Churchill

  319.            Medicine, Hans Krebs

  320.            Medicine, Fritz Lipmann

  321.            Peace, George C. Marshall

  322.            Physics, Frits Zernike

  323. 1954 - Chemistry, Linus Pauling

  324.            Literature, Ernest Hemingway

  325.            Medicine, John F. Enders

  326.            Medicine, Frederick C. Robbins

  327.            Medicine, Thomas H. Weller

  328.            Peace, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

  329.            Physics, Max Born

  330.            Physics, Walther Bothe

  331. 1955 - Chemistry, Vincent du Vigneaud

  332.            Literature, Halldór Laxness

  333.            Medicine, Hugo Theorell

  334.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  335.            Physics, Polykarp Kusch

  336.            Physics, Willis E. Lamb

  337. 1956 - Chemistry, Sir Cyril Hinshelwood

  338.            Chemistry, Nikolay Semenov

  339.            Literature, Juan Ramón Jiménez

  340.            Medicine, André F. Cournand

  341.            Medicine, Werner Forssmann

  342.            Medicine, Dickinson W. Richards

  343.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  344.            Physics, John Bardeen

  345.            Physics, Walter H. Brattain

  346.            Physics, William B. Shockley

  347. 1957 - Chemistry, Lord Todd

  348.            Literature, Albert Camus

  349.            Medicine, Daniel Bovet

  350.            Peace, Lester Bowles Pearson

  351.            Physics, Tsung-Dao Lee

  352.            Physics, Chen Ning Yang

  353. 1958 - Chemistry, Frederick Sanger

  354.            Literature, Boris Pasternak

  355.            Medicine, George Beadle

  356.            Medicine, Joshua Lederberg

  357.            Medicine, Edward Tatum

  358.            Peace, Georges Pire

  359.            Physics, Pavel A. Cherenkov

  360.            Physics, Il´ja M. Frank

  361.            Physics, Igor Y. Tamm

  362. 1959 - Chemistry, Jaroslav Heyrovsky

  363.            Literature, Salvatore Quasimodo

  364.            Medicine, Arthur Kornberg

  365.            Medicine, Severo Ochoa

  366.            Peace, Philip Noel-Baker

  367.            Physics, Owen Chamberlain

  368.            Physics, Emilio Segrè

  369. 1960 - Chemistry, Willard F. Libby

  370.            Literature, Saint-John Perse

  371.            Medicine, Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet

  372.            Medicine, Peter Medawar

  373.            Peace, Albert Lutuli

  374.            Physics, Donald A. Glaser

  375. 1961 - Chemistry, Melvin Calvin

  376.            Literature, Ivo Andric

  377.            Medicine, Georg von Békésy

  378.            Peace, Dag Hammarskjöld

  379.            Physics, Robert Hofstadter

  380.            Physics, Rudolf Mössbauer

  381. 1962 - Chemistry, John C. Kendrew

  382.            Chemistry, Max F. Perutz

  383.            Literature, John Steinbeck

  384.            Medicine, Francis Crick

  385.            Medicine, James Watson

  386.            Medicine, Maurice Wilkins

  387.            Peace, Linus Pauling

  388.            Physics, Lev Landau

  389. 1963 - Chemistry, Giulio Natta

  390.            Chemistry, Karl Ziegler

  391.            Literature, Giorgos Seferis

  392.            Medicine, Sir John Eccles

  393.            Medicine, Alan L. Hodgkin

  394.            Medicine, Andrew F. Huxley

  395.            Peace, International Committee of the Red Cross

  396.            Peace, League of Red Cross Societies

  397.            Physics, Maria Goeppert-Mayer

  398.            Physics, J. Hans D. Jensen

  399.            Physics, Eugene Wigner

  400. 1964 - Chemistry, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin

  401.            Literature, Jean-Paul Sartre

  402.            Medicine, Konrad Bloch

  403.            Medicine, Feodor Lynen

  404.            Peace, Martin Luther King

  405.            Physics, Nicolay G. Basov

  406.            Physics, Aleksandr M. Prokhorov

  407.            Physics, Charles H. Townes

  408. 1965 - Chemistry, Robert B. Woodward

  409.            Literature, Mikhail Sholokhov

  410.            Medicine, François Jacob

  411.            Medicine, André Lwoff

  412.            Medicine, Jacques Monod

  413.            Peace, United Nations Children's Fund

  414.            Physics, Richard P. Feynman

  415.            Physics, Julian Schwinger

  416.            Physics, Sin-Itiro Tomonaga

  417. 1966 - Chemistry, Robert S. Mulliken

  418.            Literature, Samuel Agnon

  419.            Literature, Nelly Sachs

  420.            Medicine, Charles B. Huggins

  421.            Medicine, Peyton Rous

  422.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  423.            Physics, Alfred Kastler

  424. 1967 - Chemistry, Manfred Eigen

  425.            Chemistry, Ronald G.W. Norrish

  426.            Chemistry, George Porter

  427.            Literature, Miguel Angel Asturias

  428.            Medicine, Ragnar Granit

  429.            Medicine, Haldan K. Hartline

  430.            Medicine, George Wald

  431.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  432.            Physics, Hans Bethe

  433. 1968 - Chemistry, Lars Onsager

  434.            Literature, Yasunari Kawabata

  435.            Medicine, Robert W. Holley

  436.            Medicine, H. Gobind Khorana

  437.            Medicine, Marshall W. Nirenberg

  438.            Peace, René Cassin

  439.            Physics, Luis Alvarez

  440. 1969 - Chemistry, Derek Barton

  441.            Chemistry, Odd Hassel

  442.            Economics, Ragnar Frisch

  443.            Economics, Jan Tinbergen

  444.            Literature, Samuel Beckett

  445.            Medicine, Max Delbrück

  446.            Medicine, Alfred D. Hershey

  447.            Medicine, Salvador E. Luria

  448.            Peace, International Labour Organization

  449.            Physics, Murray Gell-Mann

  450. 1970 - Chemistry, Luis Leloir

  451.            Economics, Paul A. Samuelson

  452.            Literature, Alexandr Solzhenitsyn

  453.            Medicine, Julius Axelrod

  454.            Medicine, Sir Bernard Katz

  455.            Medicine, Ulf von Euler

  456.            Peace, Norman Borlaug

  457.            Physics, Hannes Alfvén

  458.            Physics, Louis Néel

  459. 1971 - Chemistry, Gerhard Herzberg

  460.            Economics, Simon Kuznets

  461.            Literature, Pablo Neruda

  462.            Medicine, Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.

  463.            Peace, Willy Brandt

  464.            Physics, Dennis Gabor

  465. 1972 - Chemistry, Christian Anfinsen

  466.            Chemistry, Stanford Moore

  467.            Chemistry, William H. Stein

  468.            Economics, Kenneth J. Arrow

  469.            Economics, John R. Hicks

  470.            Literature, Heinrich Böll

  471.            Medicine, Gerald M. Edelman

  472.            Medicine, Rodney R. Porter

  473.            Peace, No Prize was Awarded

  474.            Physics, John Bardeen

  475.            Physics, Leon N. Cooper

  476.            Physics, Robert Schrieffer

  477. 1973 - Chemistry, Ernst Otto Fischer

  478.            Chemistry, Geoffrey Wilkinson

  479.            Economics, Wassily Leontief

  480.            Literature, Patrick White

  481.            Medicine, Konrad Lorenz

  482.            Medicine, Nikolaas Tinbergen

  483.            Medicine, Karl von Frisch

  484.            Peace, Le Duc Tho

  485.            Peace, Henry Kissinger

  486.            Physics, Leo Esaki

  487.            Physics, Ivar Giaever

  488.            Physics, Brian D. Josephson

  489. 1974 - Chemistry, Paul J. Flory

  490.            Economics, Gunnar Myrdal

  491.            Economics, Friedrich August von Hayek

  492.            Literature, Eyvind Johnson

  493.            Literature, Harry Martinson

  494.            Medicine, Albert Claude

  495.            Medicine, Christian de Duve

  496.            Medicine, George E. Palade

  497.            Peace, Seán MacBride

  498.            Peace, Eisaku Sato

  499.            Physics, Antony Hewish

  500.            Physics, Martin Ryle

  501. 1975 - Chemistry, John Cornforth

  502.            Chemistry, Vladimir Prelog

  503.            Economics, Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich

  504.            Economics, Tjalling C. Koopmans

  505.            Literature, Eugenio Montale

  506.            Medicine, David Baltimore

  507.            Medicine, Renato Dulbecco

  508.            Medicine, Howard M. Temin

  509.            Peace, Andrei Sakharov

  510.            Physics, Aage N. Bohr

  511.            Physics, Ben R. Mottelson

  512.            Physics, James Rainwater

  513. 1976 - Chemistry, William Lipscomb

  514.            Economics, Milton Friedman

  515.            Literature, Saul Bellow

  516.            Medicine, Baruch S. Blumberg

  517.            Medicine, D. Carleton Gajdusek

  518.            Peace, Mairead Corrigan

  519.            Peace, Betty Williams

  520.            Physics, Burton Richter

  521.            Physics, Samuel C.C. Ting

  522. 1977 - Chemistry, Ilya Prigogine

  523.            Economics, James E. Meade

  524.            Economics, Bertil Ohlin

  525.            Literature, Vicente Aleixandre

  526.            Medicine, Roger Guillemin

  527.            Medicine, Andrew V. Schally

  528.            Medicine, Rosalyn Yalow

  529.            Peace, Amnesty International

  530.            Physics, Philip W. Anderson

  531.            Physics, Sir Nevill F. Mott

  532.            Physics, John H. van Vleck

  533. 1978 - Chemistry, Peter Mitchell

  534.            Economics, Herbert A. Simon

  535.            Literature, Isaac Bashevis Singer

  536.            Medicine, Werner Arber

  537.            Medicine, Daniel Nathans

  538.            Medicine, Hamilton O. Smith

  539.            Peace, Anwar al-Sadat

  540.            Peace, Menachem Begin

  541.            Physics, Pyotr Kapitsa

  542.            Physics, Arno Penzias

  543.            Physics, Robert Woodrow Wilson

  544. 1979 - Chemistry, Herbert C. Brown

  545.            Chemistry, Georg Wittig

  546.            Economics, Sir Arthur Lewis

  547.            Economics, Theodore W. Schultz

  548.            Literature, Odysseus Elytis

  549.            Medicine, Allan M. Cormack

  550.            Medicine, Godfrey N. Hounsfield

  551.            Peace, Mother Teresa

  552.            Physics, Sheldon Glashow

  553.            Physics, Abdus Salam

  554.            Physics, Steven Weinberg

  555. 1980 - Chemistry, Paul Berg

  556.            Chemistry, Walter Gilbert

  557.            Chemistry, Frederick Sanger

  558.            Economics, Lawrence R. Klein

  559.            Literature, Czeslaw Milosz

  560.            Medicine, Baruj Benacerraf

  561.            Medicine, Jean Dausset

  562.            Medicine, George D. Snell

  563.            Peace, Adolfo Pérez Esquivel

  564.            Physics, James Cronin

  565.            Physics, Val Fitch

  566. 1981 - Chemistry, Kenichi Fukui

  567.            Chemistry, Roald Hoffmann

  568.            Economics, James Tobin

  569.            Literature, Elias Canetti

  570.            Medicine, David H. Hubel

  571.            Medicine, Roger W. Sperry

  572.            Medicine, Torsten N. Wiesel

  573.            Peace, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

  574.            Physics, Nicolaas Bloembergen

  575.            Physics, Arthur L. Schawlow

  576.            Physics, Kai M. Siegbahn

  577. 1982 - Chemistry, Aaron Klug

  578.            Economics, George J. Stigler

  579.            Literature, Gabriel García Márquez

  580.            Medicine, Sune K. Bergström

  581.            Medicine, Bengt I. Samuelsson

  582.            Medicine, John R. Vane

  583.            Peace, Alfonso García Robles

  584.            Peace, Alva Myrdal

  585.            Physics, Kenneth G. Wilson

  586. 1983 - Chemistry, Henry Taube

  587.            Economics, Gerard Debreu

  588.            Literature, William Golding

  589.            Medicine, Barbara McClintock

  590.            Peace, Lech Walesa

  591.            Physics, Subramanyan Chandrasekhar

  592.            Physics, William A. Fowler

  593. 1984 - Chemistry, Bruce Merrifield

  594.            Economics, Richard Stone

  595.            Literature, Jaroslav Seifert

  596.            Medicine, Niels K. Jerne

  597.            Medicine, Georges J.F. Köhler

  598.            Medicine, César Milstein

  599.            Peace, Desmond Tutu

  600.            Physics, Carlo Rubbia

  601.            Physics, Simon van der Meer

  602. 1985 - Chemistry, Herbert A. Hauptman

  603.            Chemistry, Jerome Karle

  604.            Economics, Franco Modigliani

  605.            Literature, Claude Simon

  606.            Medicine, Michael S. Brown

  607.            Medicine, Joseph L. Goldstein

  608.            Peace, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War

  609.            Physics, Klaus von Klitzing

  610. 1986 - Chemistry, Dudley R. Herschbach

  611.            Chemistry, Yuan T. Lee

  612.            Chemistry, John C. Polanyi

  613.            Economics, James M. Buchanan Jr.

  614.            Literature, Wole Soyinka

  615.            Medicine, Stanley Cohen

  616.            Medicine, Rita Levi-Montalcini

  617.            Peace, Elie Wiesel

  618.            Physics, Gerd Binnig

  619.            Physics, Heinrich Rohrer

  620.            Physics, Ernst Ruska

  621. 1987 - Chemistry, Donald J. Cram

  622.            Chemistry, Jean-Marie Lehn

  623.            Chemistry, Charles J. Pedersen

  624.            Economics, Robert M. Solow

  625.            Literature, Joseph Brodsky

  626.            Medicine, Susumu Tonegawa

  627.            Peace, Oscar Arias Sánchez

  628.            Physics, J. Georg Bednorz

  629.            Physics, K. Alex Müller

  630. 1988 - Chemistry, Johann Deisenhofer

  631.            Chemistry, Robert Huber

  632.            Chemistry, Hartmut Michel

  633.            Economics, Maurice Allais

  634.            Literature, Naguib Mahfouz

  635.            Medicine, Sir James W. Black

  636.            Medicine, Gertrude B. Elion

  637.            Medicine, George H. Hitchings

  638.            Peace, United Nations Peacekeeping Forces

  639.            Physics, Leon M. Lederman

  640.            Physics, Melvin Schwartz

  641.            Physics, Jack Steinberger

  642. 1989 - Chemistry, Sidney Altman

  643.            Chemistry, Thomas R. Cech

  644.            Economics, Trygve Haavelmo

  645.            Literature, Camilo José Cela

  646.            Medicine, J. Michael Bishop

  647.            Medicine, Harold E. Varmus

  648.            Peace, The 14th Dalai Lama

  649.            Physics, Hans G. Dehmelt

  650.            Physics, Wolfgang Paul

  651.            Physics, Norman F. Ramsey

  652. 1990 - Chemistry, Elias James Corey

  653.            Economics, Harry M. Markowitz

  654.            Economics, Merton H. Miller

  655.            Economics, William F. Sharpe

  656.            Literature, Octavio Paz

  657.            Medicine, Joseph E. Murray

  658.            Medicine, E. Donnall Thomas

  659.            Peace, Mikhail Gorbachev

  660.            Physics, Jerome I. Friedman

  661.            Physics, Henry W. Kendall

  662.            Physics, Richard E. Taylor

  663. 1991 - Chemistry, Richard R. Ernst

  664.            Economics, Ronald H. Coase

  665.            Literature, Nadine Gordimer

  666.            Medicine, Erwin Neher

  667.            Medicine, Bert Sakmann

  668.            Peace, Aung San Suu Kyi

  669.            Physics, Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

  670. 1992 - Chemistry, Rudolph A. Marcus

  671.            Economics, Gary S. Becker

  672.            Literature, Derek Walcott

  673.            Medicine, Edmond H. Fischer

  674.            Medicine, Edwin G. Krebs

  675.            Peace, Rigoberta Menchú Tum

  676.            Physics, Georges Charpak

  677. 1993 - Chemistry, Kary B. Mullis

  678.            Chemistry, Michael Smith

  679.            Economics, Robert W. Fogel

  680.            Economics, Douglass C. North

  681.            Literature, Toni Morrison

  682.            Medicine, Richard J. Roberts

  683.            Medicine, Phillip A. Sharp

  684.            Peace, F.W. de Klerk

  685.            Peace, Nelson Mandela

  686.            Physics, Russell A. Hulse

  687.            Physics, Joseph H. Taylor Jr.

  688. 1994 - Chemistry, George A. Olah

  689.            Economics, John C. Harsanyi

  690.            Economics, John F. Nash Jr.

  691.            Economics, Reinhard Selten

  692.            Literature, Kenzaburo Oe

  693.            Medicine, Alfred G. Gilman

  694.            Medicine, Martin Rodbell

  695.            Peace, Yasser Arafat

  696.            Peace, Shimon Peres

  697.            Peace, Yitzhak Rabin

  698.            Physics, Bertram N. Brockhouse

  699.            Physics, Clifford G. Shull

  700. 1995 - Chemistry, Paul J. Crutzen

  701.            Chemistry, Mario J. Molina

  702.            Chemistry, F. Sherwood Rowland

  703.            Economics, Robert E. Lucas Jr.

  704.            Literature, Seamus Heaney

  705.            Medicine, Edward B. Lewis

  706.            Medicine, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

  707.            Medicine, Eric F. Wieschaus

  708.            Peace, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs

  709.            Peace, Joseph Rotblat

  710.            Physics, Martin L. Perl

  711.            Physics, Frederick Reines

  712. 1996 - Chemistry, Robert F. Curl Jr.

  713.            Chemistry, Sir Harold Kroto

  714.            Chemistry, Richard E. Smalley

  715.            Economics, James A. Mirrlees

  716.            Economics, William Vickrey

  717.            Literature, Wislawa Szymborska

  718.            Medicine, Peter C. Doherty

  719.            Medicine, Rolf M. Zinkernagel

  720.            Peace, Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo

  721.            Peace, José Ramos-Horta

  722.            Physics, David M. Lee

  723.            Physics, Douglas D. Osheroff

  724.            Physics, Robert C. Richardson

  725. 1997 - Chemistry, Paul D. Boyer

  726.            Chemistry, Jens C. Skou

  727.            Chemistry, John E. Walker

  728.            Economics, Robert C. Merton

  729.            Economics, Myron S. Scholes

  730.            Literature, Dario Fo

  731.            Medicine, Stanley B. Prusiner

  732.            Peace, International Campaign to Ban Landmines

  733.            Peace, Jody Williams

  734.            Physics, Steven Chu

  735.            Physics, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji

  736.            Physics, William D. Phillips

  737. 1998 - Chemistry, Walter Kohn

  738.            Chemistry, John Pople

  739.            Economics, Amartya Sen

  740.            Literature, José Saramago

  741.            Medicine, Robert F. Furchgott

  742.            Medicine, Louis J. Ignarro

  743.            Medicine, Ferid Murad

  744.            Peace, John Hume

  745.            Peace, David Trimble

  746.            Physics, Robert B. Laughlin

  747.            Physics, Horst L. Störmer

  748.            Physics, Daniel C. Tsui

  749. 1999 - Chemistry, Ahmed Zewail

  750.            Economics, Robert A. Mundell

  751.            Literature, Günter Grass

  752.            Medicine, Günter Blobel

  753.            Peace, Médecins Sans Frontières

  754.            Physics, Gerardus 't Hooft

  755.            Physics, Martinus J.G. Veltman

  756. 2000 - Chemistry, Alan Heeger

  757.            Chemistry, Alan G. MacDiarmid

  758.            Chemistry, Hideki Shirakawa

  759.            Economics, James J. Heckman

  760.            Economics, Daniel L. McFadden

  761.            Literature, Gao Xingjian

  762.            Medicine, Arvid Carlsson

  763.            Medicine, Paul Greengard

  764.            Medicine, Eric R. Kandel

  765.            Peace, Kim Dae-jung

  766.            Physics, Zhores I. Alferov

  767.            Physics, Jack S. Kilby

  768.            Physics, Herbert Kroemer

  769. 2001 - Chemistry, William S. Knowles

  770.            Chemistry, Ryoji Noyori

  771.            Chemistry, K. Barry Sharpless

  772.            Economics, George A. Akerlof

  773.            Economics, A. Michael Spence

  774.            Economics, Joseph E. Stiglitz

  775.            Literature, V.S. Naipaul

  776.            Medicine, Leland H. Hartwell

  777.            Medicine, Tim Hunt

  778.            Medicine, Sir Paul Nurse

  779.            Peace, United Nations

  780.            Peace, Kofi Annan

  781.            Physics, Eric A. Cornell

  782.            Physics, Wolfgang Ketterle

  783.            Physics, Carl E. Wieman

  784. 2002 - Chemistry, John B. Fenn

  785.            Chemistry, Koichi Tanaka

  786.            Chemistry, Kurt Wüthrich

  787.            Economics, Daniel Kahneman

  788.            Economics, Vernon L. Smith

  789.            Literature, Imre Kertész

  790.            Medicine, Sydney Brenner

  791.            Medicine, H. Robert Horvitz

  792.            Medicine, John E. Sulston

  793.            Peace, Jimmy Carter

  794.            Physics, Raymond Davis Jr.

  795.            Physics, Riccardo Giacconi

  796.            Physics, Masatoshi Koshiba

  797. 2003 - Chemistry, Peter Agre

  798.            Chemistry, Roderick MacKinnon

  799.            Economics, Robert F. Engle III

  800.            Economics, Clive W.J. Granger

  801.            Literature, J.M. Coetzee

  802.            Medicine, Paul C. Lauterbur

  803.            Medicine, Sir Peter Mansfield

  804.            Peace, Shirin Ebadi

  805.            Physics, Alexei A. Abrikosov

  806.            Physics, Vitaly L. Ginzburg

  807.            Physics, Anthony J. Leggett

  808. 2004 - Chemistry, Aaron Ciechanover

  809.            Chemistry, Avram Hershko

  810.            Chemistry, Irwin Rose

  811.            Economics, Finn E. Kydland

  812.            Economics, Edward C. Prescott

  813.            Literature, Elfriede Jelinek

  814.            Medicine, Richard Axel

  815.            Medicine, Linda B. Buck

  816.            Peace, Wangari Maathai

  817.            Physics, David J. Gross

  818.            Physics, H. David Politzer

  819.            Physics, Frank Wilczek

  820. 2005 - Chemistry, Yves Chauvin

  821.            Chemistry, Robert H. Grubbs

  822.            Chemistry, Richard R. Schrock

  823.            Economics, Robert J. Aumann

  824.            Economics, Thomas C. Schelling

  825.            Literature, Harold Pinter

  826.            Medicine, Barry J. Marshall

  827.            Medicine, J. Robin Warren

  828.            Peace, International Atomic Energy Agency

  829.            Peace, Mohamed ElBaradei

  830.            Physics, Roy J. Glauber

  831.            Physics, John L. Hall

  832.            Physics, Theodor W. Hänsch



II. Prize Awarded Organizations

(All are Peace Prizes)


  1. 1904 - Institute of International Law

  2. 1910 - Permanent International Peace Bureau

  3. 1917 - International Committee of the Red Cross

  4. 1938 - Nansen International Office for Refugees

  5. 1944 - International Committee of the Red Cross

  6. 1947 - Friends Service Council

  7. 1947 - American Friends Service Committee

  8. 1954 - Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

  9. 1963 - International Committee of the Red Cross

  10. 1963 - League of Red Cross Societies

  11. 1965 - United Nations Children's Fund

  12. 1969 - International Labour Organization

  13. 1977 - Amnesty International

  14. 1981 - Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

  15. 1985 - International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War

  16. 1988 - United Nations Peacekeeping Forces

  17. 1995 - Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs

  18. 1997 - International Campaign to Ban Landmines

  19. 1999 - Médecins Sans Frontières

  20. 2001 - United Nations

  21. 2005 - International Atomic Energy Agency


III. Women Prize Winners
Chemistry

  1. 1911 - Marie Curie

  2. 1935 - Irène Joliot-Curie

  3. 1964 - Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin


Literature

  1. 1909 - Selma Lagerlöf

  2. 1926 - Grazia Deledda

  3. 1928 - Sigrid Undset

  4. 1938 - Pearl Buck

  5. 1945 - Gabriela Mistral

  6. 1966 - Nelly Sachs

  7. 1991 - Nadine Gordimer

  8. 1993 - Toni Morrison

  9. 1996 - Wislawa Szymborska

  10. 2004 - Elfriede Jelinek


Peace

  1. 1905 - Bertha von Suttner

  2. 1931 - Jane Addams

  3. 1946 - Emily Greene Balch

  4. 1976 - Betty Williams

  5. 1976 - Mairead Corrigan

  6. 1979 - Mother Teresa

  7. 1982 - Alva Myrdal

  8. 1991 - Aung San Suu Kyi

  9. 1992 - Rigoberta Menchú Tum

  10. 1997 - Jody Williams

  11. 2003 - Shirin Ebadi

  12. 2004 - Wangari Maathai


Physics

  1. 1903 - Marie Curie

  2. 1963 - Maria Goeppert-Mayer


Physiology or Medicine

  1. 1947 - Gerty Cori

  2. 1977 - Rosalyn Yalow

  3. 1983 - Barbara McClintock

  4. 1986 - Rita Levi-Montalcini

  5. 1988 - Gertrude B. Elion

  6. 1995 - Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

  7. 2004 - Linda B. Buck








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