Not just a problem for ’developing countries’



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tarix15.08.2018
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Not just a problem for ’developing countries’

  • Not just a problem for ’developing countries’

  • "The links between corruption and the ongoing financial and fiscal crisis in these countries can no longer be ignored,“ (Finn Heinrich, TI, 2012)

  • Corruption in Greece Continues Virtually Unchecked” (Der Spiegel, 2012)

  • The European Commission has described corruption as a “disease that destroys a country from within” and that “Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain – the euro zone’s most financially troubled nations – have deeply rooted problems in their public administration, namely that officials are not accountable for their actions” (Irish Times, 2012)



Key building concepts:

  • Key building concepts:

  • 1. Impartiality (Rothstein and Teorell 2008)

  • Corruption, Definition: «Public abuse for private gain»

  • Quality/ effectiveness (Kaufmann, Kraay & Mastruzzi)

  • “NON ZELI AD ZELUM, NEC MERITI AD MERITUM, SED SOLUM NUMERI AD NUMERUM FIAT COLLATIO” (“comparison should be made not on zeal, nor merit, but solely of numbers”) Gregorius X (1210-1276, Papa 1271)

  • Although QoG measures still imperfect, improving in both scope and availability world-wide

  • like some measures of’democracy’, most measures of QoG are mostly SUBJECTIVE, built mostly on opinions by experts, firms, citizens, NGO’s, etc.

  • Quantitative studies are only a piece of the puzzle



Lots of indicators:

  • Lots of indicators:

  • CPI

  • WGI

  • ICRG

  • Freedom House

  • Eurobarometer

  • & more…



EU is a community of regions (ERDF, REGIO, structural funds, etc.)

  • EU is a community of regions (ERDF, REGIO, structural funds, etc.)

  • Regional difference in development wider than states at times:

  • Ex. 2011 unemployment rates in:

  • IT: Bolzano (2.7%) vs. Sicilia (14.7%)

  • ES: Pais Vasco (10.5%) vs. Andalucia(28%)

  • BE: Flanders (5.1%) vs. Wallonne (11.5%)

  • SK: Bratislava Kraj (6.2%) vs. Východné Slovensko (18.5%)

  • Country ex.: Denmark (7.4%) vs. Bulgaria (10.4%)

  • **So we need to measure corruption/governance at regional level as well..



Almost all existing corruption/ QoG data (from the mid-1990s) at national-level

  • Almost all existing corruption/ QoG data (from the mid-1990s) at national-level

  • 2010: we present 1st (and only) mulit-country, sub national data on QoG to date. Funded by EU Commission (REGIO)

  • We created a QoG Composite Index for 172 E.U. regions

  • The study is based on a citizen-survey of respondents in EU

  • 34,000 respondents in 18 countries (+/- 200 per region). They are the ’consumers’ of QoG

  • 16 QoG-focused (all translated into country languages) questions on:

    • personal experiences & perceptions
    • of the Quality, Corruption & Impartiality…
    • …on Education, Health care, and Law Enforcement
    • 2013: we build on this past research in WP5


Article:

  • Article:

  • Charron, Nicholas, Lewis Dijkstra & Victor Lapuente (2013): Regional Governance Matters: Quality of Government within European Union Member States, Regional Studies,

  • Link: DOI:10.1080/00343404.2013.770141

  • Book:

  • ’Quality of Government and Corruption from a European Perspective’ eds. Charron, Nicholas, Victor Lapuente and Bo Rothstein. 2013. Edward Elgar Publishing

  • EU Commission Working Paper:

  • Charron, Nicholas, Lewis Dijkstra & Victor Lapuente. 2012. ’Regional Govrnance Matters: A Study on Regional Variation of Quality of Government in the EU

  • Link: http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/work/2012_02_governance.pdf





34 questions total

  • 34 questions total

  • 20 Focused primarily on regional level governance in 3 sectors: education, health care & law enforcement, as well as media & elections (16 go to build the’EQI’)

  • 7 demographic

  • Other 7: social trust, perceptions of ’meritocracy’ in public & private sectors, party support, electoral corruption



























Corruption, Impartialtiy & quality

  • Corruption, Impartialtiy & quality

  • For ex. , for corruption, We combine perceptions and experiences of citizens (as opposed to ’experts’ – less risk of ’feedback loop’)

  • Two types of questions:

  • general perceptions questions (0-10, higher = more perceived corruption)

  • Experiences with ’petty corruption’

  • *Let’s look at the aggregated regional scores



















1. Aggregation

  • 1. Aggregation

  • Aggregate 400 respondents by region for each of 16 questions

  • Using PCA, 3 groups (’pillars’) identified: corruption, impartialtiy and quality – 16 indicators aggreated to 3 pillars

  • 3 pillars aggregated to Regional QoG Index

  • 2. Normalization of Data

  • Standardized indicators (z-distribution)

  • 3. Weights

  • Equal Weighting



Combine regional data with national level WGI data

  • Combine regional data with national level WGI data

  • Set each country’s EQI mean to WGI average of 4 QoG pillars

  • Aggregate regional scores (population weighted), around which regional scores show within-country variation

  • Why?

  • Regional QoG embedded in National Context

  • Include countries with no NUTS 2 regions

  • Can retroactively adjust when new regions/countries added in future



A composite index based on 16 QoG survey questions from 2009-2010.

  • A composite index based on 16 QoG survey questions from 2009-2010.

  • Round 2 in 2013





2010: Extensive sensitivity testing (both WGI data and regional data),

  • 2010: Extensive sensitivity testing (both WGI data and regional data),

  • Alternative aggregation, weighting, normalization method, exluding certain individual charactoristics by gender, income, education and age.

  • Constructed 95% confidence intervals around each regional estimate









































Continue to build EQI/ undergo extensive robustness checks

  • Continue to build EQI/ undergo extensive robustness checks

  • Explore reasons why within country variation of QoG varies

  • Explore relationship between entreprenuership and quality of regional institutions

  • Explore relationship between gender equality and regional QoG



: wp-content -> uploads -> 2014
2014 -> «xalqların psixologiyası»
2014 -> Yeni tanı almış hastada ilk danışmanlık, anamnez, muayene ve laboratuar testleri
2014 -> “Azərkosmos” Açıq Səhmdar Cəmiyyətinin Nizamnaməsinin və strukturunun təsdiq edilməsi haqqında
2014 -> Journey to Sacred India
2014 -> Qrup liderinin rol və funksiyaları, liderin mənimsədiyi nəzəri yanaşmadan, liderlik tərzindən və liderlik bacarıqlarından, aldığı təhsildən, etik qaydalara uyğun davranıb davranmayışından, şəxsiyyəti və fərdi xüsusiyyətlərindən təsirlənir
2014 -> Mühazirə Tarix, elm və fəlsəfə. Anlayışlar və ideyalar Keçmiş və Tarix
2014 -> Kişisel arzu, istek ve ihtiyaçları için ürünleri satın alan ya da satın alma kapasitesinde olan gerçek kişidir
2014 -> Lt scientific
2014 -> Microsoft Word Konflikt Gruppen Manus Q. doc
2014 -> Yazılı Bacarıqlar (yazma- oxuma)


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