Paradox by Don L. F. Nilsen



Yüklə 445 b.
tarix25.11.2017
ölçüsü445 b.


PARADOX


GILBERT AND SULLIVAN

  • Gilbert and Sullivan often relied on paradox for comic effect. In The Pirates of Penzance, they composed a song about paradoxes:

  • How quaint the ways of paradox!

  • At common sense she gaily mocks!

  • A paradox, a paradox,

  • A most ingenious paradox!

  • Ha! ha! ha! ha!

  • (Nilsen & Nilsen 219)



GREEK PHILOSOPHERS

  • The Greek philosophers often wrestled with paradoxes.

  • The most famous was credited to the Cretan philosopher Epimenides: “All Cretans are liars.”

  • Epimenides was a Cretan. Therefore, If he is lying, then the statement must be true. But if the statement is true, he must be lying.

  • (Nilsen & Nilsen 219)



PARADOX VS. CONTRADICTION

  • Paradoxes are statements that seem contradictory, unbelievable, or absurd, but in some sense are nevertheless true.

  • Because paradoxes highlight breakdowns in our expectations of a logical universe, they are sources of both delight and consternation as the human mind works to figure out how people can in good faith talk about a “large mouse” running between the legs of a “small elephant” or can make sense out of the Yiddish curse, “He should drop dead, God forbid!”

  • (Nilsen & Nilsen 219)



SIGNIFICANT PARADOXES FROM THE 16TH CENTURY TO THE 20TH CENTURY

  • Sits he on ever so high a throne, a man still sits on his bottom. (Michel Elyquem de Montaigne, 1533-1592)

  • We have just enough religion to make us hate, but not enough to make us love one another. (Jonathan Swift, 1667-1745)



I laugh, so that I may not cry. (Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, 1732-1799)

  • I laugh, so that I may not cry. (Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, 1732-1799)

  • Nowadays people know the price of everything and the value of nothing. (Oscar Wilde, 1854-1900)



!!There ain’t any answer. There ain’t going to be any answer. There never has been an answer. That’s the answer. (Gertrude Stein, 1874-1946)

  • !!There ain’t any answer. There ain’t going to be any answer. There never has been an answer. That’s the answer. (Gertrude Stein, 1874-1946)

  • The vital question today is not whether there will be life after death, but whether there was life before death. (Marshall McLuhan, 1911-1990)



Visual Paradox













References:

  • References:

  • Brooks, Cleanth. "The Language of Paradox." Contemporary Literary Criticism: Literary and Cultural Studies. Eds. Robert Con Davis, and Ronald Schleifer. New York: Longman, 1989, 32-42.

  • Falletta, Nicholas. The Paradoxicon. New York, NY: John Wiley, 1983.

  • Fry, William F., Jr. "Humor and Paradox." American Behavioral Scientist. 30.1 (1987): 42-71.

  • Gans, Eric. Signs of Paradox, Irony, Resentment, and Other Mimetic Structures Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.

  • Hofstadter, Douglas R. Godel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. New York, NY: Vintage Books, 1980.

  • Leiber, Justin. Paradoxes. London, England: Duckworth, 1993.

  • Morreall, John. “Aristotle and the Paradox of Tragedy.” Delta Epsilon Signa Journal 24.2 (1979): 50-56.



Nilsen, Don L. F. "Parody, Paradox, Nonsense, and Legends." Humor Scholarship: A Research Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1993, 101-112.

  • Nilsen, Don L. F. "Parody, Paradox, Nonsense, and Legends." Humor Scholarship: A Research Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1993, 101-112.

  • Nilsen, Don L. F. "'The Seriousness of Humor' And Other Antithetical Paradoxes." California English 20.5 (1984): 14-15 and 22.

  • Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. Encyclopedia of 20th Century American Humor. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000.

  • Rescher, Nicholas. Paradoxes. Peru, IL: Carus Publishing Company, 2001.

  • Poundstone, William. Labyrinths of Reason: Paradox, Puzzles, and the Frailty of Knowledge. New York: Anchor, 1988.



Seward, Samuel S. Jr. The Paradox of the Ludicrous. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ Press, 1930.

  • Seward, Samuel S. Jr. The Paradox of the Ludicrous. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ Press, 1930.

  • Shaw, David W. Elegy and Paradox. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.

  • Shershow, Scott Cutler. Laughing Matters: The Paradox of Comedy. Amherst: Univ of Mass Press, 1986.

  • Stainsbury, Richard Mark. Paradoxes. Cambridge, England: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 1988.

  • Woodcock, George. The Paradox of Oscar Wilde. London, England: T. V. Boardman, 1949.





Dostları ilə paylaş:


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©genderi.org 2019
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə