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Endnotes for Spent: Sex, evolution, and consumer behavior


By Geoffrey Miller


Note:

Whenever facts, books, people, products, or organizations are not specifically noted, details can be easily accessed by searching the relevant name through Google.com or Wikipedia.org

Citations to books and articles listed in the reference section are by first author’s last name and year. Where name and year refer to more than one item, the first word or two of the title is also included to disambiguate the items.
Chapter 1: Darwin goes to the mall
What consumerist capitalism is: see: Bakan 2004; Bell 1996; Bowles, Edwards, & Roosevelt 2005; De Soto 2003; T. Frank 2000; Galbraith 1952, 1958; S. Hart 2007; Illouz 1997; Korten 1999, 2001; Mumford 1934, 1967, 1970; Reich 2007; Rifkin 2001; Schumpeter 1942

Hummer H1 Alpha: specifications accessed from Edmunds.com June 2008; low reliability: see Consumer Reports 2008

On the short-lived pleasures of acquisition, and the psychology of happiness in relation to economics and consumption: Bruni & Porta 2007; Clark, Frijters, & Shields 2008; Diener et al. 1999; Dolan, Peasgood, & White 2008; Easterbrook 2004; Easterlin 1995; R. H. Frank 2000, 2007; Frey 2008; Frey & Stutzer 2007; Gilbert 2006; Kahneman et al. 2006; Kahneman, Diener, & Schwarz 1999; Lane 2000; Layard 2005; Loewenstein & Ubel 2008; Lykken 1999; Schwartz 2004; Scitovsky 1992; Seligman 2002

On evolutionary reasons for the elusiveness of happiness: Buss 2000; Nesse 2004

Humans have evolved in small social groups: Brown 1991; Dunbar 2005; Sober & Wilson 1998; D. S. Wilson 2006

‘Materialism’ as a standard term for consumerism: for examples, see: Belk 1985; Burroughs & Rindfleisch 2002; Kasser 2002; Richins 2004; Twitchell 1999; Van Boven 2005

‘Materialism’ as a profoundly misleading term for consumerism: see Campbell 1987; Davenport & Beck 2001; Mick 2004; Pine & Gilmore 1999

Consumerism in historical context: Bakan 2004; Blom 2004; Cohen 2003; Clark 2007; Collins 2002; Cross 2000; Davidson 1997; T. Friedman 2000, 2005; Gartman 1994; Goodwin, Ackerman, & Kiron 1997; Hughes 2005; Irwen 1996; K. Jackson 1987; Jardine 1998; Leach 1993; McMillan 2003; Mumford 1961; Schama 1997; Seagrave 2002; Strasser 1999; Zinn 2005

Marine phytoplankton as the ‘ultimate nutrogenomic: accessed Ascendedhealth.com May 2008

On consumerism in evolutionary context: Burnham & Phelan 2000; Cary 2000; Colarelli & Dettmann 2003; Conniff 2002; R. H. Frank 1985, 1995, 2000, 2007; Miller 2000 The mating mind, 2000 ‘Marketing’, 2000 ‘Memetic evolution…’; Miller, Tybur, & Jordan 2007; Palmer 2000; Penn 2003; Plourde 2009; Saad 2007 The evolutionary bases…; Saad & Gill 2000; Shermer 2007

On consumer decision-making: Ariely 2008; Gigerenzer 2007; Harford 2008; Levitt & Dubner 2005; Schwartz 2004; Thaler & Sunstein 2008; Underhill 1999

On runaway consumerism: Arrow et al. 2004; Bakan 2004; Berman 2007; Brown 2008; De Graaf, Wann, & Hawken 1993, 2008; Diamond 2005; Hayden 2000; Jacobson & Mazur 1995; James 2007, 2008; Kuttner 1996; McKibben 2007; Myers & Kent 2004; Naylor 2005; James 2007, 2008; Miller 2007 ‘Runaway consumerism…’; Redclift 1996; Schor 1992, 1998, 2004; Steffen 2006; Szasz 2007; Whybrow 2006


From Cro-Magnons to consumers

Invention of agriculture, animal husbandry, etc: Borgerhoff Mulder 1996; G. Clark 2007, Earle 1997, 2002; Sale 2006; Tudge 1999

On human evolution: General background:


  • Prehistoric life and human evolution: Boyd & Silk 2005; Dunbar 2005; also Aiello & Wells 2002; Boehm 1999; Boesch & Reichart 2003; Eibl-Eibesfelt 1989; Kelly 1995; Marlowe 2003; Winterhalder & Smith 2000

  • Evolutionary biology: Mark Ridley 2001, 2003; D. S. Wilson 2007; Zimmer 2001

  • Evolution of animal behavior: Alcock 2001, 2005

  • Evolution of primate behavior: Maestripieri 2005; Strier 2002

  • Evolutionary psychology popular introductions: Buss 2003; Pinker 1994, 1999, 2002; Matt Ridley 1993, 1996; D. S. Wilson 2007; R. Wright 1994

  • Evolutionary psychology introductory textbooks: Buss 2008, Cartwright 2008, Dunbar, Barrett, & Lycett 2005, Gaulin & McBurney 2003

  • Evolutionary psychology advanced reviews: Betzig 1997, Buss 2005, Crawford & Krebs 2008; Dunbar & Barrett 2007, Gangestad & Simpson 2007; Kenrick & Luce 2004

  • The nature of psychological adaptations: Andrews, Gangestad, & Matthews 2002; Barrett & Kurzban 2006; Cronin 2005; Ketelaar & Ellis 2000

Gérard’s questions:

Men acquiring women as reproductive resources: Baumeister & Vohs 2004; Betzig 1986; Browne 2006; Chagnon 1988; Kruger 2008; Low 2005; Marlowe 2003; Shostak 2000; Summers 2005

Slavery as a reproductive system: Betzig 1986, 1992; Thomas 1997

Seduction through intelligence: Miller 2000 The mating mind; Prokosch et al., in press

Seduction through humor: Bressler & Balshine 2006; Bessler, Martin, & Balshine 2006; Cooper et al. 2007; Gervais & Wilson 2005; Greengross & Miller 2008; Kaufman et al. 2007; Provine 2000

Placebo effects: Evans 2003; Shiv, Carmon, & Ariely 2005

Expected prehistoric life-span: Helle, Lummaa, & Jokela 2008; Kaplan & Robson 2002; Kaplan et al. 2000, 2003; Lahdenperä et al. 2004; Lahdenperä, Russell, & Lummaa 2007; Robson & Kaplan 2003

Auto Assault-12 combat shotgun: www.defensereview.com/article623.html accessed May 2008

Paternity uncertainty: Daly & Wilson 1999; Feingold 1992; Geary 2000; Hausfater & Hrdy 2008


Giselle’s questions:

Women’s problems with lovers who ignore, beat, and abandon them: see Archer 2000; Arnqvist & Rowe 2005; Campbell 2002; Hrdy 1997, 1999; Low 2005; Shostak 2000; Smuts 1995; Thornhill & Palmer 2001

Romance novels in evolutionary context: see Bender 1996; Gottschall & Wilson 2005; Salmon & Symons 2001; Whissell 1996

Shared child care and ‘alloparenting’: Hewlett & Lamb 2005; Hrdy 1999; Low 2005; Schön & Silvén 2007

Low quality of contemporary child care: Brooks-Gunn, Han, & Waldfogel 2002; Folbre 2008; Schön & Silvén 2007

Marketers brain-washing the young (children): Cross 2004; Gunter & Furnham 1998; Schor 2004

Importance of meat in prehistoric life: Aiello & Wells 2002; Alvard & Nolin 2002; Hill & Hurtado 1996; Kaplan et al. 2000; Kelly 1995; Marlowe 2005, 2007;
All you have to do…

The artificiality of modern education: Becker 1994; Berhard 1988; Molnar 2007; C. Murray 2008; Spence 1973, 2002; Wolf 2003

The artificiality of modern jobs: Beder 2001; Bell 1996; Bowles & Park 2005; Browne 2002, 2006; Crittenden 2001; De Graaf 2003; Ehrenreich 2001; Furnham 2006; Gini 2000; Hochschild 2003; Landers, Rebitzer, & Taylor 1996; Packard 1959, 1962; Ressler & Thompson 2008; Schor 1994; Sennett 2000

Social alienation from relatives and friends: Putnam 2000

Loss of civil society and political empowerment among consumers: Bakan 2004; Chomsky 2002, 2008; Cohen 2003; Collins 2002; De Graaf, Wann, & Naylor 2005; T. Frank 2000; Frank & Weiland 1997; Huffington 2003; Klein 2002, 2008

Loss of contact with natural environments and foods: Kaplan & Kaplan 1989; Kellert & Wilson 1993; Papanek 1971, 1995; Pollan 2007; Schama 1996; Schlosser 2001

On the general mismatch between prehistoric human nature and modern life: Burnham & Phelan 2000; Eaton et al. 2002; Fox 2002; Gluckman & Hanson 2006; Stearns & Koella 2008; Vining 1986

Suicidal despair under consumerism: Lane 2000; Saad 2007 ‘Suicide triggers…’

General critiques of life under consumerism: Arrow et al. 2004; Bakan 2004; Berman 2007; Bollier 2002, 2005; Brown 2008; De Graaf, Wann, & Naylor 2005; Hawken 1993, 2008; Jacobson & Mazur 1995; James 2007, 2008; Korten 1999, 2001; Kuttner 1996; McKibben 2007; Nussbaum & Sen 1993; Redclift 1996; Schor 1992, 1998; Steffen 2006; Whybrow 2006
Contrasts and choices

Modern life as a wondrous funky-town for the wealthiest: see Conniff 2002; Cowen 1998; R. H. Frank 2000; R. L. Frank 2007; Rothkopf 2008; Twitchell 2003; Silverstein & Fiske 2003


Average Cro-Magnon lifestyle:

Close-knit clan of family and friends: Gil-White 2001; Hrushka & Henrich 2006; Robertson 1991; Salmon & Shackelford 2008; Sulloway 1996

Works moderate hours gathering plant foods: Kelly 1995; Low 2005; Marlowe 2005, 2007; Pollan 2007; Sahlins 1972; Stearns & Koella 2008

Gets meat by flirting with guys: Alvard & Gillespie 2004; Baumeister & Vohs 2004; Bliege Bird 1999; Hawkes & Bliege Bird 2002; Marlowe 2003, 2004

Gossiping with friends: Dessalles 1998; Dunbar 1996, 2003; McAndrew & Milenkovic 2002; Wert & Salovey 2004

Breast-feeding babies: Angier 2000; Brown 1991; Hrdy 1999

Enjoys story-telling, grooming, dancing, drumming, and singing: Brown 1991; Burling 2007; Dessalles 2007; Mithen 2005

Males evolved wonderful new forms of foreplay: Miller 2000 The mating mind

Once a month, she hooks up secretly: on monthly human female estrus, see: Gangestad & Thornhill 2008; Thornhill & Gangestad 2008; also Durante, Li, & Haselton in press; Haselton et al. 2007; Miller, Tybur, & Jordan 2007

Neanderthal-kills: see Mellars 2004; Tudge 1999

She can look forward to another 40 years of life: Kaplan et al. 2000, 2003

Ever more valued as a woman of wisdom and status: on the importance of grand-mothers and the evolution of menopause: Voland, Athanasios, & Schiefenhovel 2005


Average American lifestyle:

EastView Mall: see eastviewmall.com, accessed June 2008

Ortho Tri-Cyclen: a standard birth control pill, Thepill.com

Another 45 years of life, ever less valued as an obsolete health-care burden: Hogan et al., 2001; also see the novel Boomsday by Christopher Buckley


Many thinkers have tried to ‘naturalize’ consumerism (and capitalism): Hodgson 1993; M. Friedman 2002; Rothschild 1992; see R. Nelson 2002

Others have rejected any concept of human nature: Rose & Rose 2001; see Segerstråle 2001

Steven Pinker’s The Blank Slate: Pinker 2002

Oppressive institutions of governments, corporations, schools, and media: Bagdikian 2004; Bakan 2004; Beatty 2001; Blumenthal & Goodenough 2006; Fox 1996; Freud 1961; Goodwin, Ackerman, & Kiron 1997; Molnar 2007; Rushkoff 1999; Shrum, Burroughs, & Rindfleisch, 2005

Darwinism as a justification for Victorian-era capitalism: Rose & Rose 2001; Rothschild 1992

The sensible model: also see Ayres & Martinas 2006; Baumeister 2005; Boyd & Richerson 2005; R. H. Frank 2007; Henrich 2006; Pagel & Mace 2004; Richerson & Boyd 2004; Schaller & Crandall 2004; Somit & Peterson 2003; Sperber & Hirschfeld 2004;

The idea of returning to an idealized paradise: see Fox 2002; Freud 1961

Bourgeois bohemians: Brooks 2000, 2004

On corporate social responsibility: Bornstein 2007; R. H. Frank 2005; Gini & Marcoux 2008; Hancock 1999; Harrison, Newholm, & Shaw 2005; Hart 2007; Hollender & Fenichell 2003; Sen & Bhatacharya 2001; Sen & Bhatacharya 2001; Singer 2004; Vogel 2006; Zak 2008

Prehistoric lifestyle as a more natural environment for the human body, mind, family, and clan: Eaton et al. 2002; Freud 1961; Gluckman & Hanson 2006; Papanek 1971, 1995; Stearns & Koella 2008

Prehistoric life as ignorant, insular, violent, and unimaginably boring (and warlike): Buss 2006; Chagnon 1988; Gat 2008; Keeley 1996; Nell 2006; Thomas, Stumpf, & Härke 2006; Thornhill & Palmer 2001; Wrangham 1999; Wrangham & Peterson 1997

On civilization’s key inventions: see C. Murray 2003

Money, markets, and media as the best inventions of all time: see Bernstein 2004, 2008; Carrier 2006; Doherty 2008; Epstein 2002, 2003; Fogel 2004; B. Friedman 2006; Gillin 2007; Irwen 1996; K. Jackson 1995; Lindblom 2002; McLuhan 1964; McMillan 2003; Nozick 1974; Postrel 1998; Rubin 2002; Sowell 2007; Von Mises 1949
Mamas, don’t let your children grow up to be marketing consultants

Children are wired to learn and play the normal game of life: Bjorklund & Pelligrini 2002; Bloom 2005; Brown 1991; Ellis & Bjorklund 2005; Figueredo, Hammond, & McKiernan 2006; Harris 1996, 2006; Hewlett & Lamb 2005; Schön & Silvén 2007

Instead, they face a bizarre new world of frustrating duties and counter-intuitive ideas: Berhard 1988; Folbre 2008; Gluckman & Hanson 2006; Gottfredson 2007; Hulbert 2003; Kanazawa 2004; Louv 2008; Schor 2004

Perplexing rants from post-modern French sociologists, such as Jean Baudrillard: Baudrillard 1983, 1998; also see Cashmore & Rojek 1999

Consumerist capitalism is not ‘materialistic’, but ‘semiotic’: Baudrillard 1983, 1998; Dant 1996; Mick et al 2004

Semiotic theory: Eco 1976; Neiva 2007

On the symbolic psychology of products: Akerlof & Kranton 2000; Belk 1988, 2001; Belk, Ger, & Askegaard 2003; Benjamin 1999; Berger & Heath 2007; Bliege Bird & Smith 2005; Buchan 1997; Hankiss 2006; Holt 1997; Levy 1959; Muniz & O’Guinn 2001; Reed 2004; Richins 1994, 1995; Schmitt & Simonson 1997; Simonson 2001; Walker 2008; Zaltman 2003; Zaltman & Zaltman 2008

A premium brand yields a high margin profit compared to a commodity: Dyer, Falzell, & Olegario 2004; Hart & Murphy 1998; Levitt 1983; Levy 1959; Neumeier 2005; O’Cass & Frost 2002; Ries & Ries 2005; Schmitt & Simonson 1997; Sullivan 1998; Twitchell 2000, 2005

On the mis-education marketers: Armstrong 1991, 2003; November 2004; Pfeffer & Sutton 2006; Saad 2007 The evolutionary bases

Seth Godin books: Godin 1999, 2001, 2002, 2005

Malcolm Gladwell books: Gladwell 2000, 2007

Most marketers still use simplistic models of human nature: Allenby 1999; November 2004

Marketers need Darwin: Cary 2000; Colarelli & Dettmann 2003; Palmer 2000; Saad 2007 The evolutionary bases …; Saad & Gill 2000; Shermer 2007
Fitness indicators

Theory fitness indicators, costly signals, and handicaps: Berglund, Bisazza, & Pilastro 1996; Bradbury & Vehrencamp 1998; Getty 2006; Hasson 1997; Lotem, Wagner, & Balshine-Earn 1999; Michod 1995; Michod & Hasson 1990; Zahavi 1975; Zahavi & Zahavi 1997

On the nature of ‘genetic quality’ and the importance of mutations: Brcic-Kostic 2005; Crow 2000, Debat & David 2001, Eyre-Walker & Keightley 1999, Flatt 2005, Gangestad & Yeo 1997; Gillespie, Russell, & Lummaa 2008; Houle 2000; Hunt et al. 2004; Keightley & Eyre-Walker 2000; Keller 2007, Nielsen 2006; Pritchard 2001, Mark Ridley 2001; Zhang & Hill 2005 XX

On costly signaling theory in sexual selection and mate choice: Andersson & Simmons 2006; Candolin 2003; Cronin 1991; Hooper & Miller 2008; Houle & Kondrashov 2002, Kokko et al. 2003; Reznick, Nunney, & Tessier 2000, Rowe & Houle 1996, Tomkins et al. 2004; Zahavi 1975

On my work regarding costly signaling: Hooper & Miller 2008, Keller & Miller 2006, Mendenhall & Miller in prep; Miller 1997, Miller 1998, Miller 2000 The mating mind; Miller 2000 ‘Mental traits…’, Miller 2000 ‘Sexual selection for …’; Miller 2001; Miller 2003 ‘Fear of fitness indicators….’, Miller 2007 ‘Sexual selection for…’; Miller & Todd 1998

On sexual selection and mate choice in general: Andersson & Simmons 2006; Cronin 1991, Judson 2002; Kokko et al. 2003

Almost every animal species has its own fitness indicators to attract mates, intimidate rivals, deter predators, and solicit help from parents and kin: Alcock 2005; Berglund, Bisazza, & Pilastro 1996; Lotem, Wagner, & Balshine-Earn 1999; McGregor 2005

Ortho Tri-Cyclen birth control pills make women’s skin look more attractive by reducing acne, but it lowers reproductive success by eliminating ovulation: see Thepill.com

Our brains did not evolve to pursue reproductive success consciously: Buss 2008; Pinker 1999; Tooby & Cosmides 1990, 2005; Vining 1986

Sex differences in sexual strategies: Archer 2000, 2004; Baumeister & Vohs 2004; Ben Hamida, Mineka, & Bailey 1998; Buss 1989, 2001, 2003; Buss & Schmitt 1993; Ellis 2008; Feingold 1992; Li & Kenrick 2006; Lynn, Irwing, & Crammock 2002; Mealey 2000; Penke & Denissen 2008; Schmitt 2003, 2004, 2005; Schmitt & Buss 1996, 2000; Shackelford, Schmitt, & Buss 2005 XX

Many recent studies have confirmed that men increase the conspicuousness of their consumption when they are most interested in mating: Godoy et al. 2007; Griskevicius et al. 2007; Illouz 1997; Sundie et al. in press; Van den Bergh, Dewitte, & Warlop 2008; also Charles & Egan 2005

On other effects of mating motives on consumer decision-making: Ariely & Loewenstein 2006

Females also compete for status and to attract the higher-quality males: Brown & Lewis 2004; Campbell 2002; Rucas et al. 2006

Evidence so far suggests that males pay very little attention to conspicuous consumption by women: Griskevicius et al. 2007

Humans have evolved unique abilities to invent, make, display, and imitate new kinds of fitness indicators at the cultural level: Dutton 2008; Holt 1998; Plourde 2009

Juvenile humans have an insatiable thirst to learn about these culture-specific indicators: Weisfeld 1999

Status online through ‘interestingness’ scores on Flickr-posted photos, friend-counts on FaceBook, or ‘hotness’ ratings on hotornot.com: Gillin 2007; Lampel & Bhalla 2007; Schau & Gilly 2003; Vazire & Gosling 2004

On the origins and psychology of human status-seeking: Barkow 1989; De Botton 2004; also Anderson, Ames, & Gosling 2008; Chan & Goldthorpe 2007; Denissen et al. 2008; Dessalles 1998; Earle 1997; Ellis 2001; Festinger 1954; Henrich & Gil-White 2001; Hill & Buss 2006; Hill & Reeve 2005; Hopcroft 2006; Huberman, Loch, & Önçüler 2004; Judge et al. 2002; Leary & Baumeister 2000; Maner, DeWall, & Gailliot 2008; Mussweiler 2003; Packard 1959, 1962; Plourde 2009; Weeden 2006; XX

On economic aspects of human status-seeking: Alderson, Junisbai, & Heacock 2007; Brekke, Howarth, & Nyborg 2003; Chao & Schor 1998; Congleton 1989; Earle 2002; Eaton & Eswaran 2003; Ellis 2001; English 2005; Frank 1985, 2000, 2007; Frank & Cook 1995; Frey & Stutzer 2007; Graeber 2001; Hayden 1998; Heffetz working paper; Heffertz & Frank in press; Hopkins & Kornienko 2004; Howarth 1996, 2006; Ireland 1994, 1998, 2001; Johansson-Stenman & Martinsson 2006; Koçkesen, Ok, & Sethi 2000; Landers, Rebitzer, & Taylor 1996; McClelland 1961; O’Cass & Frost 2002; Rauscher 1993; Robson 1992; Solnick & Hemenway 1996, 2005; Sullivan 1998; Van Kempen 2003; Velthius 2005; Wang & Wellendorf 2006 XX

Special brain systems for learning language: Burling 2007; Desalles 2007; Dunbar 2003; Locke 2008; Locke & Bogin 2006; Mithen 2005; Pinker 1994

Special brain systems for learning culture-specific fitness indicators: Dutton 2008; Kaufman et al. 2007; Kanazawa 2000; Levitin 2006; Miller 1999; Nettle 2001; Plourde 2009; Simonton 1999;

Monetary wealth, career-based status, and avant-garde taste emerged within the last 10,000 years: Bernstein 2004; Boyd & Silk 2005; Carrier 2006; G. Clark 2007; Colarelli 2003; Conniff 2002; Dunbar 2005; Dutton 2008; Eibl-Eibesfelt 1989; Ellis 2001; R. H. Frank 2007; Kelly 1995; Marlowe 2005, 2007; McMillan 2003; C. Murray 2003; Shermer 2007; Stallabrass 2005; Steiner 2001

People try to display


  • physical traits such as health, fertility, and beauty: Etcoff 1999; Morris 1985; Rhodes & Zebrowitz 2001; Sugiyama 2005; Voland & Grammer 2003

  • personality traits such as conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness to novelty: Ambady & Skowronski 2008; Funder 1999, 2006; Furnham & Heaven 1999; John, Robins, & Pervin 2008; Nettle 2007

  • cognitive traits such as general intelligence: Geher & Miller 2007; Murphy 2007; Plourde 2009; Zebrowitz & Montepare 2005

Money as an addictive form of liquid fitness: Buchan 1997; Burgoyne & Lea 2006; R. H. Frank 2000; Furnham 2006; Jackson 1995; Lea & Webley 2006; Manning 2000; Vohs, Mead, & Goode 2006

Emotion versus reason in consumer behavior: Ainslie 2002; Ariely 2008; Evans & Cruse 2004; Gigerenzer 2007; Glimcher 2008; Harford 2008; Heath & Heath 2007; Shiller 2001; Thaler & Sunstein 2008; Underhill 1999

Human emotions cannot be described clearly without understanding their evolutionary origins and functions: Elfenbein & Ambady 2002; R. H. Frank 1988; Keltner, Haidt, & Shiota, 2006; Nesse 2001; Tooby & Cosmides 1990

On the functions of social emotions such as pride, embarrassment, shame, etc: Colman 2003; Eisenberger & Lieberman 2004; Emmons 2007; Evans & Cruse 2004; Fraley, Brumbaugh, & Marks 2005; Haidt 2001; Hess & Philippot 2007; Keltner & Busell 1997; Keltner & Anderson 2000; Keltner, Gruenfeld, & Anderson 2003; Keltner, Haidt, & Shiota 2006; McCullough et al. 2001; Price 2005; Tangney & Fischer 1995 XX


Description and prescription

Promiscuous hybridizations of ‘is’ and ‘ought’: see Curry 2006; also Binmore 2005; Nesse 2004; Thornhill & Palmer 2001

A distinguished tradition of gaining new prescriptive insights into one’s society:


  • John Locke: An essay concerning human understanding; Two treatises of government

  • Mary Wollstonecraft: Vindication of the rights of women

  • Daniel Defoe: Robinson Crusoe, Moll Flanders, A journal of the plague year

  • William Wilberforce: A letter on the abolition of the slave trade

  • Henry David Thoreau: Walden, Civil disobedience

  • Karl Marx: The Communist manifesto, Grundrisse, Capital

  • Max Weber: The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism, Economy and society

  • Margaret Sanger: Women and the new race, My fight for birth control

  • Thorstein Veblen 1899, 1904, 1914, 1918, 1919, 1921; also see Alcott 2004

  • John Kenneth Galbraith 1952, 1958; also The new industrial state

  • Alfred Kinsey: Sexual behavior in the human male, Sexual behavior in the human female

  • Germaine Greer: The female eunuch, The obstacle race, Sex and destiny

  • Peter Singer 1993, 2000, 2007; Singer & Mason 2007; also Animal liberation, The expanding circle, The great ape project, Rethinking life and death


Consumerist ambivalence

Consumerist capitalism produces almost everything that is exciting about modern life: Bernstein 2004, 2008; Cowen 1998; Epstein 2003; Fogel 2004; B. Friedman 2006; T. Friedman 2000, 2005; Irwen 1996; Lindblom 2002; McMillan 2003; Nozick 1974; Sowell 2007

Consumerist capitalism produces almost everything that is appalling about it: Arrow et al. 2004; Bakan 2004; Berman 2007; Blum 2003; Blumenthal & Goodenough 2006; Bradsher 2002; T. Clark 2007; Chomsky 2002, 2008; De Graaf, Wann, & Naylor 2005; Denton & Morris 2001; Ehrenreich 2001; Fox 2002; Hochschild 2003; Klein 2002, 2008; Kuczynski 2006; Kuttner 1996; Mumford 1967, 1970; Packard 1957, 1959, 1960, 1962; Putnam 2000; Ressler & Thompson 2008; Schlosser 2001, 2004; Schor 1992, 1998, 2004; Sennett 2000; Strasser 1999;

On consumer ambivalence: Otnes, Lowrey, & Shrum 1997

On consumerism and the contemporary art market: Carey 2005; Stallabrass 2005; Steiner 2001; Velthius 2005

Greenpeace: Weyler 2004

The World Trade Organization, World Bank, World Economic Forum, and globalization: Bhagwati 2007; T. Friedman 2000, 2005; Sassen 2006; Stiglitz 2002; Tabb 2004

Corporate lobbyists: Acemoglu & Robinson 2006; Beatty 2001; Palast 2004; Stigler 1971

Libertarians: Doherty 2008; Epstein 2002, 2003; C. Murray 1997; Nozick 1974; Postrel 1998; Rubin 2002; Von Mises 1949

Adbusters: Lasn 2000, 2006

New Urbanism: Burchell 2005; Chiras & Wann 2003; Flint 2006; Girouard 1985; Jacobs 1993, 2005; Mohney & Easterling 1991; Waldheim 2006; also Mumford 1961; Jackson 1987

Voluntary Simplicity: Craig-Lees & Hill 2002; Dacyczyn 1998; Dominguez & Robin 1999; Elgin 1993; Luhrs 1997; Merkel 2003; Silverstein 2006; Uliano 2008; Zavetovski 2002

Slow Food movement: Honoré 2005

True Cost Economics: see the Oakland, CA think tank Redefining Progress

Utility of a cross-species, evolutionary perspective in understanding consumerist capitalism: Conniff 2002; Frank 2000, 2007; Saad 2006, 2007; Saad & Gill 2000; Shermer 2007


Chapter 2: The genius of marketing

Products reveal our preferences, more or less: Becker 1998; Ben-Ner & Putterman 2000; Eaton & Eswaran 2003; Kuran 1995; Norton, Constanze, & Bishop 1998; Rentfrow & Gosling 2003; Yang & Allenby 2003

Status products: Alderson, Junisbai, & Heacock 2007; Bloch, Rao & Desai 2004; Chao & Schor 1998; Congleton 1989; De Botton 2004; R. H. Frank 200, 2007; Heffertz & Frank in press; Hopkins & Kornienko 2004; Howarth 1996; Ireland 1994, 1998, 2001; Mason 1981, 2000; O’Cass & Frost 2002; Packard 1959; Rauscher 1993; Silverstein & Fiske 2003; Solnick & Hemenway 2005; Stanley 2000; Thomas 2007; Twitchell 2003; Van Kempen 2003; Wang & Wellendorf 2006; Wong & Ahuvia 1998

Educational credentials as intelligence-indicators and positional goods: Adnett & Davies 2002; Bok 2004; Carson 2007; Herrnstein & Murray 1994; Kuncel & Hezlett 2007; C. Murray 2008; Spence 1973, 2002; Veblen 1918; Weiss 1995

Ethical consumerism as a kindness-indicator: Harrison, Newholm, & Shaw 2005; Singer & Mason 2007

Female sex worker behavior reflects male sexual preferences: see Ariely & Loewenstein 2006; Baumeister & Vohs 2004; Malamuth 1996; Miller, Tybur, & Jordan 2007; Posner 1992; Pound 2002; Schlosser 2004; Schmitt 2003; Symons 1979

Many evolutionary psychologists analyze pleasure products to reveal human preferences: Billing & Sherman 1998; Davis & McLeod 2003; Gottschall & Wilson 2005; Hantula 2003; Hersey 1996, 1999; Kellert & Wilson 1993; Nell 2006; Pollan 2007; Saad 2004, 2006, 2007 The evolutionary bases…; Salmon & Symons 2001; Sullivan & Hagen 2002;

Most writing about consumerism assumes that culture shapes human nature: Arnould & Thompson 2005; Barthes 1973; Bell 1996; Campbell 1987; Douglas & Isherwood 1980; Ewan 1999; Firat & Venkatesh 1995; Holt 1998; Jeffries 2005; Kasser & Kanner 2004

Throughout most of the 20th century, psychologists assumed just a few simple instincts: Pinker 2004; Segerstråle 2001 **



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