• W. Massa / R. Gould: Crystal Structure Determination.
• C. Giacovazzo (Ed.): Fundamentals of Crystallography
(Oxford University Press)
• L. Bragg (Ed.): The Crystalline State (4 volumes)
(Cornell University Press)
• Kleber / Bausch / Bohm: Einführung in die
Kristallographie (Verlag Technik)
• Complete 3D structure with almost no assumptions.
• No size limitations (M > 10
• You need a crystal.
• Average over space and time (no dynamics).
• Esp. for very large molecules: resolution often rather low.
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845-1923)
1895: X-Rays (Nobel Prize 1901)
Born in Lennep (now Remscheid), Germany. Studied
physics at the Polytechnic in Zürich.
Prof. for physics in Strassbourg (1876-79), Giessen
(1879-88), Würzburg (1888-1900), München (1900-20).
Research on elasticity, capillary action, specific heats,
heat conduction in crystals, piezoelectricity, etc.
1895, while experimenting with electric current in an evacuated glass tube, he
saw fluorescence of barium platinocyanide and figured that rays of some kind
must be traveling across the room.
More experiments followed. X-rays go through paper, wood, aluminum, they
blacken photo plates and do not show properties of light like reflection or
refraction. X-ray photographs of his wife’s hand.
1901 first Nobel Prize for physics to W. C. Röntgen.
Max Theodor Felix von Laue (1879-1960)
1912: X-Ray Diffraction (Nobel Prize 1914)
Born in Pfaffendorf, Germany. Studied physics in
Strassbourg, Göttingen, München and Berlin
Prof. for physics in Zürich (1912-14), Frankfurt (1914-16),
Würzburg (1916-19), Berlin (1919-43), Director MPI for
Physical Chemistry in Berlin (1951-1958).
In order to prove that X-rays were actually electromagnetic
waves, he wanted to produce some kind of interference. His then more famous
colleagues Sommerfeld and Wien thought it would never work, but Walter
Friedrich (one of Sommerfeld’s assistants) and Paul Knipping tried it (with
) and succeeded after a while.
1914 Nobel Prize for physics to M. von Laue.
(William) Lawrence Bragg (1890-1971)
1912: Bragg law (Nobel Prize 1915)
Born in Adelaide, Australia. Son of the Englishman William
(Henry) Bragg (1862-1942). 1909 he came to Engand with
his father and started to study physics at Trinity College in
Lecturer at Trinity College, Cambridge (1914-19) and Prof.
for physics in Manchester (1919-37), director of the National
Physical Laboratory (1937-38), Prof. for experimental
physics in Cambridge (1938-53) and Chairman of the
Frequency Advisory Committee (1958-60).
Inspired by the work of M. von Laue, Lawrence Bragg, a grad student then, came
up with . Using the first diffractometer, built by W. H. Bragg to
measure the wavelength of X-Rays, the two Braggs determined the crystal
structures of NaCl and other compounds.
1915 Nobel Prize for physics to W. L. Bragg (then 25 years old) and W. H. Bragg.
1901: N.P. in Physics to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen. Discovery of X-rays.
1914: N.P. in Physics to Max Theodor Felix von Laue. X-ray diffraction.
1915: N.P. in Physics to William Henry Bragg & William Lawrence Bragg.
1962: N.P. in Chemistry to Max Perutz & John Cowdery Kendrew.
1962: N.P. in Medicine to James Dewey Watson, Francis Harry Compton
DNA from fiber diffraction.
1964: N.P. in Chemistry to Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin. Crystal structure of
1976: N.P. in Chemistry to William Nunn Lipscomb Jr. Structures and
bonding conditions of Boranes.
1985: N.P. in Chemistry to Herbert Aaron Hauptman & Jerome Karle
1988: N.P in Chemistry to Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber & Hartmut
Lawrence Bragg (son)
Max Perutz & John Kendrew
Hemoglobin & myoglobin (1938-60)
Structure of DNA, (1953)
NaCl, KCl (1912)
Secondary structure of
Richard Dickerson & Dough Rees