Physiological-body and physical processes, cognitive-thinking and mental processes. Physiological-body and physical processes, cognitive-thinking and mental processes



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Physiological-body and physical processes, cognitive-thinking and mental processes.

  • Physiological-body and physical processes, cognitive-thinking and mental processes.

  • Gain Insight into behavior- why someone behaves the way they do.

  • Acquire practical information-how to change or shape behavior by using consequences, increasing memory with mnemonics, etc.


Describe behavior and gather information

    • Describe behavior and gather information
    • Explain behavior using hypothesis/educated guess or theories based on a large number of experimental studies.
    • Predict behavior
    • Influence behavior using
        • Basic Science- research
        • Applied Science- ways of using research in daily life


Scientific method- data obtained through experiments, surveys, interviews and case studies

    • Scientific method- data obtained through experiments, surveys, interviews and case studies
    • Question/Problem, data, hypothesis, experiment/test, conclusion and theory.
    • Wundt- first Psychology lab


Origins of Psychology

  • Origins of Psychology

    • Greek Philosophers/Socrates- the mind is in the heart, tabula rasa/ the mind is a blank slate at birth, and the first theories of personality
    • Copernicus and Galileo- used experimentation through observation
    • Rene Descartes- refuted dualism stating the interaction between the mind and body.


1879 Wilhelm Wundt- experimented on sensations and perception using (introspection) where participants reported their own thoughts and feelings

  • 1879 Wilhelm Wundt- experimented on sensations and perception using (introspection) where participants reported their own thoughts and feelings

  • Functionalism- William James, who is considered the father of American Psychology. He focused on the functions and purposes of the conscious mind, and how thinking helps and organism adapt to the environment. Mary Calkins was the first female PhD in psychology and APA president.



  • Galton- stated the idea that heredity is the most important factor over the environment.

  • Gestalt Psychology- (Wertheimer, Kohler and Koffa). Perception is more than the sum of its parts. Look at the whole first.



1. Psychoanalytic Psychology

  • 1. Psychoanalytic Psychology

  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

  • interested in the unconscious mind; believed that our conscious experiences are only the beginning of our behaviors;

  • our unconscious motivations and conflicts are responsible for more human behavior



Used a method known as Free Association – patient said what came to mind no matter how absurd or irrelevant it seemed

  • Used a method known as Free Association – patient said what came to mind no matter how absurd or irrelevant it seemed

  • Freud’s role of psychoanalyst was to listen and interpret the associations; he believed that this revealed the unconscious processes

  • Also thought dreams were expressions of unconscious urges

  • Many modern psychoanalysts still use free association today



2. Behavioral Psychology

  • 2. Behavioral Psychology

  • Russian physiologist IVAN PAVLOV

  • Experiment of ringing a tuning fork each time he gave a dog some meat powder and the dog would salivate; repeated several times; soon the dog would salivate just hearing the ring without any food

  • Psychologists used this experiment to as a tool to help explain that some behavior is a result of prior experiences



Behaviorists stress investigating observable behavior

  • Behaviorists stress investigating observable behavior

  • John B. Watson said they should concern themselves with observable facts; behavior is a result of conditioning and occurs when that appropriate stimulus is present

  • B.F. Skinner introduced the concept of reinforcement – response to behavior that increase the likelihood the behavior will be repeated

  • Wrote: Walden Two in which he portrayed his idea of Utopia – a small town in which conditioning, through rewarding those who display good behavior, rules everything



3. Humanistic Psychology

  • 3. Humanistic Psychology

  • Developed as a reaction to behaviorists

  • Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers and Rollo May described nature as evolving and self-directed

  • Does not think people are controlled by events in the environment or by unconscious forces

  • They feel that each person is unique and has a self-concept to develop fully



4. Cognitive Psychology

  • 4. Cognitive Psychology

  • Jean Piaget, Noam Chomsky, Leon Festinger – cognitivists who focus on how we process, store and use information and how this information influences our thinking, language, problem solving and creativity

  • Behavior is influenced by a variety of mental processes, including perceptions, memories and expectations



5. Biological Psychology

  • 5. Biological Psychology

  • Study the brain, nervouse system, hormones and genetics and their influence on our behavior; use PET and CAT Scans

  • Behavior is the result of our physiological makeup



6. Sociocultural Psychology

  • 6. Sociocultural Psychology

  • Studying the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on behavior and social functioning

  • Look at immigration, gender, socioeconomic status, cultural taboos and norms



Psychologist- studies the mind and behavior of organisms

      • Psychologist- studies the mind and behavior of organisms
      • Specialty fields
        • Clinical and counseling- most popular, deal with emotions and problems. ½ of all psychologists working in offices, hospitals, clinics and prisons
        • Psychiatry- MD, working with disturbed behavior.
        • Development Psychology- study physical, emotional, cognitive and social changes throughout life.
        • Educational Psychology- teaching, intelligence, memory, learning and motivation.


Community psychology- mental health and social welfare.

        • Community psychology- mental health and social welfare.
        • Industrial Psychology- business and government agencies to boost production, work conditions, placement and accidents.
        • Environmental Psychology- environmental effects at home, work, inside and outside.
        • Psychobiologists- electrical, chemical and pharmacological effects on the nervous system.
        • Forensic psychology- legal, court and correctional facilities.
        • Health Psychology- interactions of the physical and psychological.
        • Experimental Psychology- supply research, testing and information (basic science)


Forensic psychology- legal, court and correctional facilities.

        • Forensic psychology- legal, court and correctional facilities.
        • Health Psychology- interactions of the physical and psychological.
        • Experimental Psychology- supply research, testing and information (basic science)
      • APA founded in 1892.




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