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The figure who made the most important impression on Russian and Soviet physical education was Pyotr Frantsevich Lesgaft (1837—1909), biologist, anatomist, educationalist and social reformer — the founder of the new discipline of physical education in tsarist Russia.

Lesgaft started his career in 1861 as a teacher of anatomy at the St Petersburg Academy of Medicine; he was subsequently invited to take up a professorship at the University of Kazan and went there in 1868, but was soon dismissed for his outspoken criticism of the unscientific methods used. For a while, from 1872, he worked as consultant on therapeutic gymnastics in the private surgery of Dr. Berlindt but, after the publication of several articles and books (including a descriptive history of sport in Europe and ancient Greece and an article, published in 1874), he was in charge of the physical training of military cadets. The next year, 1875, he was commissioned by the War Ministry to spend two summers in Western Europe studying the systems of physical education current there. Altogether, he visited 26 cities in 13 Western European states. The British system was evidently most to his liking, although he abhorred the "strict orders, fagging and lording of senior pupils over juniors" that he witnessed in some public schools. He also visited the Central Army Gymnastics School at Aldershot, the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich and Oxford University. What especially took his fancy was "English predilection for strict rules of hygiene, competitive games in the open air, long walks and boat trips, swimming and other regular exercises". On his return, in 1877, he published his Relationship of Anatomy to Physical Education and the Major Purpose of Physical Education in Schools, in which he outlined a physical education programme for military colleges. He was, in fact, able to supervise its progress in twelve academies. At the same time, he took a keen interest in organizing courses for physical education instructors for the military academies — provision for which, until then, had been non-existent.

1. What events happened with P. Lesgaft in following years? (Выучить ответы!)

1861? 2. 1868? 3. 1872? 4. 1874? 5. 1875? 6. 1877?



Lesgaft's medical studies of the human system led him to the conclusion that it was in constant development and change, partly under the influence of the social environment; physical education instructors should, in his opinion, have a knowledge of chemistry and physics, particularly the general laws of mechanics, so as to be able to apply them to the "human mechanism".

On the basis of his theory, he elaborated and recommended a system of physical education for the school and the home:

  1. The child starts by simple movements which are explained to him but not demonstrated, he has to analyse them himself and distinguish one from another, then begin to understand them. The movements, recommended for early school classes, consist of normal walking, running, jumping and throwing a ball.

  2. The child then learns to master exercises of gradually increasing complexity in various conditions, after which he can tackle more difficult tasks swiftly and easily. These exercises are designed for the intermediate classes and consist of running against the clock, long and high jumping and distance throwing.

  3. The child then learns to harmonize his movements in time and space and in relation to surrounding objects, already foreseeing the result. By these exercises, he develops muscular control and learns to act in the best possible way in any circumstances. Exercises are for the upper forms and include running at a set speed, target or distance ball-throwing, exercises associated with an understanding of special relationships and the temporal distribution of effort.

  4. Simultaneously with these groups of exercises, the child checks the skills he has acquired and consolidates them by employing difficult actions during games, excursions and work movements.

At each stage of physical education, different, increasingly complicated, pedagogical aims are pursued, the main purpose being to teach the

child conciously to master the movements of his body and to attain the best results with the minimum energy and time expenditure. In Lesgaft's opinion, just as in intellectual education, the child should not merely accumulate knowledge but be able to apply it, so in physical education, he should both develop physical skills and be prepared to apply them in the best way possible.

The exercises to be included in this system were mainly gymnastics, team games, expeditions and tumbles. Lesgaft, however, opposed the German system and any gymnastics that employed special equipment: "Exercises employing equipment involve sharp sensations, they therefore blunt the emotions of young people and make them less receptive and impressionable, it is hardly surprising that, when young people go to university, they smoke heavily, have late nights and so on...". Further, in his opinion, the type of gymnastics in vogue in Germany and Sweden did not correspond to children's anatomical structure and were, therefore, physically harmful. He favoured the type of free gymnastics that is today known in Russia as "artistic gymnastics", which would satisfy the children's natural desire for physical movement and achievement, and also encourage such qualities as will power and initiative: "A person develops in the family, the family gives him affection, warmth, makes him responsive and kind, the school develops his mind, gives him the ability to form his own views, judgments and thoughts; along with an independence of thought the person's moral values are formed. Physical exercises develop activity in a person and he acquires the ability to subordinate all his desires to his will."
Answer the questions.

1. What were the exercises to be included in the system?

2.What was Lesgaft's opinion about the German system?

3.What type of gymnastics did Lesgaft favour?

4.What is the role of the family in the personal development of the child from Lesgaft's point of view?

5.What is your personal opinion about Lesgaft's theory and system of physical education?

Finish the sentences.

1. The human system is in.... 2. Physical education instructors should have ... . 3. Lesgaft elaborated and recommended ... .4. The child starts by ... . 5. These movements consist of ... . 6. Then the child learns to master ... . 7. More difficult exercises are designed ... . 8. The child then learns to harmonize his movements .... 9. Exercises included running at a set speed .... 10. At each stage of physical education .... 11. In Lesgaft's opinion, the child should not....

  1. Text

avoid - избегать

involve - включать в себя

resist - противостоять

Is it worth it? If you are a competitive gymnast, you must have asked yourself this question a thousand times.

Most of us probably avoid giving an answer by deciding to enter just one more competition, carry on just one more year.

You started gymnastics, perhaps, by seeing a schoolmate practicing a handstand or something in the playground. Your big decision may be made: I must learn that. (How many gymnasts think in retrospect: if only I had known what it was going to lead to. But the majority would probably say: "If only I had learned the sport properly, instead of trying to iron out the faults some years later with a lot more frustration.")

Having been initiated into the sport, you then find yourself in the school/club gym team. Well, what does this involve?

Initially, it means you are trying to remember the hundred-and-one moves that you want to put into your routine while at the same time attempting to resist the coach. He is trying to tell you — and thereby degrading your ego — to leave out your new move which you really can't do.

Translate into the Russian:

a competitive gymnast; learn the sport properly; iron out the faults; a lot more frustration; having been initiated into the sport; degrading one's ego.

  1. Methods of movement

originate — происходить

pay attention — обращать внимание

pace — шаг

capacity — емкость, объем

Movements can be classified as follows: 1) stepping, 2) running, 3) leaping, 4) somersaults, rails, 5) on all fours (while on the back, on the stomach, on the side or while rolling).

The main thing while walking or running is to maintain natural, relaxed movement. This movement originates from the hips, feet gliding over the surface of the ground, hands relaxed and hanging loose, knees slightly bent, exhaling on every step as it touches the ground. Inhalation must be natural. Do not think about it.

Movement within stances: from the hip, the knee moves in step with the supporting leg, the movement of the feet is not the main thing, so do not pay too much attention to feet positions. The main impetus of the movement comes from the pelvis.

Exhale with every pace. Inhaling must be as natural as possible. Do not think about it. Breathing in a human can be divided into three levels:

  • middle range: this is the typical breathing pattern of everyday life and the natural state of the organism;

  • deep or full range: in this type of breathing, a man takes deep breaths, filling the lungs to capacity, thereby ventilating them, saturating the blood with oxygen and pumping up the energy level of the body;

  • shallow range: this type of breathing when we have decrease of oxygen in the blood and a corresponding increase in carbon dioxide a person being completely debilitated.

While running, one must breathe in the so-called "dog breathing" way, which is to exhale to the lower level and breathe at the shallow range. When you begin to feel tired, take several deep breaths. Such a method of breathing must become part of your daily life. When you sit down, exhale. When you bend down, exhale and so on.

Выпишите из первой части текста слова, которые описывают движения.

Переведите на русский язык.

This movement originates from the hips, feet gliding over the surface of the ground, hands relaxed and hanging loose, knees slightly bent, exhaling on every step as it touches the ground.

  1. Translate this text.

When running, a man needs more oxygen. His heart is working much harder than when he is sitting down. His blood is being pumped more quickly through his body. The blood has to carry a greater supply of oxygen to the muscles all over the body. Our hearts work for us automatically. A man's heart can pump as much as three gallons of blood a day. The amount pumped at any time is controlled automatically. After running hard a man breathes very quickly because while running he couldn't take in enough air for his oxygen needs. He is "out of breath" as we say.

The motion of our lungs as we breathe is automatic, too. It goes on by itself, the lungs taking fresh air in and letting used air out about eighteen times a minute. This is the common rate of breathing. We become conscious of our breathing if anything shuts the air off from us, so that we do not get enough oxygen for our needs.

Keeping your mouth shut, take your nose between your thumb and one finger, so that you shut air out and shut your breath in. How long can you hold your breath? You will be a clever person if you do not try to hold it more than a minute. If oxygen is kept from a person for long, he will become unconscious.

What methods of movement do you know?

What levels of breathing do you know? Describe them.

  1. middle range —

  2. deep or full range —

  3. shallow range —

  4. "dоg breathing" —

Give the Russian equivalents:

carbon paper; oxygen mask; oxygenous; exhalation; be out of breath; hold one's breath; second breath; breathe a new life into; breathing mask; breathing space; breathless; cold blood; hot blood; blood group; blood-horse

Fill in:

We can divide this text into two parts. The first part tells us about.... There are four main types of movements: ... . The author draws our attention to ... during performing exercises.

The author divides breathing into three levels:....

There are some exercises in the text, that can help us in learning the .... This publication is very useful for those who are interested in ....

  1. Text

deal with — иметь дело c
value — ценность

keep in mind — подразумевать
cope — справляться

submit — подчиниться
Being involved into the sport, a person communicates with a coach in many ways — as a teacher, as an athlete, as a psychologist and so on. Having devoted a definite part of his or her life to sports activity, a coach becomes a multifunctional specialist in this field. The knowledge of dealing with future athletes in everyday routine is, of course, a result of hard work and specific talent which a coach should be marked to.

Coaching is fundamentally a didactic and educational activity associated with social and physical development of fitness and health. Hence, the coach operates first in the pedagogical and recreational field and moves the sanitary and functional values as and when higher sports objectives are kept in mind. The society having needs in healthy population, the first task of sporting is striving for health and activity.

Physical education and sports are a basis for health, physical perfection, increased working ability, as well as moral and aesthetic teaching. A general development of sports increases the creative mankind and influences economic and cultural development. Numerous studies have shown that college students who practise sports regularly are also better able to cope with their work; workers in industry, who practise sports, fall ill 3 —4 times less frequently than others, they are more productive, produce fewer rejects and suffer fewer injuries.

In general, physical education and sport are social values which form an important component of culture. Physical education has a favourable effect on health and so it is one of the most important ways of increasing the efficiency of other activities. But to make its best contribution to the society, a long period of systematic work is needed. In general, an athlete with the best coach achieves the best result, all other conditions being equal.

Sport offers opportunities for purposeful movement, compensating for the insufficiency of the physical activity which decreases as a result of conveniences and facilities of modern life. To become perfect in physical ability and fitness is a virtue desirable for personal and socio-cultural reasons. Sport provides opportunities for satisfying our needs, like need for movement, need for publicity, need for excitement, need for competition, need for security and self-sufficiency as well as need for

physical skills. Not all athletes experience all these needs and not all needs can be satisfied without difficulty, but all of them are present, real and powerful.

The striving for self-expression and constant perfection of man, are facilitated by the process of coaching. Talent and ambition alone are not enough for winning a championship. It is necessary to submit oneself absolutely to a planned concept of coaching, which involves not only hard work but also assistance and care by a team of people concerned.

Find the verbs and define tense and voice of each sentence.

Answer the questions

What is coaching?

Where does a coach operate first?

What is the first task of sport?

What does a general development of sports increase?

What needs can sport satisfy?

Translate into Russian. Learn these word combinations. (Выучить!)

physical activity; social activity; development of fitness and health; healthy population; general development; economic and cultural development; social values; deal with athletes; winning a championship.

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