Proverbial poetry: its settings and syntax



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PROVERBIAL POETRY:

ITS SETTINGS AND SYNTAX

by
Ted A. Hildebrandt

Submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements

for the degree of Doctor of Theology in

Grace Theological Seminary

May 1985


Title: PROVERBIAL POETRY: ITS SETTINGS AND SYNTAX

Author: Ted A. Hildebrandt

Degree: Doctor of Theology

Date: May, 1985

Advisers: Richard Averbeck, Weston Fields and Donald Fowler
Hebrew poetry has long proven itself an elusive and

enticing object of study. It has been the purpose of this

study to explore the potentialities of poetic expression

and to provide an adequate model for capturing the

profundities of the syntax of Hebrew poetry. Proverbs

10-15 was chosen as the corpus because of the atomistic and

independent character of each of its bi-cola. It was hoped

that here one would be able to isolate the true nature of

the bi-colon qua bi-colon.

Since pragmalinguistics has demonstrated the

impossibility of understanding the poetic moment(s) without

some sort of cognition and/or participation in the original

perlocutionary and locutionary acts of the expression, the

various settings of wisdom literature were elucidated. The

setting of Proverbs in the wisdom tradition of the ancient

Near Eastern literacy and intellectual milieu helped

provide a broad framework for understanding the sage's

manner of expression and message. His mode and meaning

conformed to the literary patterns established for over a

millennia prior to the Israelite collection in Proverbs.

The historical Sitz im Leben and rhetorical/literary forms

characteristic of Israelite wisdom were isolated and

exampled. The canonical setting of wisdom traced the

influence of the wisdom tradition through the Old Testament

canon.

Having treated the historical, literary, canonical,



and conceptual settings of wisdom, the study moved toward

the development of an approach to Hebrew poetry. It was

shown that the rhythmical equivalences and creative

variations of Hebrew poetic expression should not be

limited to phonetic features (meter, alliteration,

paronomasia et al.); nor should one myopically employ a

method which merely observes semantic parallelism without

semantically specifying precisely what the components of

the parallel relationships are. While the phonetic and

semantic components of equivalence and variation were

mentioned, this study went on to develop a method for

exposing the poetic craftsmanship of the syntax. The

studies of Collins, and especially, O'Connor (also Berlin,

Geller, and Greenstein) were used as comparative benchmarks

in terms of grammatical parallelism. Various linguistic

approaches were examined and a six-box tagmemic approach

opted for. The study then demonstrated and explicitly

specified the syntactically parallel mappings between the

cola (homomorphic and isomorphic), in terms of both surface

and deep grammar. It was shown that proverbial genre is a

function of poetic syntactic constraints. It was also

discovered that Proverbs 10 manifests a large degree of

literary cohesion--contrary to most modern studies.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

It would indeed be a great impropriety not to

acknowledge and praise those to whom this writer is greatly

indebted in the research, writing, and conceptual

development of this paper. Through four years of research,

ordering and xeroxing of seemingly endless articles, this

writer is indebted to the services of Floyd Votaw, whose

time and expertise was so generously given, and to the

Grace Seminary library staff (Bob Ibach, Bill Darr, Paula

Ibach et al.). Regarding the conceptual development in

terms of linguistics and reading of poetry, Dr. Rik

Lovelady and Dr. Michael O'Connor have provided the

stimulus, theoretical framework and enamorment which drew

this writer into this study. This writer will never forget the

three hours spent with Michael O'Connor, while he went

far beyond the brilliant insights of his seminal tome,

Hebrew Verse Structure, to show this neophyte how poetry

should be read. While this paper reflects but a fraction

of such a reading, this writer is grateful for the model

which has allowed him to feel as if he has re-participated

in the creative poetic moment with the proverbial sages.

The interest of friends, Cyndy Miller and Jim Eisenbraun,

helped encourage this project on to completion. Thanks

also to the three advisers/friends (Richard Averbeck,

Weston Fields and Donald Fowler) who made their corrections

in such an encouraging manner. Finally, this writer would

be remiss not mention Dr. Larry Crabb, whose insights

have provided the search light to reveal the true character

and motivation behind this study.
There is no way to repay the four years missed and

damage done emotionally and spiritually to those closest to

this writer. My inexpressible and remorseful thanks to my

wife/friend, Annette, both for proofreading the entire

manuscript twice and for participating in the angst which

accompanied this project. To Rebekah, Natanya and Zachary:

while the time is gone forever, hopefully the destructive

intra-personal transformation which took place will provide

you with a father who has learned the hard way what it is

to fear God. This project was used as a weight by which

the Almighty broke this writer of his mind and

independence, as he tried to prove something to himself

which was unnecessary and an affront to the One whose cross

work had already given proof of His unconditional love and

acceptance. So to my Creator I confess thanks for showing

me the depths of my depravity and for continuing Your

steadfast love even in the face of arrogant rebellion.

Accepted by the Faculty of Grace Theological Seminary


in partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree
Doctor of Theology

Adviser: Donald Fowler


Adviser: Weston Fields
Adviser: Richard Averbeck

TABLE OF CONTENTS


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Chapter I. THE COMPARATIVE LITERARY SETTINGS

OF WISDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Egyptian Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Ptahhotep to 'Onchsheshonqy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Amenemope and Proverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Sumerian Proverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Babylonian and Assyrian "Wisdom" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Syro-Palestinian Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


II. THE CONCEPTUAL SETTING OF WISDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Neglect of Wisdom in Past Old Testament

Theologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Creation Theology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Cosmic Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Ma'at in Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Israelite Wisdom and Ma'at . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Cautions and Caveats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Wisdom and Heilsgeschichte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Secular Humanist or Theistic Humanist

Wisdom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Empirical, Rational, and Eudaemonistic

Wisdom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Evolutionary Model: From Secular to

Religious . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
III. THE CANONICAL SETTING OF WISDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Vocabulary Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Motif Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Form Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

Wisdom and the Pentateuch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

Genesis and Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Exodus, Deuteronomy and Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

Wisdom and the Historical Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

Wisdom and Esther . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

Wisdom and the Psalms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Wisdom and the Prophets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112


IV. THE HISTORICAL SETTINGS OF WISDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

The Context of Sentence Literature? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

The Multifaceted Context of Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

Introduction to the Sitz im Leben . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

The Importance of Scribes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

Scribes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

Scribes in Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

Scribes in Mesopotamia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

Scribes in Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

Class-Ethic? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

Proverbial Court Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

Schools and Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

Egyptian Schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

Mesopotamian Schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

Schools in Israel? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

The King and Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

The King and Wisdom in Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

The King and Wisdom in Mesopotamia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

The King and Wisdom in Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

The Cult and Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

The Family and Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

The Family and Egyptian Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

The Family and Mesopotamian Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

The Family and Proverbial

Folklore Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

The Family and Israelite Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

The "Father" in Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

The "Mother" and "Wife" in Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

The "Son" in Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

Popular and Folk Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

One-Line to Two-Line Evolution? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208


V. THE STRUCTURAL SETTING OF WISDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

Introduction: Importance of

Literary Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

Deep Structure Thought Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

Form List Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

Examination of General Wisdom Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

Onomastica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

Riddle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

Allegory and Fable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230

Hymn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

Dialogue and Imagined Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

Proverbial Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

Admonition (Mahnwort) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

Numerical Sayings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

Better-Than Sayings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

Comparative Sayings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

Yhwh Sayings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

Abomination Sayings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

Macarism ('asre Sayings) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

"There is . . . but . . . " Sayings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266

Paradoxical Sayings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266

The Acrostic, Rhetorical Question and

Quotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

Final Comments Concerning Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271


VI. APPROACHES TO HEBREW POETRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

Introduction to Poetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

Phonological Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285

Metrical or Not Metrical; That is

the Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285

How and What to Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

Non-metrical Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295

A Syntactic Alternative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296

Phonological Ornamentation:

Alliteration, Paronomasia,

and Onomatopoeia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298

Semantic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

Standard Description Approach to

Semantic Parallelism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

Problems with Semantic Parallelism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

Other Semantic Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321

The Dyad of Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321

Repetition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

Variational Techniques: Double Duty

Gapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331

Syntactic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334

O'Connor's Constraints and Tropes . . . . . . . . . . . . 336

Collins' Types, Forms, and

Arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

Resultant Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
VII. A LINGUISTIC APPROACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354

Aspects of Language Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354

Introduction to Linguistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

Linguistic Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

Traditional Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366

Structural Linguistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

Transformational Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378

Other Recent Grammars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

Stratificational Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387

Relational Grammars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389

Pragmalinguistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393

The Role of Case Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398

Tagmemic Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
VIII. CORPUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427

IX. LITERARY COHESION IN PROVERBS 10? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615

Hugger-mugger Advocates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615

Theoretical Basis of Cohesion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617

Order in Proverbs outside of

Proverbs 10-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628

Ordering Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643

Cohesional Features in Proverbs 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650

Conclusion on Cohesion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 689
X. A LINGUISTIC SYNTHESIS OF THE SYNTAX OF

PROVERBIAL POETRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703

A Comparison of Collins' Prophetic Corpus

with the Proverbial Corpus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705

A Line Type Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 706

Basic Sentence Frequency Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709

A Comparison of Syntactically Matching

Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 710

A Comparison of Syntactically Mixed

Bi-Cola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720

A Comparison of the Ordering of Syntactic

Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 727

Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 730

A Comparison with O'Connor's Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 732

A Survey of Bi-colonic Syntactic

Isomorphisms and Homomorphisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 748

Isomorphic Syntactic Equivalences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 751

Homomorphic Syntactic Equivalences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760

An Examination of the Patterns of

Proverbial Noun Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 771

Four Major Noun Phrase Tagmemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772

Matching Noun Phrase Morphological

Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775

Four Noun Phrase Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777

Select Grammatical Transformations of

Proverbial Poetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785

Noun Phrase Reduction Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786

Verbal Collapsing Transformational

Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794


XI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 806

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 806

The Comparative Literary Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 808




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