Reassessing the Impact of Barthélemy’s Devanciers, 40 years later

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Barthélemy’s work, starting with the Minor Prophets scroll(s) but branching out into other areas and adjusting to various comments and criticisms, has provided impetus to a variety of areas in the study of Greek Jewish scriptures and their subsequent developments. He made us all more conscious of the ways in which ancient Greek translators worked, and of the importance for some transmitters of being faithful to the current Hebrew text as they understood it. In trying to answer the “why?” questions, he forced us to be more aware of historical and even psychological contexts for what we could observe in the texts themselves. He did not hide from textual and historical complexity or defend simple solutions where they seemed unsatisfactory. He sought for adequate language to discuss the often-frustrating situations that the materials presented.

As a result, many new insights have been gained (e.g. regarding καίγε-Theodotion evidence in surviving texts), significant advances have been made on old mysteries (e.g. the Greek texts of Samuel-Kings), and new approaches have been developed in certain areas (e.g. using features of translation technique to determine integrity of text, even where the manuscript evidence is confused and confusing, as in Samuel-Kings). Some of the doors that B’s work has opened may never be able to be closed (e.g. the early history of Greek translations and recensions), others will probably prove to be convincing (e.g. the dubious connection of historical Lucian with the Antiochene text of the early fourth century). All in all, we owe him a great debt, as a great, late twentieth century catalyst to the study of Jewish Greek scriptures.

Appended Special Bibliography:

Studies pertaining to ancient Greek versions in general (chronological):

Peter Katz, "Frühe hebraisierende Rezensionen der LXX," ZAW 69 (1957), 77-84

Patrick W. Skehan, "The Earliest LXX and Subsequent Revisions," Jerome Biblical Commentary 2 (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: 1968) 570-572.

S. Daniel, "Minor Greek Versions,"  Encylopaedia Judaica 4 (1971)  955-956.

Pierre-Maurice Bogaert, "Les rapports du judaisme avec l'histoire de la Septante et de ses révisions."  Tradition orale et tradition écrite, ed  L.  De Queker  (Colloque, Louvain 1975; Bruxelles, 1976) 122-149. [Includes discussions].

Angel Saenz-Badillos, "El hebreo del S.II d. C. a la luz de las transcripciones griegas de Aquila, Símmaco y Teodoción."  Sefàrad 35 (1975) 107-130.
Kevin G. O'Connell, "Greek Versions (Minor)." IDBSup (Nashville: Abington, 1976) 377-381.

Staffan Olofsson, The LXX Version: A Guide to the Translation Technique of the Septuagint (Coniectanea Biblica: Old Testament Series 30; Stockholm: Almqvist & Wicksell, 1990).

Lester L. Grabbe, "The Translation Technique of the Greek Minor Versions: Translations or Revisions?,"  Septuagint, Scrolls and Cognate Writings : Papers Presented to the International Symposium on the Septuagint and Its Relations to the Dead Sea Scrolls and Other Writings (Manchester, 1990), ed G. J. Brooke and Barnabas Lindars (Society of Biblical Literature Septuagint and Cognate Studies 33; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992) 505-556; see also "Aquila's Translation and Rabbinic Exegesis," JJS 33 (1982) 527-536 [summarized in BIOSCS 14 (1981) 54-55.

Claude E. Cox, "The Translations of Aquila, Symmachus and Theodotion Found in the Margins of Armenian Manuscripts,"  Armenia and the Bible, ed C. Burchard (Atlanta, GA: 1993) 35-45.

Studies pertaining specifically to the "καίγε" Group and/or Recension(s) (chronological, except multiple contributions by the same author are grouped at the first occurrence; see also the preceding footnotes for Barthélemy [passim], Kahle [nn. 23, 26], Katz [n. 23], Cross [nn. 3, 4, 27, 29], Tov [nn. 4, 9, 19, 23, 29, 33], Muraoka [n. 4], O’Connell [n.31], Howard [nn. 3, 26, 29], Greenspoon [n.11], McLay [n. 11], DeLange [n. 38]):

Werner E. Lemke, Synoptic Studies in the Chronicler's History (unpublished Harvard dissertation 1964); see the summary in  HTR 58 (1965) 349-363.

Sebastian P. Brock, The Recensions of the Septuagint Version of 1 Samuel (unpublished Oxford dissertation 1966) [see also above, n. 3].

Ralph W. Klein, Studies in the Greek Text of the Chronicler (unpublished Harvard dissertation 1966); see his subsequent article in HTR 60 (1967) 93-105.

A. Schmitt, Stammt der sogennante "Θ'"-Text bei Daniel wirklich von Theodotion? (MSU 9; Goettingen 1966).

M. Smith, "Another Criterion for the kaige Recension," Biblica 48 (1967) 443-445.

James D. Schenkel, Chronology and Recension Developments in the Greek Text of Kings (Harvard Semitic Monographs 1, Harvard University Press 1968).

J. M. Grindel, “Another characteristic of the καίγε recension,” CBQ 31 (1969), 499-513.

G. Howard, "Lucianic Readings in a Greek Twelve Prophets Scroll from the Judaean Desert." Jewish Quarterly Review 62 (1971-1972) 51-60; "Kaige Readings in Josephus."  Textus 8 (1973) 45-54; "The Quinta of the Minor Prophets: a First Century Text?" Bib 55 (1974) 15-22; "Frank Cross and Recensional Criticism," Vetus Testamentum 21 (1971) 440-450 [see also above, notes 3 and 31]; "Lucianic Readings in a Greek Twelve Prophets Scroll from the Judaean Desert." Jewish QuarterlyReview 62 (1971-1972) 51-60; "Kaige Readings in Josephus."  Textus 8 (1973) 45-54; "The Quinta of the Minor Prophets: a First Century Text?" Bib 55 (1974) 15-22.

J. Schopphaus, "Das Verhältnis von LXX- und Theodotion-Text in den apokryphen Zusätzen zum Danielbuch", ZATW 83 (1971) 49-72.

Emanuel Tov, "Lucian and Proto-Lucian -- Towards a New Solution of the Problem," Revue Biblique 79 (1972) 101-113 [reprinted in Cross & Talmon, Qumran and the History of the Biblical Text (1976) 293-305]); "Transliterations of Hebrew Words in the Greek Versions of the Old Testament.  A Further Characteristic of the καίγε -Th. Revision?,"  Textus 8 (1973) 78-92; The Greek and Hebrew Bible: collected essays on the Septuagint (Leiden: Brill, 1999) [see also above, nn. 4, 9, 19, 23, 29, 33].

K. Koch, "Die Herkunft der Proto-Theodotion-Übersetzung des Danielsbuches," VT 23 (1973) 362-365.

S. Jellicoe, "Some Reflections on the Kaige-Recension."  VT 23 (1973) 15-24 [see also above, nn. 3, 14, 15, 22, 28].

W. R. Bodine, The Greek Text of Judges: Recensional Developments.  HSM 23 (Missoula MT: Scholars, 1980) [publication of his 1973 Harvard Dissertation]; "Kaige and other Recensional Developments in the Greek Text of Judges,"  BIOSCS 13 (1980) 45-57.

L. C. Allen, The Greek Chronicles. The Relation of the Septuagint of I and II Chronicles to the Massoretic Text. Part I: The Translator's Craft.  SVT 25 (Leiden: 1974) 6-17, 137-141.

Natalio Fernández Marcos, "El Texto Barberini de Habacuc III reconsiderado", Sefàrad 36 (1976) 3-36 [see n. 25 above]; "Theodoret's Biblical Text in the Octateuch", BIOSCS 11 (1978) 27-43; " The Lucianic Text in the Books of Kingdoms: From Lagarde to the Textual Pluralisrn," Wevers Festschrift (1984) 161-174; "Some reflections on the Antiochian text of the Septuagint," Studien zur Septuaginta - Robert Hanhart zu Ehren: aus Anlass seines 65 Geburtstages, ed. Detlef Fraenkel, Udo Quast and John W. Wevers (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1990); "The Antiochian text in I-II Chronicles,"  Seventh Congress of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies, Leuven 1989,  ed. Claude Cox (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1991); Scribes and translators: Septuagint and Old Latin in the Books of Kings (Leiden; New York: Brill, 1994).

Leonard Greenspoon, Studies in the Textual Tradition of the Book of Joshua (Harvard Dissertation, 1977), published as Textual Studies in the Book of Joshua, HSM 28 (Chico CA: Scholars 1983) [see above, n. 11]; “Theodotion, Aquila, Symmachus, and the Old Greek of Joshua,” Eretz Israel 16 (1982: H. M. Orlinsky volume) 82–91 (with summary in Hebrew); "Biblical Translators in Antiquity and in the Modern World: a Comparative Study,"  HUCA 60 (1989) 91-113; “Recensions, Revision, Rabbinics: Dominique Barthélemy and Early Developments in the Greek Traditions,” Textus 15 (1990) 153–67; "Theodotion's Version,"  ABD 6 (1992) 447-448; “Kaige is the Answer: What is the Question?,” (paper presented at the IOSCS/IOSOT meetings, 1998); “Old Testament Versions, Ancient” in Dictionary of New Testament Background, Craig A. Evans and Stanley E. Porter, eds. (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2000) 752–5.

José Ramón Busto Saiz, La Traducción de Símaco en el libro de los Salmos (Madrid, 1978); "El Texto teodotiénico de Daniel y la traducción de Simaco," Sefàrad 40 (1980) 41-55; see "Der Theodotion-Text von Daniel und die Symmachus-Übersetzung" [English summary in the IOSCS Bulletin 14 (1981) 44-45]; "On the Lucianic Manuscripts in 1-2 Kings." Sixth Congress of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies, Jerusalem, 1986 (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987) 305-310; "The Antiochene Text in 2 Samuel 22." Eighth Congress of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1995) 131-43. 

D. H. Torp-Pedersen, An Examination of the Sixth Column of Origen's Hexapla for Characteristics of the Kaige Recension in the Book of Deuteronomy. Diss. (Dallas Theological Seminary, 1981).

David G. Deboys, The Greek Text of 2 Kings (Dissertation, Oxford 1981); "Quinta E in 4 Reigns [= 2 Kgs (LXX)]," Tyndale Bulletin 36 (1985) 163-78; "Recensional Criteria in the Greek Text of II Kings," JSS 31.2 (1986) 135-139.

Jean Carmignac, "Les devanciers de S. Jérôme. Une traduction latine de la recension καίγε dans le second Livre des Chroniques."  Mélanges D. Barthélemy: études bibliques offertes a l'occasion de son 60e anniversaire, ed. Pierre Cassetti, Othmar Keel, Adrian Schenker (Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 38; Fribourg: Editions Universitaires, 1981) 31-50.

Julio C. Trebolle Barrera, "Textos 'Kaige' en la Vetus Latina de Reyes (2 Re 10, 25-28),"  RB 89 (1982) 198-209; "The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in the Books of Kings." Seventh Congress of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies, Leuven 1989 (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1991) 285-99.

Claude E. Cox, "Origen's Use of Theodotion in the Elihu Speeches [Job 32ff]," The Second Century, a Journal of Early Christian 3 (1983) 89-98.

Oliver Munnich, "La Septante des Psaumes et le groupe καίγε,"  VT 33 (1983) 75-89; "Contribution à l'Étude de la première révision de la Septante" ANRW 2.20.1  (1986) 190-220.

H. Engel, Die Susanna-Erza%hlung.  Einleitung, U%bersetzung und Kommentar zum Septuaginta- Text und zur Theodotion-Bearbeitung. OBO 6 1 (Freiburg/Goettingen, 1985).

Zipora Talshir, "Linguistic Development and the Evaluation of Translation Technique in the Septuagint," Scripta Hierosolymitana 31 (1986), 301-320; “The Nature of the Edition of the Books of Kings Reflected in the LXX,” Tarbiz: A Quarterly for Jewish Studies 59 (1990) 249-302; "Is the Alternate Tradition of the Division of the Kingdom (3 Kgdms 12:24a-z) Non-Deuteronomistic." Septuagint, Scrolls and Cognate Writings (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992) 599-621; The Alternative Story of the Division of the Kingdom: 3 Kingdoms 12:24a-z (Jerusalem Biblical Studies 6; Jerusalem: Simor, 1993).

Héctor Avalos, "δεῦρο - δεῦτε and the Imperatives of

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