§ 10. HUSSERL AND BRENTANO IN FLORENCE, ITALY “I did not see Brentano again until the year 1908, in his apartment, magnificently situated on the Via Bellosguardo in Florence. It was only with the greatest emotion that I remember those days. How moving it was when he, almost completely blind, stood on the balcony and described to me the incomparable view of Florence and the surrounding landscape, or guided my wife and me on the prettiest routes to see the two villas that Galileo had lived in, and showed us around. His external appearance, I found, had actually changed very little except that his hair had turned grey and his eyes had lost their gleam and earlier expression. Yet even then, how much those eyes
spoke – what radiance and hope in God they expressed. Naturally we talked a great deal of philosophy. That too was sad. How it did his heart good to be able once
again to express himself in philosophical terms. He to whom great effectiveness as a teacher had been a necessity of life had to live in isolation in Florence and was not in a position to exercise his personal influence. He was happy just to have someone come down from the North occasionally who could listen to him and understand him. During that visit it seemed to me as though the decades since my student days in Vienna had been nothing but a faint dream; once more I felt like a shy beginner before this towering, powerful intellect. I preferred to listen rather than speak myself. And how great, how beautifully and firmly articulate, as the speech that poured out. Once, however, he himself wanted to listen, and without interrupting me with objections, he let me speak about the significance of the “phenomenological method” of investigation and my old fight against “psychologism”. We did not reach any agreement. And perhaps some of the fault lies with me. I was handicapped by the inner conviction that he, having become firmly entrenched in his way of looking at things, and having established a firm system of concepts and arguments, was no longer flexible enough to be able to understand the necessity of changes in his basic intuitions which had been so compelling to me.” 9
§ 11. AURA OF TRANSFIGURATION “Not even the slightest discord marred these lovely days. His second wife, Emilie, who cared for him in such a kind and loving way during his later years and fitted so beautifully into his way of life at that time, was extremely kind and friendly to us. He wanted to be with me as much as possible; he was clearly aware that my
gratitude for everything his personality and the vital power of his teaching had meant to me was inextinguishable. In old age he had become even more charming
and gentle; I did not find an embittered old man who had been denied the support he deserved in both of his homelands and who had been rewarded for his great gifts with ingratitude. He lived constantly in his world of ideas and for the perfection of his philosophy which, as he said, had undergone a great development in the course of the decades. There was about him a slight “aura of transfiguration”, as though he no longer belonged entirely to this world and as though he already half lived in that “higher” world he believed in so firmly, and the theistic philosophical explanation of which occupied him so much during these later years. This last impression of him in Florence has etched itself deeply into my mind and this is how he lives on in my memory – as a figure from a ‘higher world’.” 10
§ 12. THE PERIODS OF HUSSERL’S DEVELOPMENT In light of our discussion of Franz Brentano’s impact on the development of Husserl’s early thinking we have attempted to briefly outline for the reader (through ‘excerpts’ from letters) some of the major influences Franz Brentano exercised upon the early development of Husserl’s life and work. However, our brief analysis concerning these early initial phases of Edmund Husserl’s philosophical development would be largely incomplete if we did not include at least some preliminary discussion and analysis regarding the general “periodizations” into which Husserl’s philosophical thinking falls (as distinguished from Franz Brentano’s philosophical development). Hence, we must ask ourselves, in this short introduction,
what if anything, are the basic academic periods into which Husserl’s philosophical thinking falls as a whole?
In attempting to answer this above question I wish to place Husserl’s philosophical thinking (in contrast to Brentano’s thinking) into the following four academic periods of evolution below in order to provide the reader with a basic time line outlining Husserl’s intellectual development. Thus the four periods into which Husserl’s phenomenological thinking falls is:
1. The Halle Period, (1886-1900)
2. The Göttingen Period, (1901-1916)
3. The Freiburg Period, (1916-1928), and
4. The “Jewish Retirement” Period, (1929-1938) 11
§ 13. THE HALLE PERIOD (1886-1900) What exactly are the basic characteristic features which make up Husserl’s Halle period of development? To answer this question it should be pointed out that Husserl actually began his academic career in philosophy at the University of Halle in the year 1886 as an academic “research assistant” under Carl Stumpf before he was appointed to the University of Göttingen, in September, 1901, as ‘Extraordinariusprofessor’ in philosophy. The historical background of the Halle period indicates that Husserl left the University of Vienna for Halle during the winter term 1886/87 in order to become Carl Stumpf’s personal assistant in the field of psychology, that is, in order to gain a deeper knowledge and wider understanding of the field of
“experimental psychology” under the direction of Carl Stumpf. (Tonpsychologie, 2 vols. 1883/90).
According to Marvin Farber, (The Foundations of Phenomenology, 1968), Husserl made the following comments concerning his “Halle period” of philosophical development in a “personal letter” to him at Harvard University, when he writes: “really, my course was already marked out in the ‘Philosophy of Arithmetic’ (Halle, 1891) , and I could do nothing other than proceed further.” 12
Moreover, the chronological list of Husserl’s writings for the Halle period of philosophical development (1886/1900) exhibiting his major publications in the field of philosophy have been documented by Marvin Farber (The Foundations ofPhenomenology, 1968) as follows:
‘ “Philosophie der Arithmetik” (Halle, 1891), first volume alone being published; “Psychologische Studien zur elementaren Logik” (1894); the “habilitation” thesis submitted to the University of Halle in order to qualify for an instructorship, “Ueber den Begriff der Zahl” (1887), was printed, but was not placed on sale (it was incorporated into the “Philosophie der Arithmetik”….’); Review of Schroder’s “Vorlesungen uber die algebra der Logik” (1891); “Der Folgerungscalcul und die Inhaltslogik” (1891); Controversy with Voigt (1893); the first logical survey, “Bericht uber deutsche Schriften zur Logik aus dem Jahre 1894” (1897); and the “Logische Untersuchungen”, first edition, (Halle, 1900-1901),…” . 13
In contrast to Marvin Farber, (The Foundations of Phenomenology, 1968), Rudolf Bernet, Iso Kern, and Eduard Marbach, in the “appendix” to their excellent work” (“An Introduction to Husserlian Phenomenology,” 1993), provide the following detailed chronological development outlining Husserl’s life, work and teaching for the Halle period as follows:
. ‘Winter term 1886/87: summer term 1887, University of Halle a.S:
Lectures with Carl Stumpf with whom Husserl studied for his Habilitation at
the recommendation of Brentano.
. 1886-1895: Studies mainly in areas of formal mathematics and formal logic.
. 1887: Marriage with Malvine Steinschneider (6 August).
. Fall: Printing of the Hibilitationsschift Uber der Begriff der Zahl, Psychologische Analysen
(“On the Concept of Number, Psychological Analysis).
. Acquisition of philosophical books during years of studies (selection):
. 1880: Schopenhauer, Spinoza, 1884: Hegel, Phänomenologie des Geists; H. Spencer,
Grindlagen der Philosophie. 1886: E. Mach, Beiträge zur Analyse der Empfindungen. 1887:
G. Frege, Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik.
. 1887-1901: As Privatdozent in Halle.
. 1887: Inaugural lecture “Die Ziele und Aufgaben der Metaphysik” (“Aims and Tasks of
Metaphysics”) (24 October).
. 1891: Philosophies der Arithmetik. Psychologische und logische Untersuchungen; review of
Schröder’s Vorlesungen uber die Algebra der Logic.
. 1900: Logische Untersuchungen, Erster Teil: Prolegomena zur reinen Logik.
. 1901: Logische Untersuchungen, Zweiter Teil: Untersuchungen zur Phänomenologie und
Theorie der Erkenntnis.
. 1901: First Meeting of Max Scheler with Husserl.
. Early September appointment at Göttingen, which had been pending for one year. 14
Moreover, while these above chronological timelines outlining Husserl’s life, work and teaching for the Halle period of philosophical development as documented by Marvin Farber (The Foundations of Phenomenology, 1968), as well as Bernet, Kern, and Marbach (“An Introduction to Husserlian Phenomenology, 1993) are vitally important to us, (insofar as theyhelp throw valuable light on the Husserl’s evolution during this historical period of time), nevertheless, their work should be compared and contrasted with Karl Schuhman’s definitive work and study entitled: (“Husserl-Chronik Denk und LebenswegEdmund Husserls,” 1977),
which thoroughly and completely outlines as well as summarizes Husserl’s entire intellectual career and development from A to Z and remains the “Bible” on the field in terms of contemporary Husserlian scholarship today.
§ 14. THE “HALLE CRISIS” and ‘PSYCHOLOGISM’ Moreover, one of the specific reasons why Husserl came to the “University of Halle’ to study “experimental psychology” under Carl Stumpf in 1886 was precisely because he wished to overcome his “intellectual crisis” and “struggle” with the problem of “psychologism” during his early philosophical studies at this time. Accordingly, the doctrine of “psychologism” (as represented by Husserl’s fight and struggle with the problem of “psychologism” during his so-called “early” Halle period), is precisely the belief that formal “logic” has its “absolute ground” and ultimate basis in “empirical psychology” and not in philosophy.
Furthermore, “psychologism” was the thesis held by both Theodor Lipps as well as the “early” Edmund Husserl at the University of Halle who defended the above thesis of “psychologism” in the first publication of his work on: “The Philosophy of Arithmetic” (Halle, 1891). However, after Husserl’s position was rigorously attacked and criticized by Frege (in his review of Husserl’s work), Husserl, in response to Frege’s “criticism,” completely “reversed” himself and changed his philosophical position and thesis in the first and second volumes of his “Logical Investigations”
(1900-1901) by criticizing the doctrine of “psychologism” (along with Frege) as being a form of psychological “relativism”.
Thus according to Husserl, the “absolute foundations” of pure “logic” rests on the discovery of a new “presuppositionless” science which he now calls
“transcendental phenomenology” and which represents a radically new and revolutionary “breakthrough” into the “Idea of a Pure Phenomenology” which is to be completely distinguished from “empirical psychology” as such.
§ 15. THE GÖTTINGEN PERIOD (1901-1916) Moreover, as distinguished from Husserl’s “Halle period” of philosophical development the “Göttingen period” represents, without doubt, one of the most productive periods of Husserl’s philosophical life precisely because the Göttingen period of development, (which is situated historically between the “Halle” and “Freiburg” periods), reflects Husserl’s initial scientific “breakthrough” into his idea of a ‘pure phenomenology and a phenomenological philosophy,’ that is, as distinguished from his earlier “logical studies” as reflected by the earlier “Halle period” of development (1886-1900).
That is to say, Husserl’s “Göttingen period” of evolution represents one of the most creative and productive periods of his philosophical career within the newly emerging field of ‘transcendental phenomenology’. This is evidenced, for example, by the fact, that from April 26th to May 2nd, 1907, Husserl developed a series of “five lectures” on “The Idea of Phenomenology” at the University of Göttingen (1907) in which he first attempted to introduce to the world for the first time his
revolutionary idea of a ‘pure phenomenology and a phenomenological philosophy’.
Moreover, in Husserl’s “five lectures” on “The Idea of Phenomenology” (1907), delivered at Göttingen, he provides the reader with a brief outline or thumbnail sketch of some of the most basic phenomenological themes which he develops
throughout his phenomenological thinking on such basic topics as: the pure cogito, the epoché, the transcendental and phenomenological reductions, immanence and transcendence, intentionality and constitution, the problem of intersubjectivity, inner time-consciousness, and so-forth, as these basic themes and topics begin to spring out of each other and become integrated as a whole in Husserl’s “five lectures” on “The Idea of Phenomenology” (1907) which he delivered to students in Göttingen.
Similarly, Husserl’s “five lectures” on “The Idea of Phenomenology” (1907) may also be compared and contrasted with his “earlier” lectures and “genetic” coursework he presented on “The Phenomenology of Internal Time-Consciousness (1905) and which was delivered as part of a lecture course at Göttingen that compliments his “later” five lectures on “The Idea of Phenomenology” (1907) together with its basic themes. Thus it is from these two creative and productive texts on “The Phenomenology of Internal Time-Consciousness” (1905), and “The Idea of Phenomenology” (1907), which, when taken together, provides the reader with a “bird’s eye view” and synopsis of some of the most important and essential phenomenological themes relating to his idea of a pure phenomenology and a phenomenological philosophy.
Then there is “Philosophy as a Rigorous Science,” (1911) which precedes Husserl’s major creative and productive work of the “First book” of “Ideas” (Ideen
I, 1913), which first appeared in Husserl’s famous: “Jahrbuch fur Philosophie und phänomenologische Forschuungen”(1913), which is complimented and preceded
by his “Second Book” of “Ideas” or the so-called, “pencil manuscript” of 1912, (edited by Husserl’s personal “Göttingen assistant,” Edith Stein), which has now
come down to us posthumously as being: the “Second Book” of “Ideas” (Ideen II, 1912); “Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologie und phänomenologischen
Philosophie. Zweites Buch: Phänomenologische Untersuchungen zu Konstitution”(Husserliana 4, 1952).
Moreover, the “Second Book” of “Ideas,” is considered as the ultimate “textural source” for Husserl’s creation of Ideas III; “Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologie
und phänomenologishen philosophie. Drittes Buch: Die Phänomenologie und die Fundamente der Wissenschaften,”(Husserliana 5, 1971), which was written by Husserl between the years 1900-1916, in Göttingen.
Thus it is from these various creative and productive texts exhibited above that we find the mind of a great thinker and genius at work creatively producing ideas which seem to “overflow” to richness during Husserl’s so-called “Göttingen period” of philosophical development (1901-1916).
The chronological survey for Husserl’s Göttingen period of evolution as documented by Rudolf Bernet, Iso Kern, and Eduard Marbach (“An Introduction to Husserlian Phenomenology, 1993) outlining Husserl’s life, work and teaching for the Göttingen period of development is as follows:
. 1901-1916: The Years at Göttingen
. 1901: (September) Apppointment as “Extraordinarius Professor.”
. 1902: J. Daubert’s first visit to Husserl in Göttingen: discussion on the Logische
Untersuchungen. As a result of this meeting relations between Theodor Lipps’s students
In Munich and Husserl begin.
. (May) Visit to Munich: meeting with Th. Lipps and his students (J. Daubert, A. Pfander, etc.,)
. (March) Visit to W. Dilthey in Berlin. In a letter of 1929 to G. Misch, Husserl wrote “that a few
discussions in 1905 with Dilthey in Berlin (not his writings) provided the impulse which led from
the Husserl of the Logische Untersuchungen to the one of the Ideen.”
. 1906: Appointment as Ordinarius Professor.
. 1906: (December) Visit by the poet Hugo von Hofmannsthal to Husserl.
. 1907: Visit to Franz Brentano in Florence.
. 1907: (Summer term) Foundation of the “Göttinger Philosophische Gesellschaft: by Th.
. 1909: (October) Visit by P. Natrop to Husserl.
. 1910: (January) Husserl agrees with H. Rickert to collaborate as editor of the newly founded
. “Philosophy as Rigorous Science” in Logos, volume 1. (1910/11).
. 1911: Correspondence between Dilthey and Husserl in connection with the Logos paper.
. 1913: Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologischen Philosophie. First Book: “A General
Introduction to Pure Phenomenology”. The work was published in Jahrbuch fur Philosophie
undphänomenologische Forschung, volume I, founded in 1912 by Husserl as chief editor
together with Moritz Geiger, Alexander Pfander, Adolf Reinach, and Max Scheler.
. 1913: Visit by Karl Jasper’s to Husserl.
. 1914: Participation in the 6th Congress for Experimental Psychology in Göttingen (15-18 April).
. 1916: (5 January) Appointment to Freiburg as successor of, and on the recommendation by
Heinrich Rickert, beginning 1 April.
. 1916: (8 March) Husserl’s son Wolfgang is killed near Verdun. 15
§ 16. THE GÖTTINGEN CIRCLE
Moreover, in her unfinished “Autobiography”, (1891-1916), in
contrast to Husserl’s creative and productive philosophical activities at Göttingen, Edith Stein, paints a “living portrait” of her personal memories of Göttingen (as Husserl’s personal assistant), surrounding the so-called “Göttingen Circle” or “The
Göttingen School of Phenomenology,” as she defines it; that is, as represented by such leading and key philosophical figures as: Adolf Reinach, Hans Theodor Conrad,
Hedwig Conrad-Martius, Theodor Lipps, Moritz Geiger, Max Scheler, and others, in the following way,
Says Edith Stein:
Dear Göttingen! I do believe only someone who studied there between 1905 and 1914, the short “flowering time” of the “Göttingen School of Phenomnology”, can appreciate all that the name evokes in us. I was twenty-one years old and looked forward full of expectation to all that lay ahead….So, finally, in a round about way, I came to the essential topic – the one which has led me to Göttingen:“phenomnology” and the “phenomenologists”. In Breslau, as (Georg Moskiewicz) had instructed me, “When one gets to Göttingen , the first place to go is to Reinach; he arranges all the rest.”Adolf Reinach was “privatdocent” in philosophy.He and hisfriends, HansTheodor Conrad and Moritz Geiger, and a few others, had originally been students of Theodor Lipps in Munich. When the “Logische Untersuchungen” appeared, they had insisted that Lipps discuss the work with them in his Seminar. After Husserl was called to Göttingen, they had come there together in 1905 to be initiated into “the secrets” of this “new science” by the master himself. So the “Göttingen School” was founded. Reinach was the first of the group to be “habilitated” in Göttingen and was now Husserl’s right hand; primarily he was the link between him and the students since he had a gift for dealing with people whereas Husserl was rather helpless along those lines. By this time, Reinach was about thirty-three years old. 16
Some of the students who made up the so-called “Göttingen Circle” or
“The Göttingen Philosophical Society” as mentioned by Edith Stein in her “Autobiography” were actually former students of Theodor Lipps’ group in Munich
Edith Stein, Husserl’s Göttingen assistant
(The “Munich Circle”) who came to study under Husserl in Göttingen. They were: Adolf Reinach, Johannes Daubert, Moritz Geiger, Theodor Conrad, Dietrich von Hildebrand, Hedweg Conrad-Martius, Max Scheler, and others. Similarly, there were also many other students who came to Göttingen as “transfer” students as well as
“visitors” in order to study with Husserl, such as: Alexander Koyré, Jean Hering, Roman Ingarden, Fritz Kaufmann, as well as Edith Stein.
Again, says Edith Stein:
I will never forget how, during one intense discussion, Hans Lipps knocked the ash of his cigarette into the silver ‘sugar-bowl’ until our laughter startled him.
None of the founders of the ‘Philosophical Society’ were present at meetings at that time. Reinach stopped attending after his becoming a lecturer and his marriage. Conrad and Hedwig Martius were
living alternatively in Munich and in Bergzabern (in the Palatinate) since their marriage. Dietrich von Hildebrand had gone to Munich; Alexander Koyré, to Paris. As Johannes Hering wanted to take the
state boards the following summer, he had withdrawn to his hometown, Strassbourg, to study without being disturbed…. 17
Moreover, this is how Husserl’s personal assistant Edith Stein describes the “Göttingen Circle” as well as the philosophical scene surrounding the social gatherings of “The Göttingen Philosophical Society” at this time in Germany in her “Autobiography”. This special group of phenomenologial thinkers, were composed of “visitors” as well as members of both the “Munich” and “Göttingen” groups who were actively and creatively engaged in analyzing and discussing Husserl’s phenomenology.
The Göttingen Philosophical Society
(l.r.) Johannes Hering, (?) Schroder, Adolf Reinach, Hans Lipps, Theodore Conrad (eyes only), Max Scheler, Alexander Koyré, Siegfried Hamburger, Hedwig Martius (wife of Theodore Conrad), Rudolf Clemens, Gustav Hubner, and Alfred von Sybel.
§ 17. THE FREIBURG PERIOD (1916-1928) Apart from our considerations of the “Göttingen Circle” what was Husserl’s “Freiburg period” really like exactly? How does it compare to his earlier “Halle” or “Göttingen” period of philosophical development? That is, how is Husserl’s so- called “Freiburg period” of philosophical evolution to be distinguished from his two earlier preceding periods of thought? As we shall see, one of the distinguishing
characteristics of Husserl’s later Freiburg period of development is precisely the fact that Husserl soon began to travel outside of Germany and was frequently invited as a
guest speaker to give public lectures on his idea of a pure phenomenology to many different types of international audiences of people who gathered in various capitols
throughout central Europe in order to listen to him speak about his idea of a pure phenomenology and a phenomenological philosophy during the later Freiburg period.
That is to say, what makes Husserl’s “later” Freiburg period “stand out” from his two “earlier” preceding periods of philosophical development at the Universities
of “Halle” and “Göttingen”, is precisely the fact that Husserl, “took to the road”, so to speak, by attempting to give public lectures in phenomenology at other European capitols outside Germany, such as London (1922), Amsterdam (1928), and Paris
(1929), for example, in order to deliver ‘advanced lectures’ in philosophy on his idea of a pure phenomenology to an international audience of people who were very
‘sympathetic’ to his cause and who were eager to listen to him speak about the newly emerging field of “transcendental phenomenology” during his Freiburg period of evolution.
Moreover, in the year 1922, as illustrated below, Husserl travelled from Freiburg, Germany to London, England for the first time, in order to deliver his first
“London lectures” on June 6th, 8th, 9th, and 12th, (1922), on his idea of a pure phenomenology and a phenomenological philosophy to a British audience at the University of London, on Gower street, in London. Thus part of the historical ‘transmission’ and ‘spread’ of Husserl’s phenomenological philosophy, to be sure, came directly by way of the master’s own “public lectures” which he gave and delivered (in London) on the idea of a pure phenomenology during his later Freiburg period of development. The “Syllabus” for Husserl’s “London lectures” (1922) has been historically documented by professor Herbert Spiegelberg in his monumental study and work: (“The Phenomenological Movevment”,2 vols. 1960), exhibiting both the German and French phases of the phenomenological movement.
Moreover, while Spiegelberg’s historical work remains a philosophical classic and milestone in modern phenomenology and existential philosophy today it has been widely felt among scholars within the field that a new updated version of this “groundbreaking” work is long overdue in the academic world and that a new version of The Phenomenological Movement needs to be undertaken by Husserl scholarship within the field today in order to expand upon some the recent philosophical developments not covered by Spiegelberg’s work, such as, the “end of century”, and early “twenty-first century” developments in phenomenology which are not covered by this truly valuable historical work for future generations of scholars. Thus, apart from Husserl’s “London lectures” which were delivered at the University of London, (1922), to a British audience of professors, students, and
members of the general public, at large, the rest of the bulk of Husserl’s other key philosophical writings, between the years (1916-1929), consists of some the following key major works in his system of phenomenology as indicated below:
(Professor of Philosophy in the University of Freiburg)
University College, London
(Gower Street, W. C.)
June 6th, 8th, 9th, and 12th, 1922, at 5:30 p.m. Lecture I. - June 6th
(Chairman: Professor G. Dawes Hickes, M.A., Ph.D., Litt. D.)
“The general Aims of Phenomenological Philosophy; The “Cartesian Way” to the Thinking “Self” and the Method of the “Phenomenologial Reduction”.
Lecture II. - June 8th
(Chairman: Professor James Ward, M.A. Sc. D., F. B. A.)
“The Realm of Phenomenological Experience and the Possibility of a Phenomenological Science; Transcendental Phenomenology as a Science of “Transcendental Subjetivity”;
Lecture III - June 9th
(Chairman: Professor H. Wildon Carr, D. Litt., J.P.)
“Transcendental Phenomenology and the Problem of Possible Society; possible Science; and possible Objective Entities and Worlds.
Lecture IV - June 12th
(Chairman: Dr. G. E. Moore, Litt D., F.B.A., [Editor of Mind]
“The Subjective Idea of a Scientific Theory as a system of real Entities. The Concrete and Phenomenological Philosophy of the future.”
The lectures, which will be delivered in German, are addressed to advanced students of the university and to others interested in the subject. A syllabus (in English) of the lectures will be obtainable in the lecture room.
ADMISSION FREE, WITHOUT TICKET
Erste Philosophie (1923/23) Erste Teil. Kritische Ideengeschichte.( Huserliana 7, 1956); First philosophy (1923/24).First Part: Critical survey of Historyof Ideas;Erste Philosophie. (1923/24) Zweiter Teil. Theorie der phänomenologischen Reduktion. (Husserliana 8, 1959);First philosophy, (1923/24). Second Part. Theory of the Phenomenological Reductions; Phänomenologische Psychologie.Vorlesungen Sommersemester, (1925), (Husserliana 9, 1962); Phenomenological Psychology,
Lectures form Summer Semester,1925; this work contains Husserl’s lectures on “Phenomenological Psychology”, during the Summer Semester, 1925; Analysenzur
passiven Synthesis. Aus Vorlesungs und Forschungsmanuskripten, (1918-1926), (Husserliana 11, 1966); Analysis of Passive Synthesis:Lectures andResearch Manuscripts, 1918-1926; the above research manuscripts presents Husserl’s lectures on both “Active and Passive” Constitution, (1918-1926);Zur Phänomenologie der Intersubjektivität.Texte aus dem Nachlass.Erster Teil. (1905-1920), (Husserliana 12, 1973); On the Phenomenology of Intersubjectivity, Part 1 (1905-1920) ; presents Husserl’s analysis of the problem of intersubjectivity; Zur Phänomenologie der Intersubjektivität.Texte aus dem Nachlass. Zweiter Teil. (1921-28), (Husserliana 14, 1973); (On the Phenomenology of Intersubjectivity, Part 2. (1921-1928); contains Husserl’s analysis of the problem of intersubjectivity; Zur Phänomenologie der Intersubjektivität.Texte aus demNachlass.Dritter Teil. (1929-35), (Husserliana 15,
1973); On the Phenomenology ofIntersubjectivity. Part 3, (1929-1935) ; presents Husserl’s analysis of the problem of Intersubjectivity;Cartesianische Meditationen und Pariser Vorträge, (1929), (Husserliana 1, 1973); The Cartesian Meditations and
Paris Lectures (1929); this work contains Husserl’s analysis of the problem of intersubjectivity and the problem of the “I-Other” relation as reflected in Husserl famous “fifth” Cartesian Meditation.
The chronological survey for Husserl’s Freiburg period of evolution as documented by Rudolf Bernet, Iso Kern, and Eduard Marbach (“An Introduction to Husserlian Phenomenology, 1993) outlining Husserl’s life, work and teaching for the Freiburg period of development is as follows:
. 1916-1928: As Ordinarius Professor in Freiburg
. 1917: (April) Husserl’s son Gerhart lies wounded in the military hospital at Spyer.
. 1917: (3 May) Inaugural lecture “Die reine Phänomenologie, ihr Forschungsgebiet und
ihre Methode” (Pure Phenomenology, its Research Domain and its Method”).
. 1917: (July) Death of Husserl’s mother.
. 1917: (8-17 November) Three public lectures on Fichte’s ideal of humanity as part of
the University courses for war participants (repetition 14-16 January 1918; repetition on 6, 7
and 9 November 1918 for the Academic Staff of the Philosophical Faculty).
. 1918/19: Foundation of the “Freiburger Phänomenologische Gesellschaft.”
. 1919: Publication of Husserl’s “Erinnerungen an Brentano”.
. 1919: (October) Husserl signs Roman Rolland’s appeal “Fur die Unabhängigkeit des Geists
(“For the Independence of the Spirit“) sent out by the League for the Advancement of
. 1922: (June) Public Lectures at the University of London: “Phänomenologishe Methode und
Phänomenologische Philosophie“; stay in Cambridge at the home of G. Dawes Hicks;
meeting with J. Ward, G.F. Stout, G.E. Moore.
. (December) Election as “corresponding member“ of the Aristotelian Society.
. 1923: Publication of “Erneuerung. Ihr Problem und ihre Methode“ (“Renewal. Its Problem and
its Method“) in the Japanese Journal “Kaizo.“
. Publication of the other two Kaizo papers: “Die Methode der Wesensforschungen“ (“The
Method of Edetic Inquiry“) and “Erneuerung als individidualethisches Problem“ (“Renewal
. 1924:(September) First visit of Dorion Cairns to Husserl.
. 1925: Publication of a meditation “Über die Reden Gotamo Buddhos“ (“On Buddha’s
Teachings”) on the occasion of Karl Eugen Neumann’s translation into German.
. 1926: (8 April) Heidegger presents Husserl with the “dedication” of “Sein und Zeit.”
. 1927-28: Work with Heidegger on the Encyclopaedia Britannica article on Phenomenology.
. Publication of Husserl’s “Vorlesungen zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewusstseins”
(“Lectures on the Phenomenology of Inner Time-Consciousness”) edited by Heidegger in
volume 9 of the “Jahrbuch” (Jahrbuch fur Philosophie und Phenomenologische Forschung).
. 1928: (31 March) Emeritus professor. 18
Now that we have briefly touched upon the Halle, Göttingen, and Freiburg periods of Husserl’s philosophical development in this brief introductory study let us now proceed to discuss the fourth and final phase of the evolution of his thinking which I have designated as being Husserl’s later “Jewish Retirement” period.