Robert A. DeGray, Ph. D. Edmund Husserl a very Short Introduction to his Phenomenology 1859-1938


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What was Husserl’s “Jewish Retirement” period like?

Historically, the “Jewish Retirement Period” has both a “happy” and a “sad” story to it. The “happy story,” of course, is precisely that this above period of time (1929-1938) represents one of the most creative and productive periods in Husserl’s philosophical life and career as far as his evolution is concerned.

That is to say, the “Jewish Retirement Period” produced many fresh and creative ideas surrounding Husserl’s project for a ‘pure phenomenology and a

phenomenological philosophy’, which, to be sure, includes Husserl’s last great work on “The Crisis of the European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology” which he “subtitled”: “An Introduction to Phenomenology” in its own right. It is precisely this “unfinished status” of Husserl’s “late work” on the “Krisis” (which he was working on at the time of his death in 1938), which makes his “last great work” on


“The Crisis of the European Sciences” so very interesting (because of the incomplete status as Husserl’s late work).

Let us turn to the “sad” story first.
Moreover, while the happy story begins at Husserl’s official residence at 40 “Lorettastrasse”, in Freiburg im Breisgau, it must be contrasted with the “sad story” about what factually happened both politically and historically during Husserl’s later

“Jewish Retirement” period; that is to say, regarding the “Nazification of Germany” (in 1933) as well as the rise of Adolf Hitler who come to power in Nazi Germany at a time when both Husserl and his entire family were certainly living witnesses to Hitler’s rising dictatorship as well as the “anti-Jewish” sentiment which was spreading like wildfire across Nazi Germany during Husserl’s “Jewish Retirement” period.

Furthermore, it should be pointed out that, on the academic side of the issue involving Edmund Husserl’s “Jewish Retirement” period and the “Nazification of

Germany” is the “alleged” posting by Martin Heidegger of the Nazi “Anti-Jewish” Decree Order (Nazi ‘Anti-Jewish’ legislation) barring Husserl and other Jews from the grounds of the “University of Freiburg” as well as its library by

the Nazi party (which Heidegger claims he specifically “prohibited” from being posted as “Rector” of the “University of Freiburg” (in his famous “Der Spiegel” Interview); not to mention, of course, the subsequent death of one of Husserl’s most beloved and closest Göttingen and Freiburg assistants, Edith Stein, (Sister Teresa

Benedicta of the Cross), who perished in the Nazi concentration camps in Auschwitz-Birkenau, on August 9th, 1942, along with thousands of other people who died there during World War II at the hands of Hitler’s Nazi-regime.

This is the “sad” story.

Moreover, before turning to the “happy story” of Edmund Husserl, I wish to first try to “set the record” straight in this section concerning the extent of the political activities of Husserl’s former colleague, Martin Heidegger, (the “successor” to

Husserl’s Chair in philosophy) during Husserl’s so-called “Jewish Retirement” period; that is to say, regarding Heidegger’s relation to the “Nazi party” as well as the role Adolf Hitler’s dictatorship played in the “Nazification Germany” in 1933 and the persecution of all German Jews.

Also, during Husserl’s “Jewish-Retirement Period” we should like to take a closer look at some of the political rumors which were circulating and deliberately being fabricated against Edmund Husserl’s former colleague, Martin Heidegger, (the author of “Sein und Zeit,”1927), by academic “insiders” (philosophical enemies) as

well as political “outsiders” (members of the “Nazi party”) in order to attempt to try to “discredit” Heidegger both intellectually and politically while he held the key

academic position and post of “Rector” at the “University of Freiburg” during Husserl’s so-called “ Jewish-Retirement Period” (1929-1938).

Martin Heidegger (2nd left)

at a “Nazi” ceremony in Freiburg University where he refused to post the

required “Anti-Jewish” Decree Order against “Jews”

as demanded by Hitler’s Nazi regime


Moreover, part of the allegations or rumors which were falsely circulated and leveled against Martin Heidegger during this above period of time between the years 1933 to 1936 (strictly for political reasons as a form of character assassination) by his philosophical “opponents” and political “enemies” involve some of the following allegations and accusations:

1) that Heidegger illegitimately “collaborated” with the Nazi Party as “Rector” of the University by having the “Anti-Jewish” Decree Order “posted” at Freiburg University; 2) that Heidegger allegedly “banned” Edmund Husserl (and other Jews) from the grounds of the University as well as “forbade” them to use the library; and 3) that as “Rector” of Freiburg University Heidegger illegitimately “authorized” the so-called “book burning” ceremony in front of the main university building.

All of these above “allegations” are completely “false” and are categorically “refuted” by Martin Heidegger for the record in his famous “Der Spiegel Interview” with Rudolf Augstein and Georg Wolff conducted on September 3rd, 1966, in an exclusive interview ten years “before” his death (Heidegger died on May 26th, 1976).

Nevertheless, in order to help clear this matter up (during Husserl’s so-called “Jewish Retirement Period” 1929-1938), I now wish to turn to some “key passages” or brief philosophical “excerpts” taken from Heidegger’s “Der Spiegel interview” with

Rudolf Augstein and Georg Wolff, (on September 3rd, 1966), in order to try to help throw light on what Heidegger has to say about all these “false” political allegations (in the “smear-and-run-campaign” against him) at this time (1933) by critics and opponents of his philosophy (Sein und Zeit), in order to help set the record straight


surrounding the key role he played as “Rector” at the “University of Freiburg” (under the Nazi regime in 1933) as well as the chosen successor to Edmund Husserl’s Chair of philosophy (chosen by Husserl himself) during the so-called “Jewish retirement period” (1929-1938).


DER SPIEGEL: ….The Führer himself and alone is the present and future German reality and its law.
HEIDEGGER: These sentences are not to be found in the “rectoral address”, but only in the local “Freiburg student newspaper”, at the beginning of the winter semester 1933/34. When I took over the “rectorate”, it was clear to me that I would not get through it without making compromises. Today I would no longer write the sentences you cited. Even in 1934, I no longer said anything of the kind.
DER SPIEGEL: ….You have been accused, for instance, of having participated in “book-burnings” organized by the students or by the Hitler Youth.

HEIDEGGER: I “forbade” the “book burning” that was planned to take place in front of the main university building.
At a Nazi Book-Burning Ceremony

Organized by the Hitler-Youth in Nazi, Germany.

(Probably around 1933)


DER SPIEGEL: You have also been accused of having books written by “Jewish” authors “removed” from the “university library” or from the philosophy department’s library.

HEIDEGGER: As the director of the department, I was in charge of only its library. I did not comply with “repeated demands” to remove books by Jewish authors. Former participants in my seminars can testify today that not only were “no books” by “Jewish” authors “removed”, but that these authors, especially Husserl, were quoted and discussed just as they were “before” 1933.

DER SPIEGEL: We will take note of that. But how do you explain the origin of such rumors? Is it maliciousness?
HEIDEGGER: From what I know about the sources, I am inclined to believe that. But the motives for the “slander” lie deeper.

DER SPIEGEL: Another similar question: You were a student of Edmund Husserl, your Jewish predecessor in the chair of philosophy at the University of Freiburg. He recommended you to the faculty as his “successor” as professor. Your relationship to him cannot have been without gratitude.
HEIDEGGER: You know the “dedication” in “Being and Time”.

DER SPIEGEL: Of course.

HEIDEGGER: In 1929 I edited the “festschrift” for his “seventieth birthday”, and at the “celebration in his house” I gave the speech, which was also printed in the “Akademische


Mitteilungen” in May 1929.
DER SPIEGEL: Later, however, the relationship did become strained. Can you and would you like to tell us what this could be traced back to?


HEIDEGGER: Our “differences” of opinion on philosophical matters had intensified. In the “beginning of the thirties”, Husserl settled accounts with Max Scheler and me in public. The clarity of Husserl’s “statements” left nothing to be desired. I could never find out what persuaded Husserl to set himself against my thinking in such a “public” manner.

DER SPIEGEL: On what occasion was this?

HEIDEGGER: Husserl spoke at the University of Berlin before an audience of “sixteen hundred”. Heinrich Mühsam reported in one of the big Berlin newspapers on a “kind of sports-palace atmosphere.”

DER SPIEGEL: The argument as such is uninteresting in this context. It is only interesting that it was not an argument that has to do with the year 1933.

HEIDEGGER: Not in the least.
DER SPIEGEL: That has been our observation as well. Is it incorrect that you “later” left the “dedication to Husserl” out of “Being and Time”?

Max Scheler

(Probably 1933/34)


HEIDEGGER: No, that’s true. I clarified the facts in my book “On the Way to Language”. 17 The text reads: “To counter numerous, widely spread, incorrect allegations, let it be expressly stated here that the “dedication” to “Being and Time”, mentioned in the text of the dialogue on page 16, was also placed at the beginning of the book’s fourth edition in 1935. When my publisher thought that the printing of the “fifth edition” in 1941 was “endangered”, and that the book might be “banned”, it was finally agreed, following “Niemeyer’s proposal” and wish, that the dedication should be “left out” of the “fifth edition”. My condition was that the “footnote” on

page 38, in which the reasons for the “dedication” are actually given, “should

remain”. It reads: “If the following investigation has taken any steps forward in disclosing the ‘things themselves,’ the author must first thank E. Husserl, who, by providing his own incisive “personal guidance” and by freely turning over his “unpublished investigations”, familiarized the author with the most diverse areas of phenomenological research during his student years in Freiburg.”

DER SPIEGEL: Then we hardly need to ask whether it is true that you, as rector of the University of Freiburg, “forbade” the “emeritus professor Husserl” to enter or to use the university library or the philosophy department’s library.
HEIDEGGER: That is slander.
DER SPIEGEL: And there is no letter in which this prohibition against Husserl is expressed? How did this rumor get started?
HEIDEGGER: I don’t know either; I don’t have an explanation for it.
DER SPIEGEL: You did not attend Husserl’s funeral in 1938. Why not?

HEIDEGGER: Let me say the following about that: The “accusation” that I had “broken off” my relationship to Husserl is “unfounded”. My wife wrote a letter in both our names to “Frau Husserl” in May 1933. In it we expressed our “unchanged gratitude,” and we sent the letter with a “bouquet of flowers” to their house. Frau

Husserl answered briefly in a formal "thank you" note and wrote that the relations between our families were broken off. It was a human failure that “I did not” once again “attest to my gratitude” and my “admiration” at Husserl’s “sickbed” and “after” his death. I apologized for it later in a letter to Frau Husserl.

DER SPIEGEL: Husserl died in 1938. You had already resigned from the rectorate in February 1934. How did that come about?
HEIDEGGER: Yes, I refused to take part in the ceremony of the change of rectors.

DER SPIEGEL: Was your successor a committed Party member?
HEIDEGGER: He was a member of the law school. The Party newspaper Der Alemanne announced his appointment as rector with the banner headline: “The First National Socialist Rector of the University.”
DER SPIEGEL: Did you have difficulties with the Party afterward, or what happened?
DER SPIEGEL: Husserl died in 1938. You had already resigned from the rectorate in February 1934. How did that come about?
HEIDEGGER: Yes, I refused to take part in the ceremony of the change of rectors.
DER SPIEGEL: Was your successor a committed Party member?
Edmund Husserl

(probably 1929 / 1933)


HEIDEGGER: He was a member of the law school. The Party newspaper Der Alemanne announced his appointment as rector with the banner headline: “The First National Socialist Rector of the University.”
DER SPIEGEL: Did you have difficulties with the Party afterward, or what happened?

HEIDEGGER: I was constantly under surveillance.

DER SPIEGEL: Do you have an example of that?

DER SPIEGEL: How did you find out about that?

HEIDEGGER: Because he came to me himself. He had already received his doctorate

and was a participant in my advanced seminar in the winter semester of 1936/37 and in the summer semester of 1937. He had been sent here to Freiburg by the SD (Sicherheitsdienst; Security Service) to keep me under surveillance.

DER SPIEGEL: Why did he suddenly come to you?

HEIDEGGER: Because of my seminar on Nietszche in the summer semester of 1937 and because of the way in which work was done in the seminar, he “confessed to me” that he could not continue with the task of “surveillance” assigned to him. He wanted to inform me of this situation in view of my future activity as a teacher.

DER SPIEGEL: Otherwise you had no difficulties with the Party?

HEIDEGGER: I only knew that my works were not allowed to be discussed, for example the essay “Plato’s Theory of Truth.” The lecture I gave on “Hölderlin” in the “Germanic Institute in Rome” in the spring of 1936 was attacked in the Hitler Youth magazine “Wille und Macht” in a most unpleasant way. Those who are interested should read the polemics against me that started up in the summer of 1934 in E. Krieck’s magazine “Volk im Werden”. I neither belonged to the German delegation to the international philosophy conference in Prague in 1934 nor was I even invited to participate. I was also supposed to have been “excluded” from the international Descartes conference in Paris in 1937. This seemed so strange to those in Paris that the head of the conference (Professor Brèhier at the Sorbonne) asked me why I did not belong to the German delegation. I answered that “the organizers” of the conference should inquire at the “Reich Ministry of Education”

about this case. After a while, I received an “invitation from Berlin” to “belatedly join” the delegation. I refused. The lectures “What Is Metaphysics?” and “On the Essence of Truth” were sold under the counter in dust jackets “without titles”. Shortly after 1934, the “rectoral address” was taken off the market at the “instigation” of the Party. It was only allowed to be discussed in National

Socialist teachers’ camps as a subject for the Party’s political “polemics”.

HEIDEGGER: In the last year of the war, five hundred of the most eminent scholars and artists were “exempted” from any kind of military service. I was not one of those who were exempted. On the contrary, in the summer of 1944 I was ordered to “dig trenches” over near the Rhine, on the Kaiserstuhl.

DER SPIEGEL: On the other side, the “Swiss side”, Karl Barth dug trenches.

Martin Heidegger at his vacation home

in Todtnauberg on the edge of the Black Forest

(Probably 1968/70)


HEIDEGGER: The way in which it happened is interesting. The rector had called the entire faculty into the Lecture Hall. He gave a short speech to the effect that what he would now say was in agreement with the National Socialist district leader and the National Socialist Gauleiter leader. He would now divide the entire faculty into “three groups”: first those who were completely “dispensable”, second those who were “partially dispensable”, and third those who were “indispensable”. First on the list of the “completely dispensable” came Heidegger, later G. Ritter. In the winter semester 1944/45, after I had finished work on “the trenches” near the Rhine, I gave a lecture course entitled “Poetry and Thinking” (Dichten und Denken), in a certain sense a continuation of my Nietzsche seminar, that is to say, of the confrontation with National Socialism. After the second class, I was conscripted into the “Volkssturm,” the oldest member of the faculty to be called for service.

That is Heidegger’s major defense and critique to all the “false” accusations and allegations which have so far been leveled against him by his detractors and critics alike concerning his philosophical and political activities as “rector” of the University of Freiburg. These above answers may not prove convincing to everyone; however, in our judgment, Heidegger provided us with some very honest answers to some very

“tough questions” which were posed to him by Rudolf Augstein and Georg Wolff

in his famous “Der Spiegel” interview in 1966; that is to say, regarding exactly what happened both politically and historically when Adolf Hitler came to power and led millions of people down the road to war beginning with the “Nazification of Germany” in 1933 during Husserl’s so-called “Jewish Retirement” period.

All this, of course, is the “sad story,” as we all know it, which nevertheless, must be contrasted along with the “happy story” if the truth is to be revealed to us historically and the record is to be set straight concerning Husserl’s later “Jewish retirement” period.

Let us now turn to the “happy story”.

“The happy story” begins after Husserl left Göttingen where he and his family soon took up residence at 40 ‘Lorettostrasse’ in Freiburg-im-Bresgau first as Ordinarius Professor (1916-1928) and later as Emeritus Professor (1928-1938) . The “happy story” begins, of course, with the warm hospitality shown by Malvine and Edmund Husserl to all those who were guests in their home. The Husserl’s especially liked to entertain guests at various social and academic gatherings inside their private residence. That is to say, the social gatherings in their home were usually filled with lively dinners, wine, laughter, and good conversation.

Moreover, these above social gatherings were generally prepared for students, professors, and friends who were invited guests to Husserl’s home at 40 “Lorettostrasse”. The social gatherings might include a simple invitation for students

from a “cup of tea” to a more elaborate “evening meal” (“abendessen”) for guests depending on the special occasion.

According to W. R. Boyce Gibson, (the English translator of Edmund Husserl’s “First Book” of Ideas: A General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology” (1913), ) he provides us with a family portrait of Malvine and Edmund Husserl’s warm hospitality from excerpts from his 1928 “Freiburg diary” surrounding the reception of guests at 40 ‘Lorettostrasse’ in the following way:

Diary entry May 8th, 1928, W. R. Boyce Gibson:


Have seen the great Husserl this morning at 12 o’clock. (40 Lorettostrasse). He had only arrived from Holland at 10, after travelling all night. He has been lecturing in Holland during Easter vacation. (Gave 4 lectures in London 1922, was also later a guest at the Aristotelian Society.) He was most

cordial and pleasant in his greeting, and gave me one-half hour or more of most interesting and inspiring conversation. 20
Again he writes:

Diary entry May 20th, 1928, W. R. Boyce Gibson:
Husserl invited his ‘Uebungs’ class to “afternoon tea” at his house, Loretta strasse 40, at 4:30. I arrived at the same time as 4 Japanese and a Lithuanian student (Emmanuel Levinas). We all

trooped in and Frau Professor very graciously received us. We students were introduced to each other and talked. Then we sat down in groups to afternoon tea – I sat at the foreigners’ table with a Dutch lady student, Fraulein Stomps, next to me from Amsterdam (a theological student who found she needed phenomenology to help her through her doctor’s Thesis on the “Psychology of Faith”). The Lithuanian, the Japanese, Kneale of B.N.C. were at the same table. Frau Profesor and Herr Professor alternatively sat at the head and kept the conversation going wonderfully. Frau Prof. told us interesting things about the life and work of her husband.

The “Logische Untersuchungen” had taken him 10 years to write. During those 10 years as Privat-dozent, Husserl gave no lectures. They were years of continuous research on logical studies. He gave up concerts, theaters, social pleasures, and they just managed to “live through” the time by force of strict economy….

While at tea a student brought to us the news of Scheler’s death, - I think at Frankfurt where he was doing his professional work. I wish to set on record here how immensely I am impressed with Husserl’s personality. He is wonderfully good to his students, takes endless trouble to make things clear to them. He is full of the significance of his work, but with nothing petty about him… 21

Elsewhere he states:

Diary entry June 15th, 1928, W.R. Boyce Gibson:


Went to the Husserl’s for dinner (Abendessen) at 8. A large party of about 16, including Professors of Greek, Oriental languages, Geography, Economics, etc. Excellent dinner but very

sensibly done. Only two courses. The first was a composite dish containing roast beef, sausages, maccaroni, horse-radish and every variety of vegetables. The second strawberry tart and cream. In each case the dish returned a second time, and guests were expected to take two helpings of each. Wine in bottles along the center of the table. Guests took it when they wanted. At end of meal we all got up, gentlemen escorted their ladies to the next room, and the interminable handshaking started, centering on the hostess. After some general conversation men and woman separated into two lots, and remained so till the end of the evening. Beer, lemonade and cakes handed around, and a lot of smoking. I had some words with Husserl from which I gathered the following: In next Jahrbuch there will be a short article on Time by Husserl, something he wrote 20 years ago. I think. But Heidegger has in hand an important MS. On Time-Consciousness by Husserl, about 150 pages, but Heidegger

insisted that Husserl should leave the publishing to him, so that Husserl dosen’t know when it will be forthcoming or how. [Possibly, I should imagine it will appear in a volume dediated to Husserl; and containing articles by all his disciples, but that’s only a guess, as Husserl said nothing about it Heidegger’s own 2te Halfte of “Sein und Zeit” will not be appearing for some little time, I regret to say. Husserl told me that Edith Stein was an old Gottingen pupil of his who had been his assistant at Freiburg for 2 years (holding the place Landgrebe holds at present). She had had access to all his MSS. She was a Catholic and [is] now in a Convent. 22

Diary entry October 19th, 1928, W. R. Boyce Gibson:
Have just come back from Abendessen with th Husserl’s who also had as guests ‘Van der Hoop’ and his wife. Van der hoop was Husserl’s host in Amsterdam. He is a psychoanalyst on phenomenological lines. He has written a book on “Character and the Unconscious” in the Intl. Lib. Series.

A lovely evening, both the Prof. and his wife being goodness and amiability itself. Husserl is a great man!

He has lent me the MS. of his original article to Encyl. Brit. This was 7,000 words long, and had to be reduced to 4,000 by Salmon who translated it. Also gave me a copy of his “Ideen” with the words on the flyleaf which I shall greatly cherish. 23
A Gathering of “The Husserl Family” with Friends

(The photo is taken probably between

the years 1920-1929)


Moreover, this is part of the “happy story” involving Husserl’s philosophical and social life concerning students, professors, friends, and guests who visited Malvine and Edmund Husserl’s lovely home for various academic and social gatherings during the “Freiburg” and “Jewish Retirement” periods.

The picture that W. R. Boyce Gibson paints for us in his famous “excerpts” from a 1928 “Freiburg diary” remains unforgettable. The above diary entries provide the reader with valuable insight as well as help to throw philosophical light on Edmund Husserl “the man” who comes to life before our eyes, both colorfully and vividly in these Diary entries and who is seen by students and colleagues as being absolutely devoted to his “mission in life” as a philosopher as well as being completely devoted to his students as a teacher and professor.

In addition, the 1928 “Freiburg diary” entries also paints a “lasting picture” of Malvine Husserl “the woman” as being a devoted wife and everlasting supporter of her husband’s professional life, teaching and work. This is precisely how students, professors, friends, and guests saw the Husserl’s in their home at 40 “Lorrettostrasse” which have been recorded for posterity and have now come down to us in the form of personal “memoirs” written by W. R. Boyce Gibson the English

translator of Husserl’s “First Book” of Ideas as “excerpts” from a 1928 “Freiburg diary” during Husserl’s so-called “Jewish retirement” period.

Moreover, the chronological survey for Husserl’s “Jewish-Retirement” period of evolution as documented by Rudolf Bernet, Iso Kern, and Eduard Marbach (“An Introduction to Husserlian Phenomenology, 1993) outlining Husserl’s life, work and teaching for the above period is as follows:

. 1928-1938: As Emeritus Professor

. 1928: (April) Trip to Berlin on the occasion of the 80th birthday of C. Stumpf.
A Gathering of the Husserl Family

(Probably 1920-1922)


. 1928: (April) Public Lectures in Amesterdam: “Phänomenologie und Psychologie.

Transzendentale Phänomenologie“; Husserl is introduced to the mathematician L.E.J.

Brouwer and to Leo Schestow on visit from Paris.

. 1928: (April) Husserl is asked by the Ministry of Public Worship and Education to hold the

professional chair of philosophy during the summer term 1928, Heidegger’s appointment as his

successor being only possible from 1 October.

. 1928: (August) Ludwig Landgrebe receives a grant in order to continue working for Husserl;

Eugene Fink takes over his post and thus begins his collaboration with Husserl.

. 1928/29: Writing of Formale und transcendentale Logik in a few months.

. 1929: (February) Public Lectures in Paris; Husserl is introduced to L. Lévey Bruhl, E. Meyerson,

A. Koyré, J. Hering, and E. Levinas.

. 1929: (8 April) Presentation of the Festschrift on the occasion of Husserl’s 70th birthday by

Martin Heidegger.

. 1929: (July) Publication of Formale und transzendentale Logik in volume 10 of the Jarhbuch

and at the same time an offprint.

. 1929: (Summer term) H. Marcuse and wife study with Husserl.

. 1929/30: Husserl withdrawls his lecture announcement.

. 1930: Publication of “Nachwort zu meinen ‘Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologie und

phänomenologischen Philosophie,”, in volume 11 of the Jahrbuch.

. 1931: (June) Lecture tour in Germany: Husserl talks at the Kant Society in Frankfurt,

. Berlin (to an audience of 1,600 people) and Halle on “Phänomenologie und Anthropologie.”

. 1933: (6 April) Suspension by decree Nr. A 7642; (20 July) annulment of the decree.

. 1933: (November) Husserl is offered a chair at the University of Southern California in

Los Angeles.

. 1934: (Around 1 August) Husserl is invited by the Prague Congress to take a position in a letter

regarding the present task of philosophy; (30 August) Husserl writes a letter to the Prague

Congress of Philosophers.

. 1934: (October) Plan of Archives for Husserl’s manuscripts.

. 1935: (March) Negotiations with Prague in view of of delivery of Husserl’s manuscripts; L.

Landgrebe arrives in Freiburg to establish a detailed inventory.

. 1935: (7 May) Public Lecture before the Kulturband in Vienna: “Die Philosophie in der Krisis der


europäischen Menschheit“ (repetition on 10 May).

. 1935: (November) Public Lectures in Prague on “Die Krisis der europäischen Wissenschaften

und die Psychologie.”

. 1936: (15 January) Withdrawal of teaching license as of the end of 1935.

. 1936: (24 January) Dispatch to Prague of first part of Krisis for print in the first issue of the new

journal Philosophia, edited by A. Liebert in Belgrade.

. 1936: (25 January) The Ministry of the Reich for Science, Education and Popular Education

compels Husserl to withdraw from the philosophical organization founded by Liebert in


. 1937: (8 June) Rejection by the Ministry of the Reich of Husserl’ request to be allowed to

participate in the 9th International Congress of Philosophy in Paris.

. 1938: (27 April) Husserl dies at age 79 years. 24

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