Scholars began to study ancient Greek and Hebrew as well as Latin, and to emphasize the importance of "the humanities."



Yüklə 480 b.
tarix25.07.2018
ölçüsü480 b.


A cultural movement arose in northern Italy in the late 14th century to challenge the central doctrines of medieval “scholasticism” and the conventions of medieval art.

  • A cultural movement arose in northern Italy in the late 14th century to challenge the central doctrines of medieval “scholasticism” and the conventions of medieval art.

  • Scholars began to study ancient Greek and Hebrew as well as Latin, and to emphasize the importance of “the humanities.”

  • The scholastics used Aristotle to define the one “correct” answer to every question, but Renaissance “humanists” understood that ancient authorities often quarreled with each other.

  • Artists rediscovered the ancient love of the beauty of nature and powerful techniques to depict them.










[Petrarch replies to his critics, who argue for the superiority of the study of “philosophy”:]

  • [Petrarch replies to his critics, who argue for the superiority of the study of “philosophy”:]

  • “I have read all of Aristotle’s moral books…. Sometimes I have become more learned through them, but not better, not so good as I ought to be…. I see virtue, and all that is peculiar to vice as well, very well defined and distinguished by him and treated with penetrating insight. When I learn all this, I know a little bit more than I knew before, but mind and will remain the same as they were, and I myself remain the same…. What is the use of knowing what virtue is if it is not loved when known? What is the use of knowing sin if it is not abhorred?”

  • Petrarch argued for study of the HUMANITIES, i.e., languages, rhetoric, literature, and history. His favorite author was the great orator and statesman, Cicero.







































13th century: pro-papal Guelphs vs. pro-German Ghibellines (exile of Dante)

  • 13th century: pro-papal Guelphs vs. pro-German Ghibellines (exile of Dante)

  • 1378: Revolt by the proletarian wool-combers to demand inclusion in the guild system.

  • 1462-92: Effective rule by the “first citizen,” Lorenzo de Medici, Lorenzo “the Magnificent”

  • 1494: Exile of Piero de Medici and restoration of the Republic

  • 1502-09: Height of Machiavelli’s influence (embassy to Cesare Borgia; conquest of Pisa)

  • 1511/12: Triumphant return of the Medici & exile for Machiavelli (who then wrote The Prince)

  • 1527: Medici banished again; Republic revived

  • 1537: Medici return; Florence becomes a hereditary duchy

















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