Sino-tibetan



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SINO-TIBETAN

  • SINO-TIBETAN

  • FINNO-UGRIC

    • e.g. Finnish, Hungarian, Estonian, etc.
  • HAMIDO-SEMITIC

    • e.g. Arabic and Hebrew
  • INDO-EUROPEAN

    • e.g. Romance, Germanic, Balto-Slavic, Indo-Iranian, and Celtic
  • NOTE: GIVE OTHER LANGUAGE FAMILIES PLUS EXAMPLES:



ROMANCE

  • ROMANCE

    • French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish
  • BALTO-SLAVIC

    • Bulgarian, Croation, Czech, Macedonian, *Old Church Slavonic, Polish, Russian, Serbian
  • INDO-IRANIAN

    • *Avestan, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Pashto, Persian, Urdu,
  • CELTIC

    • Breton, Cornish, Irish, Scots Gaelic, Welsh
  • GERMANIC

    • Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, English, Flemish, German, Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, Yiddish




ABLAUT

  • ABLAUT

  • UMLAUT

  • FIRST CONSONANT SHIFT (GRIMM’S LAW)

  • SECOND CONSONANT SHIFT (TO DISTINGUISH HOCH DEUTCH FROM PLATT DEUTCH)



begin-began-begun

  • begin-began-begun

  • break-broke-broken

  • choose-chose-chosen

  • come-came-come

  • eat-ate-eaten

  • fly-flew-flown

  • sing-sang-sung



child-children

  • child-children

  • goose-geese

  • man-men

  • mouse-mice

  • woman-women



/bh/, /dh/, /gh/ => /b/, /d/, /g/

  • /bh/, /dh/, /gh/ => /b/, /d/, /g/

  • /b/, /d/, /g/ => /p/, /t/, /k/

  • /p/, /t/, /k/ => /f/, /Θ/, /h/

  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 510-511, 513)





/b/ => /p/: bursa-purse, labial-lip

  • /b/ => /p/: bursa-purse, labial-lip

  • /d/ => /t/: decade-ten, dozen-twelve, dent-tooth, duet-two

  • /g/ => /k/: agriculture-acre

  • /p/ => /f/: pedestal-footnote, padre-father, plate-flat, pyre-fire

  • /t/ => /θ/: tricycle-three

  • /k/ => /h/: courage-hearty, corn-horn, canis-hound

  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 510-511, 513)



“When the preceding vowel was unstressed, /f/ /θ/ /x/ underwent a further change to /b/ /d/ /g/.”

  • “When the preceding vowel was unstressed, /f/ /θ/ /x/ underwent a further change to /b/ /d/ /g/.”

  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 513)



penny-pfennig

  • penny-pfennig

  • too-zu

  • water-wasser







499-1066: Old English

  • 499-1066: Old English

  • 1066-1500: Middle English

  • 1500-Today: Modern English

  • 499: Saxons invade Britain

  • 6th Century: Religious Literature

  • 8th Century: Beowulf

  • 1066: Norman Conquest

  • 1387: Canterbury Tales

  • 1476: Caxton’s Printing Press

  • 1500: Great Vowel Shift

  • 1564: Birth of Shakespeare

  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2007] 462)





Great English Vowel Shift

  • Great English Vowel Shift

  • Intervocalic Fricatives become contrastive (phonemic)

  • Loss of Vowels in Unstressed Syllables (Suffixes)

  • Loss of Duals

  • Number Becomes Intimacy (thou, thee, thy, thine, ye, you)

  • Loss of Verb Endings (-est, -eth)



A: bāt => boat, nāme => name

  • A: bāt => boat, nāme => name

  • E: mē => me, hē => he, wē => we, gēs => geese

  • I: wīs => wise, ic => I, mīn => my, þīn => thine, mīs => mice

  • O: ēow => you, gōs => goose

  • U: þū => thou, mūs => mouse

  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 493-494)



bath vs. to bathe

  • bath vs. to bathe

  • calf vs. to calve

  • half vs. to half

  • house vs. to house

  • lath vs. lathe

  • safe vs. to save

  • teeth vs. to teethe

  • use vs. to use

  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2007] 465)



Note that before English root syllables became stressed and English suffixes lost their stress and became lost, Old English was a very highly inflected language.

  • Note that before English root syllables became stressed and English suffixes lost their stress and became lost, Old English was a very highly inflected language.

  • In fact, at that time it was a synthetic language (with many inflections) rather than an analytic language (with prepositions and auxiliaries instead of suffixes).

  • Here is an overview of Old English inflections. Contrast it with Modern English, but don’t sweat the details.



Nominative: bātas (boat) stān (stone)

  • Nominative: bātas (boat) stān (stone)

  • Accusative: bāta stānes

  • Genitive: bātas stāne

  • Dative: bātum stāne

  • Instrumental: bātum stān

  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 494)



ADJ: N: PERSONAL PRONOUNS:

  • ADJ: N: PERSONAL PRONOUNS:

      • 1st 2nd 3rd
  • Nom: wīs bāt ic þū hē/hit/hēo

  • Gen: wīses bātes mīn þīn his/his/hiere

  • Dat: wīsum bāte mē þē him/him/hiere

  • Acc: wīsne bāt mē þē hine/hit/hit

  • Inst: wīse bāt mē þē hine/hit/hit



ADJ: N: PERSONAL PRONOUNS:

  • ADJ: N: PERSONAL PRONOUNS:

      • 1st 2nd
  • Nominative: wit git

  • Genitive: uncer incer

  • Dative: unc inc

  • Accusative: unc inc



ADJ: N: PERSONAL PRONOUNS:

      • ADJ: N: PERSONAL PRONOUNS:
      • 1st 2nd 3rd
  • Nom: wīse bātas wē gē hie/hie/hie

  • Acc: wīse bāta ūs ēow hie/hie/hie

  • Gen: wīsra bātas ūre ēower hiere/hiere/hiere

  • Dat: wīsum bātum ūs ēow him/him/him

  • Inst: wīsum bātum ūs ēow him/him/him



IND: SUBJ: IMP: PAST TENSE:

  • IND: SUBJ: IMP: PAST TENSE:

  • SINGULAR:

  • 1st drīfe drīfe drāf

  • 2nd drīfest drīfe drīf drīfe

  • 3rd drīfeþ drīfe drāf

  • PLURAL: drīfaþ drīfen drīfaþ drīfon

  • VERBALS:

  • INFINITIVE: drīfan

  • GERUND: tō drīfenne

  • PARTICIPLE: drīfende

  • SUPPLETIVE VERBS, which come from two different paradigms:

  • ēom, eart, is, sindon, wæs, wære, wæron

  • NOTE: “go” comes from the “to go” paradigm; but “went” comes from the “to wend” paradigm



OLD ENGLISH: “The Lord’s Prayer”

  • OLD ENGLISH: “The Lord’s Prayer”

  • Fæder ure,

  • þou þe eart on heofonum,

  • si þin name gehalgod.

  • Tobecume þin rice.

  • Gewurþe þin willa on eorþan swa swa on heofenum.

  • Urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us to dæg.

  • And forgyf us ure gyltas, swa swa we forgyfaþ urum gyltendum.

  • And ne gelæd þu us on costnunge,

  • ac alys us of yfele.

  • Soþlice.

  • (Roberts [2009]: 76)



Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote

  • Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote

  • The droght of March hath perced to the roote…

  • When April with its sweet showers

  • The drought of March has pierced to the root….

  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 489, 496)



MIDDLE ENGLISH, from Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales

  • MIDDLE ENGLISH, from Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales

  • Ther was also a nonne, a Prioresse,

  • That of hir smyling was ful symple and coy,

  • Hir gretteste oath was but by Seinte Loy,

  • And she was cleped Madame Eglentyne.

  • Ful wel she song the service dyvyne,

  • Entuned in hir nose ful semely.

  • And Frenshe she spak ful faire and fetisly

  • After the scole of Stratford-atte-Bowe,

  • For Frenshe of Parys was to hir unknowe.

  • (Roberts [2009]: 90)



A man may fish with the worm that hath eat of a king, and eat of the fish that hath fed of that worm.

  • A man may fish with the worm that hath eat of a king, and eat of the fish that hath fed of that worm.

  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2007] 462)



Name the ruler who settled:

  • Name the ruler who settled:

  • Charleston

  • Georgia

  • Jamestown

  • Louisiana

  • North and South Carolina

  • Virginia and West Virginia

  • Williamsburg



In Hong Kong you can find a place called the “Plastic Bacon Factory.”

  • In Hong Kong you can find a place called the “Plastic Bacon Factory.”

  • In Naples, there is a sports shop called “Snoopy’s Dribbling,”

  • while in Brussels there is a men’s clothing store called “Big Nuts,” which has a sign saying “SWEAT—690 FRANCS.” This was for a sweatshirt.



  • In Japan you can drink “Homo Milk” or “Poccari Sweat” (a popular soft drink, eat some chocolates called “Hand-Maid Queer-Aid,” or go out and buy some “Arm Free Grand Slam Munsingswear.”

  • (Nilsen & Nilsen 164)

  • (from Bill Bryson’s The Mother Tongue: English and How It Got That Way)



ANACHRONISM # 1:

  • ANACHRONISM # 1:

  • Pease porridge hot.

  • Pease porridge cold.

  • Pease porridge in the pot nine days old.

  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2007] 476)

  • EXPLANATION: On the first day of a march, prisoners used to be served hot pea soup.

  • On the second day they were served cold pea soup.

  • And on the ninth day of the march they would be served pea soup that had been in the pot for nine days.



Bob Newhart does a sketch in which Sir Walter Raleigh telephones the West Indies Company in London.

  • Bob Newhart does a sketch in which Sir Walter Raleigh telephones the West Indies Company in London.

  • He was reporting on his voyage to the New Land of America.

  • Since Sir Walter Raleigh is on the telephone, we can only hear one side of the conversation:



“What is it this time, Walt? You got another winner for us do you? Tobacco? What’s tobacco, Walt? It’s a kind of leaf and you bought 80 tons of it? … You take a pinch of tobacco and shove it up your nose and it makes you sneeze. I imagine it would, Walt…”.

  • “What is it this time, Walt? You got another winner for us do you? Tobacco? What’s tobacco, Walt? It’s a kind of leaf and you bought 80 tons of it? … You take a pinch of tobacco and shove it up your nose and it makes you sneeze. I imagine it would, Walt…”.

  • The skit ends with, “You’re going to have a tough time telling people to stick burning leaves in their mouth.”

  • (Nilsen & Nilsen 31)



History of English:

  • History of English:

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aLdQ4DUnnw4&feature=fvw

  • History of Five Religions:

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x-sIF78QYCI



References:

  • References:

  • Aitchison, Jean “Language Change: Progress or Decay? (Clark, Eschholz & Rosa, [1998]: 431-441).

  • Bryson, Bill. The Mother Tongue: English and How It Got That Way. New York, NY: William Morrow, 1990.

  • Clark, Virginia, Paul Eschholz, and Alfred Rosa, eds. Language: Readings in Language and Culture, 6th Edition. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.

  • Eschholz, Paul, Alfred Rosa, and Virginia Clark, eds. Language Awareness: Readings for College Writers, 10th Edition. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009.

  • Fennell, Barbara A. A History of English: A Sociolinguistic Approach. Oxford, England: Blackwell, 2001.



Falk, Julia. “To Be Human: A History of the Study of Language” (Clark, Eschholz & Rosa [1998]: 442-476).

  • Falk, Julia. “To Be Human: A History of the Study of Language” (Clark, Eschholz & Rosa [1998]: 442-476).

  • Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams. “Language Change: The Syllables of Time.” An Introduction to Language, 9th Edition. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2011, 488-539.

  • Herndon, Jeanne H. “Comparative and Historical Linguistics” (Clark, Eschholz & Rosa [1998]: 411-419).

  • Moore, Samuel and Albert Marchwardt. Historical Outlines of English Sounds and Inflections. Ann Arbor, MI: Wahr, 1969.

  • Nilsen, Alleen Pace. “Changing Words in a Changing World.” Living Language. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1999, 427-473.



Nilsen, Alleen Pace. “Technology and Language Change.” Living Language. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1999, 379-426.

  • Nilsen, Alleen Pace. “Technology and Language Change.” Living Language. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1999, 379-426.

  • Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. Encyclopedia of 20th Century American Humor. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000.

  • Ohio State University Files. “The Family Tree and Wave Models” (Clark, Eschholz & Rosa [1998]: 416-419).

  • Roberts, Paul “A Brief History of English” (Clark [1998]: 420-430, Eschholz, Rosa & Clark [2009]: 84-93]).

  • van Gelderen, Elly, A History of the English Language. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins, 2006.




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