CEGE - Universidade Católica Portuguesa (C. R. Porto)+
Universidade de Aveiro
RITA RIBEIRO† Indera – Estudos Económicos
CEGE - Universidade Católica Portuguesa (C. R. Porto) +
ABSTRACT Skype, an increasingly popular VoIP (Voice over IP) provider, has been heralded by many as a revolution for voice telephony. The underlying technology it uses (P2P or Peer-to-Peer) and the quality of its voice calls have been the two main factors behind such bold statements. This paper looks in more detail at Skype, the services it provides and the types of Internet access which allow its use in the context of the New European Regulatory Framework for the telecommunications sector. In particular, we analyse whether Skype will affect the boundaries of the markets which have been (or could be) identified as susceptible to ex ante regulation or whether it affects any of the criteria used to define them. We also analyse whether Skype can or cannot be considered as “potential competition”, thus constraining the market power of existing operators in those markets.
JEL Classification: L51, L96
Keywords: Skype, VoIP, Telecommunications, New Regulatory Framework
Skype has been hailed by many as a revolution in VoIP (Voice over IP) telephony1. Since its appearance in 2003, it has quickly overtaken other already established VoIP providers with rather impressive subscriber numbers. As of this date, Skype registers more than 2 million users online throughout the day (GMT). Active subscribers throughout the world are in much greater numbers. Unlike other VoIP providers, Skype works using P2P (Peer-to-Peer) technology, which avoids going through central servers which, as subscriber numbers grow in size, require upgrading. The quality of Skype phone calls is also impressive, rivalling that of PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) calls and with virtually none of the glitches (delays, lost packets, etc) of the first VoIP providers.
Michael Powell, Chairman of the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) in the United States said:
“When the inventors of KaZaA are distributing for free a little program that you can use to talk to anybody else, and the quality is fantastic, and it’s free – it’s over. The world will change now inevitably.” 2
But will it, really? This paper takes a closer look at Skype, the service it provides and the various types of Internet access (broadband, Wi-Fi, 2.5G and 3G mobile phones) which allow users to talk to each other using Skype. Then, in the context of the New European Regulatory Framework for the telecommunications sector3, which envisages the imposition of regulatory obligations on dominant operators in markets defined as susceptible to ex ante regulation, we analyse just how “revolutionary” Skype is.
In particular, will it affect the boundaries of the markets which were identified as possibly justifying ex ante regulation, the first step of the analysis in the New Regulatory Framework? Roughly speaking, this would be equivalent to analysing whether Skype provides services which are substitutes to those provided in those markets, particulary local, national or international telephone services as well as mobile phone call origination.
If Skype’s services are not yet a good substitute for such services, then a second way through which it may affect the New Regulatory Framework is at the second stage of the analysis: is there SMP in the identified markets? In particular, is Skype considered a potential competitor to the service providers already operating in those markets? If so, then Skype may reduce the ability that any operator has of behaving independently of their competitors or customers (SMP).
In either case, Skype’s existence and its growing popularity may affect which markets are deemed to require ex ante regulation and which operators should be subject to it, and thus policy makers throughout the EU should follow this issue closely.
This paper is structured in the following way: section 2 describes Skype; section 3 analyses the various types of Internet access which make its use possible; section 4 briefly describes the New Regulatory Framework and analyses Skype in that context; finally, section 5 concludes.
What is Skype?
Skype is a software application which allows its users to talk to each other using the Internet. In that respect, Skype is a VoIP (Voice over IP) provider, allowing anyone with Internet access and the Skype software to contact other Skype users. Initially, Skype only allowed Skype users to talk to each other, i.e. non-Skype users could not make or receive phone calls. That has evolved as subsequent versions of the software were made available, in particular with the introduction of SkypeOut, which allows Skype users to make phone calls to non-Skype users, i.e. users on regular PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) lines. However, the latter are still unable to call Skype users4.
Calling other Skype users is a free service at this stage, and one of Skype’s creators suggests this is likely to be the case forever5. However, calling non-Skype users on a PSTN line is not free; Skype users will pay a per minute charge which depends on the physical location (country) of the PSTN line they are trying to reach6, independently of where the call originator using Skype actually is.
The Skype software became available for the first time on the 29th August 2003, and version 1.0 for Windows was released on the 27th July 20047. Skype is still available for (free) download as a Beta version, i.e. it is still considered to be at a development stage. Skype can run on several operating systems (Windows, Mac OS X, Linux and Windows Pocket PC 2003).
Skype’s popularity has spread virally over the Internet, relying on a “word of mouth” effect rather than marketing campaigns. Skype’s website indicates that there have been close to 75 million downloads of the software8, and Skype users have talked close to 5.3 billion minutes9. Naturally, there isn’t a perfect match between downloads and active users. Skype’s co-creator suggests that for every two downloads there is one active Skype user10; this indicates that Skype may already have as many as 32.5 million active users, with two million of them online at the same time for the first time in February 200511. A recent study suggests that Skype may have between 140 and 245 million users by 200812.
According to Skype’s website, bandwidth requirements for service provision vary, but appear to be in the range of 3 – 16 Kbps when calling and 0 – 0.5 Kbps when idle13. This suggests that Skype can theoretically work on dial-up Internet connections (Skype recommends at least a 33.6 Kbps modem).
Skype is a P2P (peer-to-peer) VoIP solution, which routes calls directly between the computers of the two users. This means that Skype has minimal infrastructure requirements even as the number of users increases. Other VoIP solutions, such as Vonage14 or Net2Phone15, rely on central servers to handle calls. Therefore, as the number of users grows, so should processing power at the centre of the network. A P2P network avoids this centralisation, and unlike centrally run networks, its processing power increases with the size of the network:
“A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is any network that does not rely on dedicated servers for communication but instead mostly uses direct connections between clients (peers). A pure peer-to-peer network does not have the notion of clients or servers, but only equal peer nodes that simultaneously function as both "clients" and "servers" to the other nodes on the network. This model of network arrangement differs from the client-server model where communication is usually relayed by the server.16
Skype also guarantees full privacy of phone conversations, through end-to-end encryption. The authors testify that the quality of the calls is impressive and may well rival the quality of a PSTN call in many cases. A quick search over the Internet would show just how many other users have reached the same conclusion.
Ways of using Skype
Skype is available to anyone with an Internet connection. Its availability for various operating systems implies that virtually anyone with a computer and an Internet connection may download it. However, it may be the case that Skype may not always be available for use and this may limit its market impact. We discuss in more detail three such ways of accessing the Internet: broadband connections, Wi-Fi and mobile phones.
Skype and broadband
Because of its network requirements, Skype may be more suitable to use with a broadband connection17. The two most common broadband connections are xDSL (ADSL is the most popular type of connection) and cable modems; xDSL connections amount to some 66% of the total18. As of March 2004, there existed some 112 million broadband connections all over the world19. Even allowing for a large growth rate over this past year, the fact is that Skype’s penetration is already relatively high and keeps growing.
For residential xDSL connections, Skype may well be used as a substitute for regular PSTN call origination. However, the fact is that xDSL runs over the local loop, i.e. it relies on a standard PSTN access line. This means that even though users may choose to use Skype for their phone calls, they cannot easily avoid paying line rental, even though some operators have started offering “bundles”, i.e. access line and xDSL connections at much lower rates20. Therefore, users which currently do not have xDSL connections would only be persuaded to have one if their telephone usage was significant and thus cost savings could be realised through the use of Skype. At this stage, it is fair to assume that this is unlikely to happen. Skype may become very popular with existing xDSL subscribers, which use their Internet access for other purposes, but may not be a sufficiently good reason to attract new subscribers.
For residential cable modem connections, the issue is similar. Not all cable providers provide voice telephony but there are various examples of a triple provision: voice, Internet and cable TV21, presumably at more affordable prices that individual purchases of each of them. Therefore, for existing consumers purchasing such bundles, there may well be a change of “call consumption pattern”, with Skype becoming gradually the preferred method of communication (for call origination) over the voice telephony service of the cable provider because of its low prices (zero price in the case of calls to other Skype users). However, Skype may not be the “trigger” for consumers who do not currently purchase the bundle (or, at least, an Internet connection over cable) to start purchasing it, unless they are heavy telephone users.
In both cases, Skype may be demanding in terms of bandwidth even for such broadband connections. Naturally, xDSL connections typically advertise maximum download/upload speeds, which vary depending on how much traffic is being processed in any given moment. Operators use “contention ratios” at the exchange level22 to share available bandwitdh between users, e.g. a contention ratio of 20:1 means that there would be at most 20 users sharing the available bandwitdh in any given moment; therefore the effective download speed under those circumstances would be 1/20 of the advertised maximum speed. The same happens with cable modem connections: in this case, all subscribers on the same cable run share the available bandwitdth and contention ratios are also used for that purpose.
These contention ratios create a problem for Skype as its popularity among broadband subscribers grows. As it is well known amongst voice telephone operators, people tend to concentrate their calls around certain times of day (peak periods), and these vary according to the type of customer (residential/business). Contention ratios for broadband connections generally vary between 50:1 (for more affordable products) and 20:1 (typically for business connections). Such ratios imply that in peak calling periods subscribers would have to share available bandwidth with as many as 50 other subscribers. A simple arithmetic calculation shows that this could fall below Skype’s bandwidth requirements, especially for upload, and thus render call origination with Skype not possible or very difficult. The problem would be less severe for broadband connections with higher download/upload speeds and lower contention ratios.
Business broadband connections would be less prone to have such contention ratio’s problems, as business broadband typically has not only higher download/upload speeds but also lower contention ratios. However, the popularity of Skype for call origination in business broadband connections (xDSL, cable modem or leased lines) could be hampered by yet another problem: firewalls. A firewall is a set of related programs, located at a network gateway server that protects the resources of a private network from users from other networks shielding it from unauthorized access. The firewall does this by blocking certain types of traffic. Business broadband connections are usually shared by several individual users, possibly connected as a LAN (Local Area Network). Firewalls may thus be necessary to protect internal data from unauthorised external access. Skype “should” work with any firewall23, but further configurations may be necessary. This is obviously an obstacle to Skype’s penetration among business broadband subscribers, especially if they feel that such additional network configurations weaken in any way their firewall’s ability to protect confidential data and restrict unauthorised access.
Skype and Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi24, or Wireless Fidelity, uses radio technologies called IEEE 802.11b or 802.11a to provide wireless connectivity. A Wi-Fi network can be used to connect computers to each other, to the Internet, and to wired networks. Wi-Fi networks operate in the unlicensed 2.4 and 5 GHz radio bands, with an 11 Mbps (802.11b) or 54 Mbps (802.11a) data rate.
Existing broadband subscribers can access the Internet through Wi-Fi, typically by having a Wi-Fi router instead of an ADSL or cable modem. This would allow those subscribers to use Skype as long as they were within the range of their Wi-Fi router25, thus giving them more mobility within the vicinity of their Wi-Fi router than possible with an xDSL or cable modem26. This technology has proved to be very successful in private office and home networks; however, its use in public wireless networks (e.g. Hot Spots) has lagged well behind. In either case, these Wi-Fi networks were designed for a small number of concurrent users27.
There is a version of Skype which is capable of running on PDA’s (Personal Digital Assistants) using the Windows Pocket PC operating system. If such PDA’s are Wi-Fi capable, then it should be possible to use Skype both in private office or home Wi-Fi networks as well as in public wireless networks. At those locations, the PDA would function as a mobile phone. Moreover, Skype already comes installed in some PDAs28 and should soon be available in Motorola’s Wi-Fi capable mobile phones29.
This vision of Skype and a portable device (Wi-Fi capable PDA or mobile phone) being able to act as a substitute for mobile phones near Hot Spots is an interesting one. Indeed, in areas with plenty of Hot Spots, such devices could well provide extensive coverage so as to render a mobile phone useless30. Moreover, Bauer and Lin (2004)31 suggest that by 2007 95% of all laptops, 55% of all PDAs and 55% of all mobile phones will be Wi-Fi enabled.
But in practice there are two obstacles to this vision. Firstly, although Wi-Fi coverage is expected to continue increasing, the fact is that there are various service providers which typically cover relatively small and often non-overlapping areas. Therefore, although large areas are indeed covered by Wi-Fi, they will typically not be covered by the same Wi-Fi provider. Given that providers typically charge a flat rate for Internet access at Hot Spots during a certain period (hour, day, month, etc)32, subscribers cannot realistically subscribe to all of them for extensive coverage.
Secondly, and in a related manner, Skype’s usage over Wi-Fi could not easily be made when the subscriber is on the move, especially as the limits of the Wi-Fi providers’ coverage are reached. In this sense, Skype’s use with Wi-Fi capable portable devices would be similar to that of public phones: at fixed locations, but possibly with plenty of them available.
Skype and mobile phones
Finally, Skype could also be installed on mobile phones capable of accessing the Internet (2.5G or more recently 3G). 2.5G allows data speeds of 64 – 144 Kbps33, whereas 3G allows data speeds of 144 Kbps – 2 Mbps, depending on the user’s location (in a moving vehicle, walking or stationary)34, although several 3G operators mention a maximum of 384 Kbps download speed35, again which depends on network congestion.
Skype’s success when installed on mobile phones will depend crucially on three aspects. Firstly, will it be installable in a wide range of mobile phones? Secondly, if installable, will mobile operators allow users to bypass their network and use Skype instead (although they would charge users for their Internet usage)? Thirdly, if they do, will there be sufficient bandwidth for Skype to be used?
The first question points to Skype being installable only in more recent mobile phones, with more advanced operating systems. This creates a barrier to Skype users with older mobile phones, requiring that subscribers upgrade their mobile phones in order to use Skype.
The second question is a possible challenge for mobile operators. On the one hand, mobile operators are keen to increase 3G penetration in order to recoup their network roll-out investments; on the other hand, allowing Skype to be used in their mobile phones could divert voice traffic away from them, although it could potentially increase their Internet traffic. This would further accelerate the already visible decline of operators’ ARPU (Average Revenue Per User) on voice telephony, as markets approach maturity, and reinforce the trend for data traffic36. Additionally, some operators are keen to develop 3G environments with “walled gardens”, where subscribers are limited to a number of Internet websites and content providers. This could also be a way of limiting Skype’s penetration among 3G mobile phone subscribers.
The third question relates to possible network congestions when using Skype. Again, some mobile phones mention a realistic download speed of 30 – 40 Kbps on 3G. At congested times of day, this could prove to be insufficient to use Skype reliably.
Skype and the New European Regulatory Framework
The New Regulatory Framework
The New European Regulatory Framework for electronic communications, introduced by the Directive 2002/21/EC (Framework Directive), aims to adapt the previous telecommunications framework to a constantly evolving market and technologies, where convergence is the keyword. Under this new framework, economic regulation is imposed by a “Significant Market Power” (SMP) regime. This regime entails three steps.
Firstly, potential market areas to be regulated must be selected and defined according to standard competition law methodologies, i.e. product and geographic markets must be identified.37
To identify the circumstances in which ex ante regulation is needed three cumulative criteria have to apply38:
Presence of high and non-transitory entry barriers whether of structural, legal or of regulatory nature.
Given the dynamic character and functioning of electronic communications markets, possibilities to overcome barriers within a relevant time horizon, have also to be taken into consideration when carrying out a prospective analysis to identify the relevant markets for possible ex-ante regulation. This second criteria admits only those markets that have a structure that does not tend towards effective competition within the relevant time horizon.
The application of competition law alone would not adequately address the market failure.
All the three criteria should be applied cumulatively, which means that the absence of any of them implies that the market would not be selected as susceptible to ex ante regulation.
The Commission adopted a Recommendation39 which, based on competition law methodologies and on these three selection criteria, identified 18 markets which were likely to justify the imposition of ex ante regulation. It then left to each National Regulatory Authority (NRA) the task of analysing whether such markets were appropriately defined bearing in mind each country’s specific circumstances.
Secondly, operators with SMP must be identified, by NRAs, in each of those markets and in each country, where the definition of SMP is largely equivalent to definition of a dominant position, i.e. a position which gives the power to behave to an appreciable extent independently of competitors and customers. Such power is evaluated according to a number of criteria: market shares, economies of scale or scope; barriers to expansion, control of infrastructure not easily duplicated, absence of potential competition, among others.40
Finally, regulatory obligations are imposed on SMP operators. These obligations are to be chosen from a menu provided in the Directives: transparency, non-discrimination, accounting separation, compulsory access and cost-orientation. If SMP is identified in retail markets, then the NRA must show, in addition to the existence of a dominant position, that an intervention in the wholesale market would not solve the problem identified in the retail market.
Skype and market definition
According to standard market definition methodologies, i.e. looking at demand side and supply side substitutability41 – the possible competitive constraints on the price-setting behaviour of service providers – Skype operates in two different product markets:
call origination to other Skype users; and
call origination to non-Skype (PSTN) users.
Neither of these would be considered to be demand or supply-side substitutable. Analysing demand substitutability leads us to conclude that a Skype user who wishes to contact a non-Skype user using Skype has two possibilites: using SkypeOut, and paying the per-minute charges or convince those non-Skype users to download, install and use Skype. Applying the hypothetical monopolist test would imply thinking about what would happen if the call origination price to non-Skype users increased by 5 to 10%. If Skype users substituted call origination to non-Skype users with call origination to other Skype users, then we could conclude that Skype would only operate in a single market: those two services would be considered to be substitutes. However, if such a price increase leads to little or no substitution between those two services, then they should be seen as constituting two separate markets: call origination to other users (Skype and non-Skype users).
Analysing the case at hand suggests that these would indeed constitute two separate markets. If the opposite was true, then there would be no point of introducing SkypeOut: existing Skype users could be “trusted” to convince whoever they wished to call to download and use Skype, and there would be no need or demand for SkypeOut.
The geographic market, for both products defined above, is worldwide: Skype virtually covers the whole world and provides a relatively homogeneous product. Call origination is not marketed in different conditions depending on which location the call originates; the conditions, and in particular the price, is different according to where the call will terminate.
The key question is naturally to ask oneself whether any of the above markets belongs to any of the markets which the European Commission suggested42 were likely to justify ex ante regulation. In particular, because Skype is a retail product, does any of the above markets belong to the market for:
publicly available local and/or national telephone services provided at a fixed location for residential or non-residential customers (markets 3 and 5);
publicly available international telephone services provided at a fixed location for residential or non-residential customers (markets 4 and 6);
access and call origination on public mobile telephone networks (market 15)
If it does, then Skype will indeed have contributed towards the convergence process observed in the telecommunications sector, by rendering a form of VoIP telephony a true substitute for PSTN telephony, building a bridge between two interconnected but still separate networks: the PSTN and the IP network.
Firstly, a “publicly available telephone service” is defined as:
“a service available to the public for originating and receiving national and international calls and for access to emergency services through a number or numbers in a national or international numbering plan. It may include, inter alia, the provision of operator assistance, directory enquiry services, the provision of special facilities for customers with disabilities, etc.”43
Skype cannot at present be used to receive national or international calls from other PSTN lines. The possible introduction of SkypeIn will address this issue, by allocating Skype users a phone number which other users can use when calling from a PSTN line. Therefore, although Skype is operating in markets which may, in the future, belong to the above markets, it is not yet at that stage. Skype is slowly moving into a position where is can provide a service which is a functional substitute (i.e. allows call origination and termination) for PSTN telephone services. However, even then it should be noted that Skype’s substitutability may depend crucially on the existence of a broadband connection. In turn, this broadband connection requires copper line access for ADSL connections or it is provided bundled with voice telephony and TV for cable connections. In those cases, substitution could feasibly be only partial and justify the existence of two separate markets: one for Skype phone calls and one for PSTN phone calls.
Similarly, the markets defined above cannot be considered to be in the same market as call origination in mobile networks. As discussed above, Skype can be used with a Wi-Fi connection or even with a 3G mobile phone Internet connection. However, for the former the coverage issues and the difficulties of service provision when the subscriber is on the move imply that Skype call origination is not yet in the same market as mobile call origination. The same reasoning applies for the latter: low transfer speeds and potential obstacles created by mobile operators to Skype’s installation and use with mobile phones make it difficult to say that Skype call origination is in the same market as mobile phone origination.
Skype and the choice of markets susceptible to ex ante regulation
Although Skype does not provide services which should be included in any of the relevant markets identified above, its existence may affect the likelihood that such markets will indeed require ex ante regulation.
With respect to the first criterion, Skype’s emergence in the provision of call origination (and soon termination) services ocurred despite the existence of such barriers. Indeed, the Commission Recommendation identified the markets for the provision of local, national and international telephone services (for residential and non-residential customers) as markets susceptible to ex ante regulation44, i.e. markets for which all the criteria mentioned above are verified. It appears unlikely that Skype will in any way reduce the barriers to entry into such markets; indeed, Skype operates despite such barriers, and therefore does not provide a service which could in any way reduce them (other than by signalling the potential of the Internet to provide telephone services, competing directly with PSTN services).
With respect to the second criterion, it is useful to refer to its exact definition:
“The application of this criterion involves examining the state of competition behind the barrier to entry, taking account of the fact that even when a market is characterised by high barriers to entry, other structural factors or market characteristics may mean that the market tends towards effective competition. This is for instance the case in markets with a limited, but sufficient, number of undertakings behind the entry barrier having diverging cost structures and facing price-elastic market demand. [...]
Entry barriers may also become less relevant with regard to innovation-driven markets characterised by ongoing technological progress. In such markets, competitive constraints often come from innovative threats from potential competitors that are not currently in the market. In such innovation-driven markets, dynamic or longer term competition can take place among firms that are not necessarily competitors in an existing “static” market.”45
In this sense, it could be argued that the provision of voice telephony may now be in a relatively innovation-driven phase, with VoIP emerging slowly as a credible alternative to PSTN. In this context, it could be argued that Skype (and other VoIP providers) could be the potential competitors that are not currently in the market. Therefore, it seems likely that Skype and other VoIP providers will play an interesting role in the next choice of markets susceptible to ex ante regulation, which is expected to occur in late-2005.
Skype and SMP assessment
Although Skype appears not to provide services which are in the same markets which the EC believes require ex ante regulation, its existence may in some ways affect the ability that any operators in those markets have of acting independently of their competitors or customers. In such an ex ante regulatory regime, “market power is essentially measured by reference of the power of the undertaking concerned to raise prices by restricting output without incurring a significant loss of sales or revenues”46.
In the markets defined by the European Commission, market power can “be constrained by the existence of potential competitors [...] not currently active on the relevant product market (which) may in the medium term decide to enter”47.
Skype (and other VoIP providers) should already be considered potential competitors in the markets defined by the Commission. This implies that all operators in those markets will see Skype as an hindering factor to possible price increases. Indeed, and in what concerns call origination at a broadband subscriber’s premises (residential or business), the existence of Skype will in all likelihood significantly reduce the incentives to “bundle” broadband connections and voice telephony (and possibly TV for cable providers) at significantly reduced prices. In this respect, Skype will limit the extent to which such operators can effectively cross-subsidise between the services.
However, by “playing” with the contention rations, broadband providers can effectively maintain any cross-subsidisation between the services which they may have in place. By increasing the contention ratios, i.e. by sharing available bandwidth between more subscribers, broadband providers can significantly reduce Skype’s threat especially at peak hours. Using such a strategy, Skype could be kept out of the markets defined above for some time. And this could indeed occur especially when the voice operator is also the broadband provider, even if both services are not purchased as a bundle.48
The same is true for mobile call origination, albeit with a possibly even lower impact on existing operators. Skype’s usage over Wi-Fi may be considered as potential competition in densely covered Wi-Fi areas, such as large urban areas, and even that potential threat is mitigated by the Wi-Fi competitive process itself: providers “choose” areas for which they provide Wi-Fi coverage, with few examples of wide Wi-Fi areas covered by a single provider. However, Skype’s threat can be significantly limited by mobile operators themselves, for example by running ‘walled garden’ environments in Internet services which do not allow Skype to be used. Additionally, existing maximum bandwidth on 3G Internet access also means that even if operators choose not to restrict Skype’s usage over their network, possibly diverting some of their mobile originating traffic, users could be disappointed by the quality or even availability of the service.
Skype, a new VoIP provider which has experienced a phenomenal growth since its launch, it considered by many as a “revolutionary” service, which is likely to seriously threaten existing telecommunications’ operators and contribute towards the convergence between the PSTN and the IP network in what concerns voice telephony.
Whilst this may indeed happen in the future, a more careful analysis of Skype’s potential shows that is may still be a long way until that happens. In particular, Skype cannot yet be considered a “substitute” for publicly available telephone services, a market which the New European Regulatory Framework deems to be potentially in need of ex ante regulation because of the likely existence of operators with SMP. Skype provides, as of this moment, call origination services only, even though a new service to be introduced in the future, SkypeIn, will give Skype users a telephone number which allows anyone (Skype or non-Skype users) to call them.
Skype’s existence may, however, change the likelihood that particular markets are selected as susceptible to ex ante regulation. Indeed, one of the selection criteria is that there should be limited possibilities to overcome barriers to entry within a relevant time horizon. If Skype’s popularity continues to increase and if there is a possibility that it may establish itself as a credible threat to PSTN incumbent operators, then some of the markets which have been selected in the first Commission Recommendation, namely the provision of local, national or international telephone services, may not satisfy this criteria and would be deemed not to be susceptible to ex ante regulation.
If that is not the case, Skype’s potential impact under the New Regulatory Framework would thus be limited to acting as a potential deterrent to the exercise of market power by operators present in those markets. In that respect, Skype could act as a potential competitor which would limit the extent to which dominant operators in those markets could raise their prices. Again, a careful analysis shows that existing operators have a significant advantage over Skype, especially if they provide not only the telephony services provided by Skype but also the broadband connection needed to use Skype. Such operators can limit the extent to which Skype can act as a potential competitor, by “playing” with the contention ratios of the broadband connection. Mobile operators can also limit the extent to which Skype can affect them by running “walled garden” environments. In this latter case, even if mobile operators were not to pursue such strategy, Skype’s potential threat would in any case be less significant than in the fixed location markets because of available bandwidth limits for 3G Internet access.
Our conclusion is that Skype may indeed revolutionise voice telephony. But this revolution depends to a significant extent on existing operators’ strategies. This suggests that it would not be surprising to continue to see Skype operating in parallel but different markets from such operators for quite some time. In any case, the future depends critically on the incumbent operators.
+ Centro de Estudos de Gestão e Economia (CEGE) is financed by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia – Programa Operacional Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovação (POCTI) co-financed by the Portuguese Governement and the European Union through FEDER.
1 A quick Internet search of the words “Skype” and “revolution” will make this clear.
2 Fortune Magazine, 16 February 2004.
3 Directive 2002/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 March 2002 on a common regulatory framework for electronic communications networks and services, Official Journal of the European Communities  L 108/33, henceforth the Framework Directive.
4 Skype is currently developing a new service, SkypeIn, which gives Skype users a phone number and an area code which allows them to be contacted by anyone on a PSTN line (http://blog.tmcnet.com/blog/tom-keating/voip/voip-blog/skype-keynote.asp)
20 Oni, a new entrant in the Portuguese telecoms market, offers OniDuo, a 512 Kbps ADSL connection and access line (through unbundled local loops and their own access network) at €22,50 per month. For clients with access to Oni’s network, €22,50 is the total monthly price paid for both services; for clients with unbundled local loops, €22,50 is the price paid to Oni but the client needs to pay €15/month as line rental to the incumbent operator (Portugal Telecom)
(http://www.oninet.pt/CH000_Produto.aspx?Prod=A000000000074665&TokenUser=NA&ParentURL). The equivalent ADSL product provided by the incumbent, SAPO Standard 512 Kbps, is sold at €34,99/month (http://adsl.sapo.pt/standard.html, 28 February 2005).
21 In Portugal, TVTel has started offering the bundle voice/TV/Internet in October 2004 (http://www.tvtel.pt/news.asp?id=77); Cabovisão, another cable provider, also offers that bundle (http://www.cabovisao.pt/particulares/index.html); however, the main cable TV operator, TV Cabo, owned by the incumbent voice operator (Portugal Telecom) only offers the bundle TV/Internet; in the UK, the main cable providers, Telewest (http://www.telewest.com) and NTL (http://www.ntl.co.uk), offer all three services.
22 The available bandwitdth of the copper line between the subscriber’s premises and the exchange is not shared.
25 This range varies and depends on the Wi-Fi hardware used as well as the environment where the router is located, e.g. open environment or building, walls, furniture. A typical range could be between 22 and 45m in a typical home or up to 3000m in open environments.
26 Skype’s usage in this context could be equivalent to using a cordless phone rather than a standard phone.
27 Kalmus, Philip (2003), “WiFi and the Wireless Local Loop”, NERA Working Paper.
30 Central London already has a sufficiently high number of Hot Spots so as to provide such extensive Wi-Fi coverage (http://www.zdnet.co.uk/specials/wifimap), part of it with the same provider (http://news.zdnet.co.uk/communications/wireless/0,39020348,39117757,00.htm); Paris also seems to aim for such extensive coverage (http://news.zdnet.co.uk/communications/0,39020336,39162037,00.htm).
31 Bauer, Johannes and Lin, Yu-Chieh (2004), “Transition Paths to Next-Generation Wireless Devices”, Paper prepared for presentation at the 32nd Research Conference on Communication, Information and Internet Policy, October 2004.
37 Commission Guidelines of 9 July 2002 on market analysis and the assessment of significant market power under the Community regulatory framework for electronic communications networks and services, Official Journal of the European Communities  C 165/6, henceforth the Commission Guidelines.
38 Commission Recommendation, para. 9.
39 Commission Recommendation 2003/311 of 11 February 2003 on relevant product and service markets within the electronic communications sector susceptible to ex ante regulation in accordance with Directive 2002/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on a common regulatory framework for electronic communications networks and services, Official Journal of the European Communities  L 114/45, henceforth the Commission Recommendation.
45 Explanatory Memorandum to the Commission Recommendation, p. 11.
46 Commission Guidelines, para. 73.
47 Commission Guidelines, para. 74.
48 In some European countries, such as Portugal or Spain, the main telephone operator also has a significant presence in the broadband market. In Portugal’s case, both services are sold by two separate companies which belong to the same group – Portugal Telecom.