Sociology/nursing 285A



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SOCIOLOGY 285A

COMPREHENSIVE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS

Tuesdays, 1:10-4:00 PM, N517





COURSE SCHEDULE:





Week

Date

Topic

1

Oct 7


Qualitative Epistemologies and Methodologies;

(Re)Introductions and (Re)Framings of Individual Projects

Due: Research Purpose/Aims


2

Oct 14



Tools of the Trade I: Self, Interviewing and Observing, Fieldnotes, Co-Construction and Recording of Data

Due: Situational Maps



3

Oct 21

Approaches I: Critical, Feminist, and Narrative Approaches

Due: Practice Interview and Memo



4

Oct 28



Approaches II: Situational Analysis

Guest Lecture: Professor Adele Clarke

Due: Interview Transcripts and Fieldnotes


5

Nov 4


Tools of the Trade II: Analysis/Interpretation, Coding, Memoing, Pacing, Research Processes & Documentation

Due: Interview Transcripts and Fieldnotes



6

Nov 11

Veteran’s Day Holiday

No class


7

Nov 18


Approaches III: Interpretation/Phenomenology

Guest Lecture: Professor Kit Chesla

Due: Interview Transcripts and Fieldnotes


8

Nov 25



Dilemmas of Qualitative Research: Ethics, Reciprocity, Power & Self

Due: Interview Transcripts and Fieldnotes

Due: Memo on Self, Emotions, Field relations


9

Dec 2


Approaches IV: Grounded Theory

Guest Lecture: Professor Audrey Lyndon

Due: Interview Transcripts and Fieldnotes


10

Dec 9



Approaches V: Ethnography

Due: Interview Transcripts and Fieldnotes

Due: Final Paper


Holidays: Transition to Winter Quarter




COURSE OVERVIEW:


S285 A/B advanced graduate courses review major types of qualitative research methods utilized in the social sciences and humanities, emphasizing assumptions, approaches and exemplars. These include ethnography, grounded theory, situational analysis, interpretive phenomenology, and critical, feminist and narrative approaches. The focus of 285A is on design, entree, ethics, data gathering techniques (interviewing, observing), data recording and management of data. Introduction to data analysis is also included.


REQUIRED BOOKS:


Many readings are in the books below. Others are articles available online at the UCSF CLE/Moodle site. The books are for both Fall and Winter Quarters.
Charmaz, K. C. 2006. Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Clarke, A. 2005. Situational analysis: Grounded theory after the postmodern turn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Rosaldo, R. 1993. Culture and truth: The remaking of social analysis. Boston: Beacon.


RECOMMENDED BOOKS:


The recommended readings for each session can be found by topic in this bibliography; where indicated, they are posted on Moodle, available on reserve at the Library, or are in journals that our Library subscribes to. We will also post to the CLE a very large and indexed Supplemental Bibliography on Qualitative Methods. This also includes discussion of “Diversities in Qualitative-Interpretive Research and Analysis” and offers bibliography on the major different approaches to qualitative research. See also the articles in the many different handbooks listed in recommended readings below. Handbooks usually offer major overview articles on particular approaches, methods issues, and topics.
Alvesson, Mats. 2002. Postmodernism and social research. Buckingham and Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Atkinson, Paul, A. Coffey, S. Delamont, J. Lofland, & L. Lofland (Eds.) 2001. Handbook of ethnography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Atkinson, Paul, A. Coffey, S. Delamont. 2003. Key themes in qualitative research: continuities and changes. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.

Bloor, M., & Wood, F. 2006. Keywords in qualitative methods: A vocabulary of research concepts. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Bryant, A. & Charmaz, K. (Eds.) 2007. Handbook of Grounded Theory. London: Sage.

Bourgeault, Ivy, Robert Dingwall, and Ray de Vries (Eds.) 2010. SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Methods in Health Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Chan, G., Brykczynski, K., Malone R. & Benner, P. Editors. 2010. Interpretive Phenomenology in Health Care Research. Indianapolis: Sigma Theta Tau International Press. This entire text is full of exemplars of interpretive phenomenological research and methodological discussions.

Clarke, Adele E. & Kathy Charmaz (Eds.) 2014. Grounded Theory & Situational Analysis. Sage Benchmarks in Social Research Series, 4 vols. London: Sage.

Cohen, Marlene, Kahn, D., & Steeves, R. 2000. Hermeneutic phenomenological research: A practical guide for nurse researchers. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Corbin Juliet & Strauss, Anselm. 2014. Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Denzin, N., & Giardina, M. (Eds.). 2007. Ethical futures in qualitative inquiry: Decolonizing the politics of knowledge. Walnut Creek CA: Left Coast Press.

Denzin, N., & Lincoln, Y. (Eds.). 1994. Handbook of qualitative research (1st ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Denzin, N., & Lincoln, Y. (Eds.). 2000. Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Denzin, N., & Lincoln, Y. (Eds.). 2005. Handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Denzin, N., & Lincoln, Y. (Eds.). 2011. Handbook of qualitative research (4 ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Denzin, N., Lincoln, Y. and L. T. Smith (Eds.) 2008. Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Dill, B. T., & Zambrana, R. E. 2009. Emerging intersections: Race, class, and gender in theory, policy and practice. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Frank, A. W. 1995. The wounded storyteller: Body, illness, and ethics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Fontana, Andrea and Anastasia H. Prokos. 2007. The interview: from formal to postmodern. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.

Gubrium, Jaber & J. A. Holstein (Eds.) 2002. Handbook of interview research: Context and method. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Gubrium, Jaber & J. A. Holstein (Eds.) 2003. Postmodern Interviewing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hackett, E, O Amsterdamska, M Lynch, & J Wacjman (Eds.) 2008. Handbook of Science and Technology Studies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hammersley, M., & Atkinson, P. 2007. Ethnography: Principles in practice (3rd ed.). London and New York: Routledge.

Hesse-Biber, Sharlene (Ed.) 2006. The Handbook of Feminist Research: Theory and Praxis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ** new edition should be out in late 2011

Hobbs, Dick & Richard Wright (Eds.) 2006. SAGE Handbook of Fieldwork. London: Sage.

Holstein, James A. and Jaber F. Gubrium. 2008. Handbook of Constructionist Research. New York: Guilford Press.

Israel, B.A. 2005. Methods in community-based participatory research for health. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Koch, T. & Kralik, D. 2006. Participatory action research in health care. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.

Lather, P. 2007. Getting lost: Feminist efforts toward a double(d) science. Albany NY: SUNY Press.

Lincoln, Yvonna. & Denzin, N. (Eds.) 2003. Turning points in qualitative research: Tying knots in a handkerchief. Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press/Rowman and Littlefield.

May, Tim. 2002. Qualitative research in action. London: Sage.

Morse, J., Stern, P. N. , Corbin, J., Charmaz, K., Bowers, B, & Clarke. 2009. Developing Grounded Theory. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.

Outhwaite, William and Stephen P. Turner (Eds.) 2007. Handbook of Social Science Methodology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Phellas, C.N. (Ed.) 2012. Researching Non-Heterosexual Sexualities. Farnham, UK: Ashgate.

Riessman, C. K. 2007. Narrative methods for the human sciences (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Schwandt, T. 2007. Dictionary of qualitative inquiry (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Seale, Clive, G. Gobo, J. F. Gubrium, and D. Silverman (Eds.) 2004. Qualitative Research Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Smith, Jonathan A., Paul Flowers & Michael Larkin (2009. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Sprague, J. 2005. Feminist methodologies for critical researchers: Bridging differences. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.

Strauss, A. 1987. Qualitative analysis for social scientists. New York: Cambridge UP.

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (Eds.). 1997. Grounded theory in practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Strauss, Anselm and Juliet Corbin. 1990. Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques (1st ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Strauss, Anselm and Juliet Corbin. 1998. Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Wertz, Fredrick J; Charmaz, Kathy; McMullen, Linda M.; Josselson, Ruthellen; Anderson, Rosemarie; McSpadden, Emalinda. 2011. Five Ways of Doing Qualitative Analysis. New York: Guilford.


COURSE REQUIREMENTS:

PARTICIPATION: Participation is 30% of your grade. You must be active and respectful. All comments and questions must be focused on the assigned materials. You are encouraged to bring your computers or tablets for presentation and research purposes. If you use your devices for personal business, you will no longer be permitted to bring them to class.


ATTENDANCE: Attendance at all class events is expected. More than 2 unexcused absences may result in failure of the course. All absences must be cleared with your small group leader in advance in order to be excused, and as a courtesy, please notify other working group members of your planned absence.
SMALL GROUP ASSIGNMENTS: Each week about half the class time is spent in small working groups. Weekly working groups provide group feedback to individual students on their projects, including review of student data collection and analysis. Students will sign up for presentations several times in small groups. Presenting students will provide 2-5 (double-spaced) pages of materials for review for each class meeting. These may be interview excerpts, fieldnotes, memos, maps, etc., or as assigned. At the beginning of your materials, include a description of the kind of feedback you would like from your colleagues (e.g., help in coding, thoughts on emerging ideas, etc.). You must email your assignment files to your group by Sunday 5pm so that we create archives with which the entire group can work. Individuals’ materials will be circulated electronically via encrypted email, as follows: Send from your UCSF email address. Additionally in your email subject line, type “Secure: ” which will instruct the email server to send the email in secure mode. Small group members must download and read these materials before class. Failure to upload your files by the deadline or failure to read your group’s materials will result in failure of the assignment. One missed assignment will result in your grade going down by one unit. Failure of two assignments will result in failure of the class.
FINAL ASSIGNMENT: The final writing assignment is 40% of your grade. The final is a 10- to 15-page methodological issues paper that sets up the first half of a manuscript. It will also address key issues in the method you have chosen to address your research question as well as your problem/question. The final is due the last day of class.
CONFIDENTIALITY: Confidentiality regarding both data discussions and personal issues in the small group is an extremely important responsibility of participation. Failure to maintain confidentiality will result in failure of the class.
EMERGENCIES: Occasionally serious problems arise in the field or in an interview setting. If you are in any danger, leave immediately. Once you are safe, call your small group leader and discuss what happened. Put our numbers and emails in your wallet. If there are CHR implications, we will help you negotiate these. If your working group leader is out of town, call the other faculty. Each week there will be small group time for "emergency check-in" to share less and more serious concerns.
PLAGIARISM: A student who in any manner engages or assists in any form of academic dishonesty, including but not limited to plagiarism, is guilty of academic misconduct and shall be subject to discipline.



RECOGNITION AND ACCOMMODATIONS FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES: The University of California, San Francisco prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability. The University and its constituencies recognize their responsibility under the Americans with Disability Act of 1990 and the Rehabilitation Act of 1974. As the faculty of record and in collaboration with the Office of Student Affairs, We support these efforts by providing reasonable accommodations for students who qualify.
The University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing is committed to providing equal access to all of its programs, services, and activities for students with disabilities. If you have a disability or think you may have a disability contact Lisa Meeks (415-476-6595, StudentDisability@ucsf.edu), about Student Disability Services and accommodations.
Please let instructors know, at the beginning of the course, if you have a disability so that we can assist you in providing reasonable accommodations. Student Disability Services will provide documentation and specific instructions for the type of accommodations needed. These accommodations may include, but are not limited to, extended time for student work, testing alternatives, educational aids, and physical structure arrangements.

Week 1: 10/7/14. QUALITATIVE EPISTEMOLOGIES & METHODOLOGIES

Epistemological Issues and Assumptions—Links to Ontologies

History and Types of Qualitative Research

Contrasts between Field Work and Other Methods

Re/Defining a Problem

Introduction to Working Groups (see also course requirements)

Introduction to Situational Maps (due Week 2)
"This constant interplay of data gathering and analysis is at the heart of qualitative research. It is therefore difficult indeed to discuss coding, processing, analysis and writing without also discussing planning and data gathering, for in no other approach is the interrelatedness of all portions of the research act quite so obvious. . . all aspects of the research act are going on simultaneously." -- Wiseman, J. P. (1974). The research web. Urban Life and Culture, 3(3), 318.

Class: Oral presentation on your entrée and research problem update.

Group: Scheduling of group members for turns. Review your CHR-approved interview guides.
Assignment Due: Research Questions

Cut and paste from your CHR application:



  • Statement of the research purpose/Aims

  • Bring 12 copies for your classmates and faculty.

  • Be prepared to comment on your experiences of securing permission, gaining entrée, getting started, and your current (re)formulation of your central questions of interest.

  • What have you learned to date about your project and about doing qualitative research? What did you learn in working through the CHR process? Note carefully any current problems.


Required Reading:

Carter, S.M., & Little, M. 2007. Justifying Knowledge, Justifying Method, Taking Action: Epistemologies, Methodologies and Methods in Qualitative Research. Qualitative Health Research 17 (10): 1316-1328. PDF on Moodle

Charmaz, K. 2004. Premises, principles, and practices in qualitative research: Revisiting the foundations. Qualitative Health Research, 14(7): 976-993. PDF on Moodle

Kahlke, R.M. 2014. Generic qualitative approaches: Pitfalls and benefits of methodological mixology. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 13: 37-51. PDF on Moodle

Rosaldo, R. 1993. Culture and truth: The remaking of social analysis. Boston: Beacon. Introduction and Chapters 1 and 2. Required Book

Week 2: 10/14/14. TOOLS OF THE TRADE I: DESIGN REVISITED, INTERVIEWING & THE CO-CONSTRUCTION OF DATA

The Co-Construction of Experience and Data

The Focused Interview

Interviewing in Unanticipated Situations

The Interview as Interpretive/Analytic Occasion

Multiple Person Interviews


". . .every time I asked him a precise question, he had wriggled out like an eel. An eel icier than ice. God, what an icy man! During the whole interview he never changed that expressionless countenance, that hard or ironic look, and never altered the tone of that sad, monotonous, unchanging voice. The needle on the tape recorder shifts when a word is pronounced in a higher or lower key. With him it remained still, and more than once I had to check to make sure that the machine was working. . . . Everything in him is calculated, controlled as in the flight of an airplane steered by the automatic pilot. He weighs every sentence down to the last ounce, no unintentional words escape him, and whatever he says always forms part of some useful mechanism... Kissinger has the nerves and brains of a chess player." (pp. 25-26). -- Fallaci, O. 1976. Interview with history. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Class: Discussion and questions on situational maps.

Group: Check in. Discussion of situational maps. What is "in" your situation of focus that you did not anticipate? What do you make of that? How might you collect data about it?
Assignment Due: Situational Maps

  1. Do initial maps of your situation of inquiry, based on your problem statement and aims or research questions.

  2. Hand in two maps – one “messy” and hand-done and one orderly and typed, similar to examples in the Clarke reading. No commentary necessary; will be discussing in class and/or small group.

  3. Review your interview guide from your CHR packet, and see if you need to revise, based on your situational maps. Bring copies of the interview guide to hand out to everyone in your small group. Be prepared to further modify your interview guide based on class discussion and what you are learning from the readings.


Required Readings:

Clarke, A. 2005. Situational analysis: Grounded theory after the postmodern turn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Pp. 71-78 and 83-102.

Thomas, J. 1993. Doing Critical Ethnography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Pp. 1-32.

Charmaz, K.C. 2006. Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Pp. 14-21 and 25-35.

Hoskins, Marie L. and Jennifer White. 2012. “Relational inquiries and the research interview: mentoring future researchers.” Qualitative Inquiry 19(3): 179-88.

Nunkoosing, K. 2005. The problems with interviews. Qualitative Health Research 15(5): 698-706.

Clarke, Adele. Tips on interview fieldnotes.

Dawson-Rose, C. Memos.


Recommended Readings:

Cook, K., & Nunkoosing, K. (2008). Maintaining dignity and managing stigma in the interview encounter: The challenge of paid-for participation. Qualitative Health Research 18(3):418-27.

Sales, Paloma and Sheigla Muprhy. 2012. “‘How do you get them to talk to you?’ Interviewing drug sellers in the San Francisco Bay Area.” Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy 19(6): 453-61. [By two SBS alums]

DeVault, M.L., & Gross, G. (2006). “Feminist Interviewing: Experience, Talk, and Knowledge.” Pp. 173-198 in Sharlene Hesse-Biber (Ed.) Handbook of Feminist Research: Theory and Praxis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Ezzy, Douglas. 2010. “Qualitative interviewing as an embodied emotional performance.” Qualitative Inquiry 16(3): 163-70.

Fontana, A. & Prokos, A.H. (2007). The interview: from formal to postmodern. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.

Hammersley, M., & Atkinson, P. (2007). Oral accounts and the role of interviewing. In Ethnography: Principles in practice, 3rd Ed. (pp. 97-120). London: Tavistock.

Krauss, S.E., Hamzah, A., Omar, Z., Suandi, T., Ismail, I.A., Zahari, M.Z. & and Nor, M.Z. 2009. Preliminary Investigation and Interview Guide Development for Studying how Malaysian Farmers’ Form their Mental Models of Farming. The Qualitative Report 14(2): 245-260.

Sands, R., & Krumer-Nevo, M. (2006). Interview shocks and shockwaves. Qualitative Inquiry, 12(5), 950-971.

Stelter, R. (2010). Experience-based, Body-anchored Qualitative Research Interviewing. Qualitative Health Research, 20(6):859-67.

Bampton, R., & Cowton, C. J. (2002). The e-interview. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 3(2).

Beck, C. T. 2005. Benefits of participating in internet interviews: Women helping women. Qualitative Health Research, 15(3), 411-422.

Brown, L., & Durrheim, K. 2009. Different kinds of knowing: Generating qualitative data through mobile interviewing. Qualitative Inquiry, 15(5), 911-930.

Hammersley, M., & Atkinson, P. (2007). Ethnography: Principles and practices. (3rd ed.). London: Tavistock. Pp. 1-62 esp 24-40.

Ruhleder, K. 2000. The virtual ethnographer: Fieldwork in distributed electronic environments. Field Methods, 12(1), 3-17.

Week 3: 10/21/14. APPROACHES I: CRITICAL & FEMINIST APPROACHES

Feminisms & Changing Approaches Over Time


“Vision can be good for avoiding binary oppositions. I would like to insist on the embodied nature of all vision and so reclaim the sensory system that has been used to signify a leap out of the marked body and into a conquering gaze from nowhere. This is the gaze that mythically inscribes all the marked bodies, that makes the unmarked category claim the power to see and not be seen, to represent while escaping representation. This gaze signifies the unmarked positions of Man and White, one of the many nasty tones of the world objectivity to feminist ears in scientific and technological, late industrial, militarized, racist, and male dominant societies, that is, here, in the belly of the monster, in the United States in the late 1980s. I would like a doctrine of embodied objectivity that accommodates paradoxical and critical feminist science projects: feminist objectivity means quite simply situated knowledges.” (p. 188). Haraway, D. 1988, 1991.
Class: Discussion and feedback on practice interviews.

Groups: Discuss interview guides, practice interviews, and memos.
Assignment Due: Practice Interview and Memo

  1. Conduct a practice interview using your interview guide with one of your classmates at a time and place acceptable to you both. Do this before conducting any “real” interviews.

  2. Write a 1-2 page memo that includes your reflections on doing the interview and your strengths and weaknesses as an interviewer at this early point. What issues did it raise for you? Will that experience affect how you do interviews? What changes do you plan to make (if any) in your interview guide, in how you conduct interviews in particular. Will it provoke any changes in your research in general?

  3. Memo your reflections on being interviewed.

  4. Submit any revisions to your interview guide, based on your experience with your practice interview.


Required Readings:

Cruz, M. R. 2008 What if I just cite Graciela? Working toward decolonizing knowledge through a critical ethnography. Qualitative Inquiry, 14(4): 651-658.

Freeman, M., & Vasconcelos, E.F.S. 2010. Critical social theory: Core tenets, inherent issues. In M. Freeman (Ed.), Critical social theory and evaluation practice. New Directions for Evaluation, 127, 7–19.

Hesse-Biber, S. 2013. “A re-invitation to feminist research.” Pp. 1-13 in Sharlene Hesse-Biber (Ed.) Handbook of Feminist Research: A Primer (2nd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Brettschneider, M. 2003. Ritual encounters of the queer kind: A political analysis of Jewish lesbian ritual innovation, Journal of Lesbian Studies, 7, 29-48.

Petersen, A. 2006. An African‐American woman with disabilities: The intersection of gender, race and disability. Disability & Society, 21, 721-734.


Recommended Readings:


Dill, T., McLaughline, B., Amy E., & Nieves, A.D. (2006). "Future Directions of Feminist Research: Intersectionality." Pp. 629-638 in Sharlene Hesse-Biber (Ed.) Handbook of Feminist Research: Theory and Praxis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hekman, S. 2007. “Feminist Methodology.” Pp. 534-546 in W. Outhwaite and S. P. Turner (Eds.) Handbook of Social Science Methodology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Kim, H.S. 2006. “The Politics of Border Crossings: Black, Postcolonial, and Transnational Feminist Perspectives.” Pp. 107-122 in Sharlene Hesse-Biber (Ed.) Handbook of Feminist Research: Theory and Praxis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Lather, P. 2008. (Post) Feminist methodology. International Review of Qualitative Research, 1(1), 55-64.

Olesen, V. l994. "Feminisms and Models of Qualitative Research." In Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research. Newbury Park, Ca: Sage.

Olesen, V. 2000. Feminisms and Qualitative Research at and into the Millenium. Pp. 215-256 in N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2nd ed.

Olesen, V. 2005. Early millennial feminist qualitative research: Challenges and Contours. N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. housand Oaks, CA: Sage, (pp. 235-278). 3rd ed.

De Ishtar, Z. 2005. Striving for a common language: A white feminist parallel to Indigenous ways of knowing and researching. Women’s Studies International Forum, 28, 357-368.

Hyams, M. 2004. Hearing girls’silences: Thoughts on the politics and practices of a feminist method of group discussion. Gender, Place and Culture, 11(1), 105-119.

Allen, M. 2011. Violence and voice: using a feminist constructivist grounded theory to explore women’s resistance to abuse. Qualitative Research 11(23): 23-45.




Week 4: 10/28/14. APPROACHES II: SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS


Taking Grounded Theory Around the Postmodern Turn

Situational Mapping

Mapping and Analyzing Your Research Problem as a Situation

Doing Relational Mapping
“With deep roots in pragmatist philosophy and symbolic interactionist sociology, the grounded theory method can be viewed as a theory/methods package. While scholars utilizing grounded theory have ranged from positivist to social constructivist, recent work is shifting toward more constructivist assumptions/epistemologies. Situational analysis is a part of these shifts. I seek with Charmaz (2000, p. 510) to “reclaim these tools from their positivist underpinnings to form a revised, more open-ended practice of grounded theory that stresses its emergent, constructivist elements’ and to “use grounded theory methods as flexible, heuristic strategies.” Charmaz emphasizes that a focus on meaning making furthers interpretive, constructivist, and, I would add, relativist/perspectival understandings” (p. xxiii). – Clarke, A. E. 2005. Situational analysis: Grounded theory after the postmodern turn. Sage.

Class: Guest Lecture, Professor Emerita Adele Clarke.

Group: Emergency check in. Discuss situational maps, interviews/transcripts or fieldnotes.
Assignment Due: Interviews and Fieldnotes


  1. Follow previous instructions for transcription and transcript format, and use of pseudonyms.

  2. Remember to place detailed fieldnotes about conducting the interview, including reflections you had afterwards, at the beginning of the interview.

  3. Turn in each complete interview to your working group leader. Highlight or write a cover note delineating 5 pages of your first interview on which you want detailed feedback from the working group leader. The line spans can be from different parts of the interview (e.g., from line 273-543; and from line 1047-1142). Request detailed feedback for sections from other interviews as needed or desired.

  4. If you have revised your interview guide based on your experience conducting your interviews, submit those revised guides as well.


Required Readings:

Clarke, A. E. 2005. Situational analysis: Grounded theory after the postmodern turn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Pp. xxi-xli, 1-109.

Fosket, Jennifer Ruth. 2005/2014. “Situating knowledge.” Pp. 95-114 in Grounded Theory and Situational Analysis: Essentials and Exemplars, edited by Adele E. Clarke and Kathy Charmaz. London: Sage.

French, Martin & Fiona Alice Miller. 2012. “Leveraging the ‘Living Laboratory’: On the Emergence of the Entrepreneurial Hospital.” Social Science & Medicine 75: 717-724.

Washburn, Rachel. 2013. Rethinking the Disclosure Debates: A Situational Analysis of the Multiple Meanings of Human Biomonitoring Data. Critical Public Health 23(1):1-14.

Genat, Bill. 2009. “Building emergent situated knowledges in participatory action research.” Action Research 7:101.


Recommended Readings:

Clarke, A. E. 2009. “From Grounded Theory to Situational Analysis: What’s New? Why? How?” Pp. 194-235 in Developing grounded theory: the second generation, edited by J. M. Morse, P. N. Stern, J. M. Corbin, K. C. Charmaz, B. Bowers, & A. E. Clarke. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press. Book on reserve in library

Clarke, Adele E. 2012. Feminisms, Grounded Theory and Situational Analysis. Pp. 388-412 in Sharlene Hesse-Biber (Ed.) Handbook of Feminist Research: Theory and Praxis, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Clarke, Adele E. & Carrie Friese. 2007. Situational Analysis: Going Beyond Traditional Grounded Theory. Pp. 694-743 in Antony Bryant & Kathy Charmaz (Eds.) Handbook of Grounded Theory. London: Sage.

Perez, Michelle S. & Gaile S. Cannella. 2011. Using Situational Analysis for Critical Qualitative Research Purposes. Pp. 97-117 in Norman K. Denzin & Michael D. Giardina (Eds.) Qualitative Inquiry and Global Crisis. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.

See also bibliography of Adele Clarke’s methods publications posted on CLE/Moodle.


Web Resources:

www.situationalanalysis.com This is the website maintained by Adele E. Clarke, developer of the method of situational analysis. It contains up-to-date lists of publications and dissertations using situational analysis; a list of Clarke's publications on research methods; a searchable and downloadable bibliography from the book Situational Analysis (Sage, 2005), and other resources.

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Situational-Analysis/214734101890718 The Facebook page offers resources about the method including up-to-date lists of selected exemplars; all known publications and dissertations using situational analysis; and Clarke's publications on methods. It lists past and future seminars and workshops on situational analysis, and how to contact seminar leaders. The table of contents is posted for the 4 volumes of Grounded Theory & Situational Analysis edited by Adele E. Clarke and Kathy Charmaz (London Sage, 2014), part of the Sage Benchmarks in Social Research Series.

www.qualitative-forschung.de/methodentreffen/archiv/video/closinglecture_2011/index.html This is the video of a talk given in English by Adele Clarke at the Berlin Qualitative Workshops in 2011. There is a long introduction in German by Prof. Dr. Reiner Keller (University of Augsburg) who arranged for the German translation of Situational Analysis. Clarke's talk and slides are in English.

http://sts.ucdavis.edu/summer-workshop/worshop-2008-readings/Clarke%202003%20Situational%20analyses.pdf This website offers a pdf of Adele Clarke's first paper on situational analysis: “Situational Analyses: Grounded Theory Mapping After The Postmodern Turn.” Special Issue on Theory and Method. Symbolic Interaction 26(4):553-576.

http://dne2.ucsf.edu/public/anselmstrauss/social-worlds.html This is the website for Anselm Strauss's work, including a list of his publications on social worlds theory and two articles about it.

http://www.researchgate.net/post/What_are_some_examples_of_applying_the_situational_analysis_approach_to_grounded_theory_in_health_care_research This site offers a video of Bryce R. Cassin (University of Western Sydney) answering the question in the site name.



www.lcoastpress.com/book_get_file.php?id=149&type=excerpt This site offers the Introduction to the Banff Symposium and the first article by Jan Morse "Tussles, Tensions and Resolutions," and a "Dialog on Doing Grounded Theory" among all the authors. From: Jan Morse, Phyllis N. Stern, Juliet Corbin, Barbara Bowers, Kathy Charmaz, and Adele E. Clarke. 2009. Developing Grounded Theory: The Second Generation (Left Coast Press, 2009).

http://www.scribd.com/doc/117675454/situational-analysis This site offers a review of the book: Mathar, Tom (2008). "Making a Mess with Situational Analysis? Review Essay: Adele Clarke (2005). Situational Analysis—Grounded Theory After the Postmodern Turn" [37 paragraphs]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research 9(2), Art. 4, See also http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs080244.

Week 5: 11/4/14. TOOLS OF THE TRADE II: OBSERVING AND RECORDING DATA, TRANSCRIPTION, CODING, MEMOING, PACING, RESEARCH PROCESSES, AND DOCUMENTATION

Participating and Observing

Observing as Looking and Analyzing/Interpreting

The Co-construction of Experience and Data

Utilizing Unobtrusive Indicators / Being an Unobtrusive Observer

The Unanticipated Observation and Its Interpretation/Analysis

Looking at Time and Space

Recording Field Notes


"As I wrestle with what it means to 'do' critical, emancipatory science in a post-foundationalist context, the following questions become key. What is the special status of scientific knowledge? What work do we want inquiry to do? To what extent does method privilege findings? What is the place of procedures in the claim to validity? What does it mean to recognize the limits of exactitude and certainty, but still have respect for the empirical world and its relation to how we formulate and assess theory?" --Lather, P. 1994. Staying dumb? Feminist research and pedagogy with/in the postmodern. In H. W. Simons & M. Billig (Eds.), After postmodernism: Reconstructing ideology critique (pp. 101-132). Sage.
Class: Paired Fieldwork and Data Gathering Adventure: Working in pairs, choose data-gathering site from a hat. No speaking/communication during observation time; each partner observes separately and takes separate fieldnotes. Observe for 20 minutes (you may move around as desired). Return to class, each prepared to give a brief report on what you observed. Discuss differences and similarities of observation, and possible formulations of research questions based on the observations. What would you have “seen” if you could only “hear”? What would you have “seen” if you could not “hear”?

Group: Emergency check in. Review of interviews, transcripts, fieldnotes.
Assignment Due: Interview and Fieldnotes

  1. Follow previous instructions for transcription and transcript format, and use of pseudonyms.

  2. Remember to place detailed fieldnotes about conducting the interview, including reflections you had afterwards, at the beginning of the interview.

  3. Turn in each complete interview to your working group leader. Highlight or write a cover note delineating 5 pages of your first interview on which you want detailed feedback from the working group leader. The line spans can be from different parts of the interview (e.g., from line 273-543; and from line 1047-1142). Request detailed feedback for sections from other interviews as needed or desired.

  4. If you have revised your interview guide based on your experience conducting your interviews, submit those revised guides as well.


Required Readings:

Charmaz, K. C. 2006. Constructing grounded theory: practical guide through qualitative analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Re-read pp. 72-95.

McCurdy, P. & Uldam, J. 2014. Connecting participant observation positions: Toward a reflexive framework for studying social movements. Field Methods 26: 40-55.

O’Toole, P., & Were, P. 2008. Observing places: Using space and material culture in qualitative research. Qualitative Research, 8(5), 616-634.

Observation fieldnotes – Questions to get you started

van Manen, M. 1990. Hermeneutic phenomenological reflection. Pp. 77-96 in his Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. Albany NY: SUNY Press 2ed.

Wolfinger, N.H. 2002. On writing fieldnotes: Collection strategies and background expectancies. Qualitative Research, 2 (1), 85-95.

Recommended Readings:


Ezeh, P. J. 2003. Integration and its challenges in participant observation. Qualitative Research, 3(2): 191-205.

Gerson, K., & Horowitz, R. (2002). Observation and interviewing: Options and choices in qualitative research. In T. May (Ed.), Qualitative research in action (pp. 199-224). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

DeSantis, L., & Ugarriza, D. N. 2000. The concept of theme as used in qualitative nursing research. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 22(3), 351-372.

Hammersley, Martyn. 2010. “Reproducing or constructing? Some questions about transcription in social research.” Qualitative Research 10(5): 553-69.

Lempert, L.B. 2007. Asking Questions of the Data: Memo Writing in the Grounded Theory Tradition. Pp. 245-264 in A. Bryant & K. Charmaz and (Eds.) Handbook of grounded theory. London: Sage. [NOTE: will be used in both 285A and B]

Woodby, Lesa L., Beverly Rosa Williams, Angelina R. Wittich, and Kathryn L. Burgio. 2011. “Expanding the notion of research distress: the cumulative effects of coding.” Qualitative Health Research 21(6): 830-8.




Week 7: 11/18/14. APPROACHES III: INTERPRETATIVE PHENOMENOLOGY

Phenomenological Approaches

Narrative in Interpretive Phenomenology

Interpretation Compared to Analysis


"We see other as we know ourselves... The great danger of doing injustice to the reality of 'the other' does not come about through use of the self, but through lack of use of a full enough sense of self, which, concomitantly, produces a stifled, artificial, limited and unreal knowledge of others." (p. 182). -- Krieger, S. (1991). Social science and the self. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Class: Guest Lecture, Professor Kit Chesla.

Group: Emergency check in. Data analysis and memo discussion continued.
Assignment Due: Interviews and Fieldnotes

  1. Begin conducting interviews after conducting your practice interview.

  2. Transcribe them (or have them transcribed professionally) in typed, single spaced format, with very wide left or right margin (4 inches), paragraphed, with pages & line numbers clearly indicated. Most computer programs will print with line numbers.

  3. Use pseudonyms to protect confidentiality.

  4. Place detailed fieldnotes about conducting the interview, including reflections you had afterwards, at the beginning of the interview.

  5. Turn in each complete interview to your working group leader. Highlight or write a cover note delineating 5 pages of your first interview on which you want detailed feedback from the working group leader. The line spans can be from different parts of the interview (e.g., from line 273-543; and from line 1047-1142). Request detailed feedback for sections from other interviews as needed or desired.

  6. If you have revised your interview guide based on your experience conducting your interviews, submit those revised guides as well.


Required Readings:

Benner, P. 1996. Appendix A. In Expertise in nursing practice. Caring, clinical judgment, and ethics (pp. 351-372). Newbury Park: Sage.

Kesselring, A. Chesla, C.A. & Leonard, V. 2010 Why study caring practices? In Interpretive Phenomenology in Health Care Research. G. Chan, K. Brykczynski, R. Malone & P. Benner, Eds. Sigma Theta Tau International Press. Pp. 3-22.

Laverty, S. M. 2003. Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: A comparison of historical and methodological considerations. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(3), Article 3.

Leonard, V. 1994. A Heideggerian phenomenologic perspective on the concept of a person. In P. Benner (Ed.), Interpretive phenomenology (pp. 43-64). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Chun, K., Chesla, C.A. & Kwan, C.M.L. 2011. “So we adapt step by step”: Acculturation experiences affecting diabetes management and perceived health for Chinese American immigrants. Social Science & Medicine, 72: 256-264.

Malone, R. E. 1998. Whither the almshouse? Overutilization and the role of the emergency department. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 23(5): 795-832.

Week 8: 11/25/14. DILEMMAS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: ETHICS, RECIPROCITY, POWER & SELF



Definitions of Ethical Issues

Reciprocities and "the Other"

Ethical Issues as Analytic/Interpretive Occasions

Special Dilemmas in Health Care Settings

Taking and Organizing Notes and Observations

Self in Data Gathering

Field Work Relationships and Altered Selves

Gender, Class, Race, Sexuality, etc. as Influences/Structures


"As well as I can remember, I just stood there, stunned by the unfolding scenario (separation of a child from a foster parent amidst a dramatic crowd reaction). The conclusion [from his field notes] depicts my reactions: 'And how did the cool, objective, calculatingly rational social scientist react to all of this? Having quickly interpreted/analyzed all of the formally rational courses of action open to me, and feeling confident that I had controlled for all spurious relations, I also began to cry. As we say in the trade, I presented the appearance of one who had lost self-control. And, then, when alone on the grounds of the juvenile facility several minutes later, I presented the appearance of a formally rational (expletive deleted) social scientist beating his (deleted) fist against a tree. Shortly after that, I doubled over and puked my guts out. What am I doing here anyway?! To hell with the appearance of sociology and the horse it rode in on!" (p. 159). -- Johnson, J. 1975. Doing field research. Free Press.
Class: Discuss a dilemma you have faced in your research.

Group: Emergency check in. Discuss data analysis and memos.
Assignment Due: Memo on Self, Emotions, Field Relations

  1. All qualitative research raises issues of researcher's and others’ identities, feelings about the project, the people, the site, the problem, etc.

  2. Discuss these, especially as related to your research topic, data gathering issues, how you might be constrained by these feelings or helped by them or whatever. This is especially relevant if the topic is close to your own experience.


Required Readings:

Fine, M. 1994. Working the hyphens: Reinventing self & other in qualitative research. Pp. 70-82 in N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.) Handbook of qualitative research (1st ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Karnieli-Miller, O., Strier, R., & Pessach, L. 2009. Power relations in qualitative research. Qualitative Health Research, 19(2), 279-289.

Phelan, Shanon K. and Elizabeth Anne Kinsella. 2013. Picture this … safety, dignity, and voiceEthical research with children. Qualitative Inquiry 19(2): 81-90.


Recommended Readings:


Dwyer, S.C. & Buckle, J.L. 2009. "The Space Between: On Being an Insider-Outsider in Qualitative Research." International Journal of Qualitative Methods 8(1): 54-63.

Dickson-Swift, Virginia, Erica L. James, Sandra Kippen and Pranee Liamputtong. 2007. Doing Sensitive Research: What Challenges Do Qualitative Researchers Face? Qualitative Research 7(3): 327-53.

See Codes of Ethics for (Qualitative) Research: www.asanet.org/about/ethics.cfm http://www.aaanet.org/committees/ethics/ethics.htm

Week 9: 12/2/14. APPROACHES III: GROUNDED THEORY

Coding and Documenting Codes

Focusing, Pinpointing, Provocative Questions

“Negative Cases” versus Variation and Difference

Theoretical, Methodological and other Memos
"In the beginning I literally sat for days on end with the transcribed interviews spread out

before me, absorbing them into my consciousness and letting them 'float' about. I wrote

memos on whatever struck my fancy...I wrote, sometimes several pages, sometimes

only paragraphs. I wrote as the thoughts came to me with no need to be orderly or

linear. The only mandate was to write what was emerging from the data...I let the data

'talk to me.'" -- Orona, C. Temporality and identity loss due to Alzheimer's disease.

Social Science and Medicine 30, l249.

Class: Guest Lecture: Professor Audrey Lyndon.

Group: Emergency check in. Discuss interviews, transcripts, and fieldnotes.
Assignment Due: Interview and Fieldnotes


  1. Follow previous instructions for transcription and transcript format, and use of pseudonyms.

  2. Remember to place detailed fieldnotes about conducting the interview, including reflections you had afterwards, at the beginning of the interview.

  3. Turn in each complete interview to your working group leader. Highlight or write a cover note delineating 5 pages of your first interview on which you want detailed feedback from the working group leader. The line spans can be from different parts of the interview (e.g., from line 273-543; and from line 1047-1142). Request detailed feedback for sections from other interviews as needed or desired.

  4. If you have revised your interview guide based on your experience conducting your interviews, submit those revised guides as well.


Required Readings:

Charmaz, K. C. 2006. Constructing grounded theory: practical guide through qualitative analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Pp. 1-4, 9-35 (25-35 previously assigned), and 42-113 (SKIM pp. 72-95).

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. 1998. Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Pp. 12-25 and 35-53.

Kools, S. 1997. Adolescent identity development in foster care. Family Relations, 46(3), 263-271.

Shostak, Sara, Dana Zarhin, and Ruth Ottman. 2011. What’s at stake? Genetic information from the perspective of people with epilepsy and their family members. Social Science and Medicine 73(5): 645-54.

Recommended Readings:


Hallberg, Lillemor R-M. 2006. “The ‘core category’ of grounded theory: Making constant comparisons.” International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being 1: 141-8.

Milliken, P. Jane and Rita Schreiber. 2012. “Examining the nexus between grounded theory and symbolic interactionism.” International Journal of Qualitative Methods 11(5): 684-96.

Blumer, H. 1969. Symbolic interactionism: Perspective and method. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs. Pp. 1-21 and 140-152.

Bryant, A. and K. Charmaz. 2007. "Discursive Glossary of Terms" in their (Eds.) Handbook of Grounded Theory. London: Sage. Pp. 603-612.

Charmaz, Kathy. 2007. Grounded Theory. Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology Online, ed. George Ritzer.

Morse, J. M., Stern, P. N., Corbin, J. M., Charmaz, K. C., Bowers, B., & Clarke, A. E. (Eds.) 2009. Developing grounded theory: the second generation. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. 1998. Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Pp. 57-71.

WEEK 10: 12/9/14. APPROACHES IV: ETHNOGRAPHY

Emic vs. Etic

The Anthropological Imagination

Culture as Concept and Problematic

Classic and Postmodern Ethnographies
"As each person invoked the subject with unmistakable regularity, I could only infer that time and space, as aspects of daily life, were somehow different in the Islands. Not only did time not seem to be the unidimensional thing by which they structured routines, its speed regulated by an unfeeling and completely impartial mechanical device, but also the familiar cues by which it was made meaningful were absent. At the same time they developed new sensitivities to geographic distance and structure to the space around them, the facets of their own body previously taken for granted. These seemingly small discrepancies should not be invested with the dramaturgic qualities of culture shock but, rather, should be viewed as mundane realities intrusive and noticeable enough in the sensibilities of the malihini and therefore to be taken up as meaningful aspects of the social and physical environment." Whittaker, E. 1986. The Mainland Haole, Columbia.
Class: Discuss ethnographic approaches.

Group: Emergency check in. Discuss data analysis and memos.
Assignment Due: Interviews and Fieldnotes


  1. Follow previous instructions for transcription and transcript format, and use of pseudonyms.

  2. Remember to place detailed fieldnotes about conducting the interview, including reflections you had afterwards, at the beginning of the interview.

  3. Turn in each complete interview to your working group leader. Highlight or write a cover note delineating 5 pages of your first interview on which you want detailed feedback from the working group leader. The line spans can be from different parts of the interview (e.g., from line 273-543; and from line 1047-1142). Request detailed feedback for sections from other interviews as needed or desired.

  4. If you have revised your interview guide based on your experience conducting your interviews, submit those revised guides as well.


Required Readings:

Emerson, R. M. (Ed.). 2001. The face of contemporary ethnography. In R. M. Emerson, Contemporary Field Research: Perspectives and Formulations. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press. Pp. 27-53.

Lather, P. 2001. Postmodernism, post-structuralism, and post (critical) ethnography: Of ruins, aporias, and angels. Pp. 477-492 in P. Atkinson, A. Coffey, S. Delamont, J. Lofland, & L. Lofland (Eds.), Handbook of Ethnography. London: Sage.

Thomas, J. 1993. Doing Critical Ethnography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Pp. 33-47.

Benjamin, R. 2011. Organized ambivalence: When sickle cell disease and stem cell research converge, Ethnicity & Health, 16, 447-463.

Almeling, R. 2007. Selling Genes, Selling Gender: Egg Agencies, Sperm Banks, and the Medical Market in Genetic Material. American Sociological Review 72: 319-41.


Recommended Readings:


Atkinson, P. & Pugsley, L. 2005. Making sense of ethnography and medical education. Medical

Education, 39, 228-234.

Barbour, R. 2005. Making sense of focus groups. Medical Education, 39,742-50.

Borbasi, S., Jackson, D. & Wilkes, L. 2005. Fieldwork in nursing research: Positionality, practicalities, and predicaments. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 51, 493-501.

DeVault, Marjorie L. (Ed.) 2008. People at Work: Life, Power, and Social Inclusion in the New Economy. NY: NYU Press.

DiCicco-Bloom, B., & Crabtree, B.F. 2006. The qualitative research interview. Medical Education, 40, 314-21.

Hegelund, A. 2005. Objectivity and subjectivity in the ethnographic method. Qualitative Health Research, 15, 647-668.

Hunter, C.L., Spence, K., McKenna, K. & Iedema, R. 2008. Learning how we learn: An ethnographic study in a neonatal intensive care unit. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62, 657-64.

Kaufman, K.S. 1994. The insider-outsider dilemma: Field experience of a white researcher "getting in" a poor black community. Nursing Research, 43, 179-183.

Miller, F.A., & Alvarado, K. 2005. Incorporating documents into qualitative nursing research. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 37, 348-53.

Murphy, F. 2005. Preparing for the field: Developing competence as an ethnographic field worker. Nurse Researcher, 12(3), 52-60.

Quinlan, Elizabeth. 2008. Conspicuous Invisibility: Shadowing as a Data Collection Strategy. Qualitative Inquiry 14(8): 1480-1499.

Somerville, C., Featherstone, K., Hemingway, H., Timmis, A., & Feder, G.S. 2008. Performing stable angina pectoris: An ethnographic study. Social Science & Medicine, 66, 1497-1508.

Walby, K. 2007. On the social relations of research. A critical assessment of institutional ethnography. Qualitative Inquiry, 13(7), 1008-1030.

Wind, G. 2008. Negotiated interactive observation: Doing fieldwork in hospital settings. Anthropology & Medicine,15(2), 79-89.
FINAL DUE DEC 9: Methodological Issues Paper

This is a 10-15pp paper that sets up the first half of a manuscript. It will also address key issues in the method you have chosen to address your research questions.


The paper should include all of the following:

  1. Introduction and statement of your questions and aims.

  2. Review of the literature relevant to your questions. This should allow the reader to see how your questions are lodged in the current literature, and to think critically about the problem or population you are studying. Discuss your epistemological framework in a way that foreshadows connections to your methodology.

  3. Methodology and Methods. Describe the key approach that you are using to investigate the problem. This will probably include one methodology (grounded theory, ethnography, phenomenology, or narrative interpretation) and several methods (interviews, observation, content analysis). Provide a rationale for your selection of this particular approach.

  4. Key issues, problems, and solutions encountered in 1) the design of your study, 2) your sample, 3) data sources and data collection, 4) data analysis, and 5) any other difficulties encountered. Note: Each of these areas should be commented on, including your process, pragmatics, and reflexivity.

  5. Conclusion and a summary statement of progress to date.

  6. Extensive citations from the literature in ASA or APA format.



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