Subsaharan africa pbs africa Website and Slideshows Sub-Saharan Africa



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SUBSAHARAN AFRICA PBS Africa Website and Slideshows


Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Plateau, Waterfall, Savanna, Rainforest, and Desert

  • Poorest continent

    • Only region to get poorer over last 25 years
    • World’s largest number of displaced people and refugees
    • Debt crisis
  • Most rural continent, though cities growing very fast

    • Village life and subsistence agriculture important
    • Glorious wildlife still exists
  • Legacies of Colonialism

    • Cash crop economies, ethnic conflict, flawed transport systems
  • Medical Crises, including most HIV/AIDs in world

  • Most of world’s remaining Animists

    • But missionaries spreading Christianity and Islam
  • War and Failed Political Leadership Common

    • Few successful democracies


African Landscape Plateau, Waterfall, Savanna, Rainforest, and Desert

  • Plateau – high tableland

    • Highest in:
      • Ethiopian Highlands
      • Drakensberg Mtns.
        • Lesotho & RSA


Niger

  • Niger

  • Congo

  • Blue Nile

  • Victoria/White Nile

  • Zambezi



Rivers

  • Rapids and Waterfalls…

    • Limits transportation
      • Congo…
    • Good for Tourism
      • Whitewater Rafting
    • Hydroelectric Production


Beautiful Waterfalls

  • Blue Nile Falls



On Zambezi River

  • On Zambezi River

    • Zim/Zam border


Rift Valleys

  • Crust pulls apart

  • Block of crust sinks





Rift Valleys

  • Often have long, narrow lakes



  • Lake Tanganyika

  • Lake Malawi



Near rift valleys

  • Near rift valleys

  • Eastern Congo

  • Mt. Kenya

  • Mt. Kilimanjaro…





Mt. Kenya



Tropical Rainforest

  • Tropical Rainforest

    • Congo Basin &
    • coast of W. Africa
    • Diseases
      • Malaria
        • Anopheles Mosquito




Grasses and scattered trees

  • Grasses and scattered trees

  • Dry winter, Rainy summer



Savanna

  • Wildlife

  • Tourism



Best Wildlife Countries

  • Kenya & Tanzania

  • Zimbabwe, Botswana & Republic of S.A.



Poaching

  • Elephant

    • Ivory Tusks
    • 2.5 million (1970)
    • 1.8 million (1978)
    • 350,000 (1997)
    • 600,000 (2005)


Rhino

  • Horn used as aphrodisiac in Asia

    • 65,000 Black Rhinos in 1982
  • 2300 (1992)

  • 3600 (2004)



Savanna

  • Masai

    • Nomadic Herding of Cattle


Cattle Herding

  • Destroys wilderness

    • Nat. Veg. Lost
    • Soil compacted, eroded
    • Loss of Wildlife Habitat
  • Tsetse Fly – sleeping sickness

    • Disease to Animals & Humans
    • Wildlife Unaffected
    • Benefits Wildlife by preventing spread of domesticated cattle


Somalia

  • Somalia

  • Kalahari

    • Botswana
  • Namib

    • Namibia


Semi-Desert

  • Semi-Desert

  • Bushmen…



Bushmen Languages (Khoisan)

  • “Clicking”



Okavango Delta…

  • Okavango Delta…





Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Poorest continent

    • Only region to get poorer over last 25 years
    • World’s largest number of displaced people and refugees
    • Debt crisis
    • 44% of population younger than 15
    • In 1990s number of those living in “extreme poverty (<$1/day) rose from 242 million to 300 million+




Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Most rural continent, though cities growing very fast



Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Most rural continent, though cities growing very fast

    • Village life and subsistence agriculture important
    • Glorious wildlife still exists


Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Most rural continent, though cities growing very fast

    • Village life and subsistence agriculture important
    • Glorious wildlife still exists


Legacy of Colonialism

    • Cash crop economies, ethnic conflict, flawed transport systems


Slavery

  • Impacted West Africa

    • Angola
    • Senegal
    • Ghana




Britain

  • Britain

    • East
  • France

    • Northwest
  • Belgium

    • Congo
  • Portugal

    • Mozambique
    • Angola
  • Spain

    • Equatorial Guinea


BERLIN CONFERENCE 1884

  • 14 countries divided up Africa without consideration of cultures; political and tribal fragmentation were the result.

  • Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway (unified from 1814-1905), Turkey, and the United States of America.

  • Of these, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Portugal were the major colonizers of Africa



INDEPENDENT STATES IN AFRICA



SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA’S ECONOMIC CHALLENGE

  • Economic growth rate- 1.5% - world’s lowest

  • The region’s 646 million people have a combined GNP of less than $150 billion, roughly the same as Belgium and its 10 million people.

  • Population - growing at a rate of 2.6% annually, vs 1.7% for South America and 1.9% for South Asia



Medical Crises, including most HIV/AIDs in world



MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY

  • Studies spatial aspects of disease and health

  • Africa is an extraordinary laboratory.

  • -- Disease incidence and diffusion

  • -- Widespread nutritional deficiencies

  • Millions suffer from:

    • malaria - river blindness
    • yellow fever - sleeping sickness
    • AIDS - bilharzia/schistosomiasis




MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY

  • Endemic

  • -- Exists in equilibrium with the population

  • -- Many develop an immunity of sorts

  • -- Saps energy, lowers resistance, shortens lives

  • Epidemic

  • -- Sudden outbreak at local, regional scale

  • Pandemic

  • -- Worldwide spread





SLEEPING SICKNESS



Most of world’s remaining Animists

  • Most of world’s remaining Animists

    • But missionaries spreading Christianity and Islam


The Roots of Religion



War and Failed Political Leadership Common

  • War and Failed Political Leadership Common

    • Few successful democracies; political violence common
    • Free press is rare
    • Conflicts limit foreign investment






The Sahel – 7 countries



  • “Sahel” = “Shore”

    • Southern edge of the Sahara
  • Semi-Desert

    • Between Savanna & Desert
  • Grasses and small trees



Sahel Environment

  • Semi-Desert

    • Grass and small trees


Desertification of the Sahel

  • Expansion of Sahara, due to:

    • Drought
    • Overgrazing




Cultural Transition of the Sahel



Cultural Transition of the Sahel

  • North of Sahel – Light-skinned Muslims



South of Sahel

  • Black Africans

  • Christian or animist



Mostly Muslim, Black Africans

  • Mostly Muslim, Black Africans





Savanna in north

  • Savanna in north

  • Tropical Rainforests on Coast

    • 90% Deforested


Southern Benin



Peanuts in savanna north

  • Peanuts in savanna north

  • Cocoa & Palm Oil in rainier south



Palm Oil

  • Palm Oil

    • Ingredient of Food & Soap
  • Cash crop economies are a major problem throughout sub-Saharan Africa.



Mali Kingdom

  • Mali Kingdom

    • Capital: Timbuktu, on southern edge of Sahara
      • Ancient Trade & Educational Center
      • Niger River
      • Pop = 100,000 in 1500 AD
      • Pop = 15,000 now


Niger River



Liberia

  • Founded 1847 by freed American Slaves

  • Capital: Monrovia named for…

  • Civil War: since 1980 war – child soldiers



Largest pop. In Africa

  • Largest pop. In Africa

  • 3 Main Concentrations

    • SW
    • SE
    • North


250+ Ethnic Groups 

  • 250+ Ethnic Groups 

    • Yoruba in SW
      • Lagos – Nigeria’s largest city
    • Ibo in SE
      • Niger River Delta
    •  Hausa & Fulani in N
      • Muslims
      • Kano – Nigeria’s main Muslim city
      • Shari’a (Islamic Law)


Nigeria

  • Oil

    • 90% of export income
    • Niger Delta
    • Coastal oil to Angola  


Ethnic Tensions & Violence

  • Ethnic Tensions & Violence

    • Civil War in late 1960s
    • Ibo unsuccessfully tried to secede
      • 1 million deaths
  • Capital moved

    • From Lagos to Abuja
      • Abuja – in “neutral” region  


Central Africa

  • 7 Countries



Tropical Rainforests

  • Tropical Rainforests



Central Africa Resources

  • Coastal Oil

  • D. R. Congo

    • Rich in Metals & Diamonds
    • Old name = “Zaire”
    • Terrible Corruption & Warfare


EAST AFRICA

  • 5 Countries

  • Landscape

    • Plateau
      • Serengeti Plain (Tan.)
    • Rift Valleys
    • Lake Victoria


Nairobi, Kenya

  • 5000’ Elevation

  • “Year-round spring”

  • Industrial Center of East Africa



Agriculture

  • Tea in Kenya



Ex-Belgian Colonies

  • Ex-Belgian Colonies



RWANDA

  • 2 Tribes

    • Hutu (Majority)
    • Tutsi (Minority)
  • 1994 Genocide against Tutsi

    • Million killed in 100 days


RWANDA

  • Mountain Gorillas

    • 650 in world


Horn of Africa

  • 4 Countries

    • Ethiopia
    • Eritrea
    • Djibouti
    • Somalia


Hot, Dry Coastal Lowlands

  • Hot, Dry Coastal Lowlands

    • Muslim
  • Ethiopian Highlands

    • Christian


Ethiopian Highlands



Historical Background

  • Ethiopian Kingdom

    • Adopted Christianity, 300 AD


Ethiopia

  • Difficult Environment:

    • Deep Canyons  Isolated Villages
    • Crops Depend on Erratic Rainfall
    • Prolonged Drought  Famine




Minerals in Southern Africa

  • Zambia

  • Zimbabwe

  • Rep. So. Africa

    • Gold
    • Diamonds
    • Platinum
    • Coal


Rep. of South Africa

  • Environment

    • Middle Latitudes
    • 5000’ Plateau
    • Mild Temps (60-70F)


Drakensberg Mtns. RSA



Republic of South Africa

  • Blacks = 75%

  • Whites = 14%

  • Coloreds = 8%

  • (mixed race)

  • Asians = 3%

  • (mostly Indians)



History of RSA

  • Dutch Settlers

  • Cape Town, est. 1652

    • “Boers”
    • Descendents: “Afrikaners”
      • Afrikaans Language
  • British control, 1800s



History of RSA

  • Independence, 1910

    • White Rule
    • Apartheid
  • 1994 Elections

    • Nelson Mandela


Johannesburg & Pretoria

  • Johannesburg & Pretoria

    • “High Veld” Region
    • Grassy Plateau
  • Durban

    • Warm & Rainy
      • Like Florida
  • Cape Town

    • Mediterranean Climate
      • Like So. Cal.


Johannesburg

  • Largest City…

  • Built amid…



Durban

  • Zulus

  • Sugarcane Plantations

  • Asians (Indians)



Durban

  • Beach Resorts

  • Surfing





Cape Town

  • Legislative Capital

  • Beautiful Location



Cape Town Area - Mediterranean Climate

  • Winter rain

    • (June – Sept)
  • Spring wildflowers



Vineyards & Wineries





Settled 2000 years ago by…

  • Settled 2000 years ago by…



Mtns

  • Mtns

  • Trade Winds…

    • Rainforests
      • 90% Cut Down


Madagascar

  • Unique Plants & Animals

    • 90% are Endemic…
    • Lemurs


Madagascar

  • Endangered Species

    • Lemurs
    • Habitat Destruction…




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