Welcome to AP European History! Please follow instructions carefully in order to earn full credit. This assignment is due the first day of school. All information can be found on our class website at schoology.com. You must register and then enter the access code 62RQ7-4CWK5. This assignment, a map, and Cornell note template can be found on the Schoology website under summer assignment.
You need to handwrite this assignment and clearly label the parts and questions.
Part I - Chapter 11 Questions
Throughout the year we will “outline,” or take notes, on our chapters. Chapter 11, however, is background for our class. Answer the following questions in order to cover the most important aspects of this chapter. Read through Chapter 11 and use the information found in your book to answer these questions.
What is the significance of the Black Death? (5-10 sentences)
What are the causes of the Black Death? (You do not need to use complete sentences, you can write a list)
What are the effects of the Black Death? (List)
What is the significance of the Hundred Years War? (5-10 sentences)
What are the causes of the Hundred Years War? (List)
What are the effects of the Hundred Years War? (List)
What is the significance of the Great Schism? (5-10 sentences)
What are the causes of the Great Schism? (List)
What are the effects of the Great Schism? (List)
Part II - Chapter 12 Outline
This is the first of your outlines. Take general notes on the entire chapter which should include a few sentences per heading to summarize the main ideas. When you see a term in your reading write very detailed information and include the historical significance of the term.
Part III - Defining the Period: Medieval Period
When we are asked to define a historical period, we are asked to determine specific start and stop dates for the period under investigation. Many historical periods do not have clearly defined beginnings and endings; therefore the task of defining the period is an important one and leads to much debate within historical scholarship. The purpose of this Defining the Period activity is to investigate when important periods in history begin and end. Is there some specific historical event or date that you believe defines the beginning and ending of the period under investigation? In addition to determining the beginning and end dates, you will also be asked to provide specific details that help define and contradict the historical period. Complete the following exercise for the Medieval Period. Use your textbook and the internet to help you. Here are some links that might help:
http://www.britannica.com/event/Renaissance The Medieval Period (aka the Middle Ages)
Choose a start date for the Middle Ages. Describe the event and explain why you chose this date.
Choose an end date for the Middle Ages. Describe the event and explain why you chose this date.
What are the defining (most important) characteristics of the time period?
What are the contradictory (events or trends that go against the defining characteristics) characteristics of the time period?
The above exercise was adapted from Historical Thinking Skills, by John P. Irish and Edward Carson.
Part IV - Interpreting Secondary Sources: Men and Women in the Renaissance
When we are asked to make historical interpretations, we are asked to read and interpret excerpts from secondary sources (historians who are writing about historical events). Because historians are products of their environment, interpreting these sources is a challenging task. Another reason this is challenging is that historians often disagree on the importance of the historical event under investigation. Read the following excerpts and answer the following questions to guide your interpretation.
Many things conspired to give leadership and acclaim in education and letters to the women of Italy, earlier than to women of other countries. Italy was the original home of the revival of the Latin classics and it was to Italy that the choices of Greek classics were brought from Byzantium, before and after the fall of Constantinople to the Turks...With the revival of classical learning came the humanizing of intellectual interest, knowledge, and public measures; that is, thought and action were directed by this learning to human concerns… Now Italian men and women were in possession of literary and philosophical works dealing entirely with the great human and nature subjects...Italian men and women now had models of writing by Greek and Roman thinkers and stylists, inviting them to lofty aspirations and lucid expressions whether in poetry, letters, the arts, history, philosophy, or politics...The number of women who devoted themselves to scholarship was by no means as large as the number of men, for reasons other than the lack of talents; but in the fifteenth century and early sixteenth century many Italian women displayed the highest technical competence in the study, interpretation, and exposition of the revived humanist learning.
-Mary R. Beard, Women as Force in History: A Study in Traditions and Realities, 1946
Italy was well in advance of the rest of Europe from roughly 1350-1530 because of its early consolidation of genuine states, the mercantile and manufacturing economy that supported them, and its working out of postfeudal and even postguild social relations. These developments reorganized Italian society along modern lines and opened the possibilities for the social and cultural expression for which the age is known. Yet precisely these developments affected women adversely, so much so that there was no Renaissance for women…The state, early capitalism, and the social relations formed by them impinged on the lives of Renaissance women in different ways according to their different positions in society. But the startling fact is that women as a group, especially among the classes that dominated Italian urban life, experienced a contradiction of social and personal options that men of their classes either did not, as was the case with the bourgeoisie, or did not experience as markedly, as was the case with the nobility.
-Joan Kelly-Gadol, “Did Women Have a Renaissance?,” 1987
Use your textbook and the following internet sources to provide additional information to help you answer the questions.
When we are asked to analyze primary sources (sources written by people who witnessed the events in question), we need to keep in mind the benefits and limitations of these sources.
Benefits of Primary Sources:
Personalizes history by recording an individual’s remembrances (or opinions) about their life or an event in which they were involved.
Provides information about a topic or time period that may otherwise lack documentation in written or archival records.
Often conveys emotion clearly.
Contains spontaneity and candour not always present in a personally written account.
May contain unusual dialect or speech patterns.
Often informant is living and may be consulted for clarification or additional information.
Limitations of Primary Sources:
How accurate is the record? Memory of the informant is fallible.
Self-serving motives of the story teller.
The bias, objective, or the relationship of the interviewer to those being interviewed must be considered.
Informant’s testimony may not be consistent from one interview to the next.
Informant is only one perspective of an event.
Read the following excerpt about from the introduction to Giovanni Boccaccio’s Decameron published in 1348, and answer the three questions that follow: One citizen avoided another, hardly any neighbour troubled about others, relatives never or hardly ever visited each other. Moreover, such terror was struck into the hearts of men and women by this calamity, that brother abandoned brother, and the uncle his nephew, and the sister her brother, and very often the wife her husband. What is even worse and nearly incredible is that fathers and mothers refused to see and tend their children, as if they had not been theirs.
Thus, a multitude of sick men and women were left without any care, except from the charity of friends (but these were few), or the greed, of servants, though not many of these could be had even for high wages, Moreover, most of them were coarse-minded men and women, who did little more than bring the sick what they asked for or watch over them when they were dying. And very often these servants lost their lives and their earnings. Since the sick were thus abandoned by neighbours, relatives and friends, while servants were scarce, a habit sprang up which had never been heard of before. Beautiful and noble women, when they fell sick, did not scruple to take a young or old man-servant, whoever he might be, and with no sort of shame, expose every part of their bodies to these men as if they had been women, for they were compelled by the necessity of their sickness to do so. This, perhaps, was a cause of looser morals in those women who survived.
-Giovanni Boccaccio, Decameron, 1348
Complete the following tasks in 2-3 sentences (no thesis statements). Answer directly and concisely and make sure that you support your answer with specific evidence from your knowledge and the text.
List ONE cause that accounts for the Boccaccio’s observations in this excerpt.
List ONE effect on European economies of the events described in this text.
List ONE effect on European religious life of the events described in the text.
Here is a sample question:
List ONE effect on the arts in Europe of the events described in the text.
One effect on the arts in Europe was the development of art that was focused on death and dying. Manuals on how to die well or “ars moriendi” included etchings depicting people in the process of dying a noble, Christian death. Boccaccio describes the environment that created this preoccupation with death when he mentions the “calamity” that affected a “multitude of sick men and women.”
Part VI - Why Study History Watch the following video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hLE-5ElGlPM Write a 10-15 sentence analytical reflection on the ideas you saw in the video.
Part VII Map
Directions: Fill in the map of Europe and be prepared for a quiz of the modern map of Europe the week you return. The map is found on Schoology or you can download one off the internet.